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C LIBRARY 

I NE Sl ALLEN CO., I NO. 
N 

30 



&&* 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01747 7883 



GENEALOGY 

973.005 

M27 

1893 

v. 29-30 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/magazineofamericv2930stev 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



AMERICAN HISTORY 



WITH 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



ILLUSTRATED 



EDITED BY NATHAN G. POND 



VOL. XXIX 

January — June, 1893 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY COMPANY 

120 Broadway, New York 

1893 



'. [| rOR I ONSTAN i 



i jui< ■-. i ... 

■ 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Adams, John Quincy. Dramatic Ending of his Career R. C. Winthrop. 394 

Alaska, Administrations in 390 

American History, Fountain-Heads of 388 

Andre, Major, Traditions of 522 

Archdale, John, and some of his Descendants Stephen B. Weeks. 157 

Arnold's Raid on Connecticut Avenged 393 

Astor Library, N. Y. Our Leading Libraries . . .Frederick Saunders. 150 

A Strange Story 179 

Blackhawk's Farewell Speech Eugene Davis. 40 

Book Notices -75> !90, 300, 413, 542 

Brown, John. What Support did John Brown rely upon ? The Famous Raid and its Localities, 

Robert Shackleton, Jr. 348 

Burgoyne's Surrender, An Eye- Witness of , 279 

Bushnell's Submarine Torpedo in 1776, Sergeant Lee's Experience with . . .H. P. Johnston. 262 

California in the Civil War. Capt. F. K. Up ham. 387 

California. United States in Paragraphs Chas. L. Norton. 61 

Canada, Oldest Bell in 64 

Castine, Maine, The Story of E. I. Stevenson. 21 

Cathedral of St. John the Divine, The Allan Grant. 172 

Christmas Sentiments 18 

Colorado. History of United States in Paragraphs Chas. L. Norton. 271 

Columbian Celebration of 1792. The first in the United States Edward F. de Lancey. 1 

Columbian Celebration in 1792. Baltimore , 527 

Columbus, An Allegorical Drawing by 267 

Concord Monument, Hymn to Emerson. 266 

Congressional Library, Washington. Our Leading Libraries Ainstvorth R. Spofford. 492 

Constitution, Escape of the 518 

Diodati, Count Jules, of Italy Frederick Diodati Thompson. 60 

Elizabeth, Queen, A Glance at the Age of George E. Hepburn. 32 

Exile, An Unknown : was he Chaides X. ? Henry C. Maine. 440 

George III.'s Proclamation against the Rebels of America. Original Document 514 

Gladstone, Wm. E., An Autograph Letter from 181 

Hayes, R. B. , Death of Ex-President 175 

Historical Novel and American History Leonard Irving. 338 

Holly Song, The iS 

" Horse Shoe Robinson," the Successful Novel Fifty-six Years ago Emanuel Spencer. 42 

How we Lose our History (W. G. Simms, MS.) 280 

Hurlbut, John, A Journal of a Colonial Soldier kept by 395 

Indian Medals W. M. Beauchamp. 65 

Iron Industry in America. The first 66 

Jackson, Gen. Andrew. An Incident in his Career Horatio King. 19 



^0*^ 



\ hn rs 

TAGE 

R ev - Danid Van Pelt 126 

lt h of, by Society of Colonial Dames of America. . 2S3 

A - E - Allaben. 10S 

M" Fiske - 393 

3g2 

- Name 2 ^ 2 

etter from City Point, ^pril 27, 1805. to his Wife 174 

n ■ 3 Sl 

v 3. volumes now in the Library of Congress at Washing- 

Alexander Brown. 371 

Chas. D. Piatt. 370 

189, 297, 411 

nner with the Poets ' Henry C. Lodge. 54 

387 

on, i " Henry P. Johnston. 305 

in the Civil War. 1 Gen. T. F. Rodenbough. 193 

cis, A Sketch of Worthington C. Ford. 499 

\ ..J.S. Bassett. 131 

d Replies 68, 69. 183, 185, 284, 294, 397, 409- 528, 539 

.< - J 88 

[umbian Fair 389 

lent. Ballad and Sonnet 3°3> 4 X 5 

f Moneys furnished by, to American Officers, Prisoners of War, 

\ Revolutionary Document 163 

n Virginia," 1585 Edward Graham Daves. 459 

520 

Howard A. Giddings. 360 

es and ( Commerce ' .John Austin Stevens. 243 

Capt. A. 7\ Mahan. 52 

ted States ,E. T. Lander. 471 

1 78 

in John Austin Stevens. 419 

le Alleghanies prior to 1776 G. C. Broadhead. 332 

523 

the Republic James Grant Wilson. Si 

72,186,285,39s, 530 

I) Told 281 

li ( Carolina Dr. Muzzey. 64 

iyi, The Grave ol H. C. Mercer. 255 

The Editor. 136 

»r Independence William H. Mayes. 235 

--; (Farmington, Conn) , 521 

' ;'!y Henry E. Chambers. 37 

I libit at Madrid 1S0 

ph Manuscript of Walter S. Wilson. 169 

Ball ■ .. 524 

275 

"' " f hi •... Person and Height in 1763, when Thirty-one Years of 

06 



CONTENTS v 

PAGE 

Washington's Sweethearts, One of 177 

Washington, George, Do we Know Leonard Irving. 222 

Webster, Daniel, An Incident in the Life of W.I. Crandall. 252 

Whittier's Birthplace J. G. Tyler. 50 

Winthrop, John, An Injustice Done to 275 



Il.l.l'STRATIONS 



PAGE 

. . . 2^7 


239 

Reuben M. Totter 2 4 2 

Portrait I 97 

9 

I51 

I rtrait I5 

98 

it 84 

Portrait ■ 99 

' 364 

2o6 

' 97 

e ( >ld 93 

■ 3°5 

r 359 

hn Brown's Fort 354 

• - - »- 2 3 

the Divine • 172 

ise, where John Brown was Tried 357 

• 322 

ttion . 3°° 

npt to Found an American. Wm. A. Beardslee 367 

; by 268 

lington 498 

• <>f Frigate 419, 423 

Italy. 1 '< >i 1 rait 60 

nile of his Historic Order 195 

316 

Pi -rtrait I 

'in. Procession in Honor of 331 

it 202 

221 

1 Pearl Streets..... 13 

rail , 428 

17 

I ' imile 516 

I Autograph Letter 182 

of a Mac ( 520 

91 

350 



ILLUSTRATIONS Vll 

PAGE 

Hayes, R. B. , Ex- President. Portrait 176 

Houston , General Sam . Portrait 240 

Hughes, Archbishop John. Portrait 208 

Hull, Isaac. Portrait 432 

Inglis, Bishop Charles. Portrait 309 

Jay, Mrs. John. Portrait 83 

Kent, James. Portrait go 

King, Mrs. Portrait 86 

Kirkland, Mrs. E. M. Portrait , 212 

Lamb, Colonel, Mansion 323 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J. Portrait 81 

Lexington, News from 361 

Liberty Hall, Birthplace of Mrs. Jay 87 

Lincoln, Abraham. Facsimile Letter to his Wife 174 

Lispenard Meadows 314 

Livingston, John. Portrait '. 88 

Livingston, Philip. Portrait 104 

Luzerne, Letter to Jefferson. Facsimile 384 

Madison, James. Portrait 430 

Madison, Mrs. D. P. Portrait 431 

Morgan, E. D. Portrait 200 

Morris, Mary (Philipse). Portrait 177 

Morton, General Jacob. Portrait 425 

New York, Great Seal of the State 306 

O'Conor, Charles. Portrait 193 

Pintard, John. Portrait 3, 313 

Provoost, Bishop Samuel. Portrait . 95 

Rodgers, Rev. John. Portrait .... 94 

Royal Exchange in Broad Street 10 

Royal Savage, The 307 

Santa Anna, General. Portrait 235 

Scott, General Winfield. Portrait 214 

Seal of United States of 1784. 483.— Of 1782. 485.— Of 1885 489 

Sleigh of 1788 317 

Smith, William. Portrait 421 

Soldiers and Sailors' Memorial Arch, Brooklyn, New York 217 

Stirling, Lord, Residence of 106 

Tammany Hall in 1830 7 

Taylor, Bayard. Portrait 136 

Autograph note 146 

Temple, Sir John and Lady. Portraits 101, 102 

Temple Arms 105 

Tilden, Samuel J. Portrait 199 

Van Cortlandt, Pierre. Portrait ' 310 

Vanderbilt, Commodore C. Portrait 204 

Vanderbilt, Steamer 205 

Van Rensselaer, Cornelia. Portrait 96 

Vespucius, Americus, An Autograph MS. of 169, 170 

Wadsworth, General Jas. S. Portrait 220 



. SI RA riONS 

PAGE 

J93 

' 234 

233 

82 

e .... 318 

201 

209 





MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXIX JANUARY, 1893 No. 1 

COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1792 

THE FIRST IN THE UNITED STATES* 

ON the eve of the opening of the fifth century from Columbus's dis- 
covery of America it is proper that the New York Historical 
Society should call public attention to the fact that to the action in 1792 
of John Pintard, the founder of historical societies, New York and the 
world owe the first movement in America to commemorate an anniver- 
sary of the greatest event in the history of mankind since the death of 
our Saviour. 

In October, 1592, a century from the discovery, what is now New York 
was still a savage wilderness. In October, 1692, a hundred years later, 
New York had not recovered from the baleful effects of that rebellion and 
usurpation of the government by Jacob Leisler, which ended in his exe- 
cution for treason in the preceding year. In October, 1792, the third 
centenary, was seen the first celebration in America of its discovery by 
Columbus. 

That celebration, like the one we are about to witness in October, 1892, 
originated in this goodly city of New York. In a society organized here 
in May, 1789, through the efforts of John Pintard and some of his personal 
and political friends, and at his suggestion, the celebration of the third cen- 
tenary of America's discovery was decided upon, and measures taken both 
to call to it general attention, and to carry it into effect in the citv of New 
York. 

That society was one of limited membership, which still exists in its 
pristine strength under its original organization, and a few years later 
gave its name and influence to a great political party, whose members 
believed in and supported its political principles, though not possessed 
of any control in the internal direction of the body itself — the Tammany 
Society or Columbian Order, of the city of New York — of which the first 
sagamore was John Pintard. 

* Paper read before the New York Historical Society by Mr. Edward F. De Lancey, on the 
evening of October 3, 1892. 

Vol. XXIX.-No. i.-i 



W , ORATION OF i; 

., R CV . Jeremy Belknap, of Boston, dated 

; previous to the Columbian centenary 

avocations, especially as a citizen,' are 

i moment for private or literary corre- 

;ion for American history increases, tho' I 

nd scant means of gratifying it. ... An 

.iture magazine, of our Tammany Society. 

national society, I engrafted an antiquarian 

. . . We have got a tolerable collection 

rn, \\ ith some histories. . . ." 

he also writes to Dr. Belknap the first suggestion of 

n the United States, in these words: "Our society 

the completion of the third century of the discovery 

day ot October, 1792, with some peculiar mark 

memory of Columbus, who is our patron. We think, 

1 and au oration — for we have annual orations — of 

mn to his memory." 

Tammany Society was communicated later by 

nbers of a society which, at Pintard's suggestion, he had 

1 [790, for the promotion of the study of American 

quities, and which later became the " Massachusetts His- 

5 was the first institution of that nature in America, 

>mmemorated the first centenary of an existence at once 

sachusetts, to America, and to the great cause of historic 

truth. 

11 of the society, which he termed "A Society of 

made to I )r. Belknap in the latter's own house in Boston, 

:rview on the 19th of August, 1789. The idea pleased 

he mentioned it to many persons in Boston, but its ger- 

»w, though it was discussed in conversations. A year later, 

1 August, 1790, Dr. Belknap tells his friend Ebenezer 

York, "I" the first step successfully taken in the matter, 

"When Mr. Pintard was here he strongly urged form- 

liean antiquarians. Several other gentlemen have 

1 to me on the same subject. Yesterday I was in 

again mentioned, and it was wished that a begin- 

Thi mi >rning I have written something, and commu- 

" nth-Hi, n who spoke of it yesterday." This "some- 

" plan of an antiquarian society," afterward called the 

*>," and, later, the " Massachusetts Historical Society." 



COLUMIJIAN CELEBRATION OF 1792 3 

In October of the same year, 1790, Belknap sent to Pintard a copy of 
Eliot's Indian Bible, which, on the eleventh of that month, drew from 
Pintard this interesting account of his own society in New York. " I am 
exceedingly indebted to you for your present of the Indian Bible, which 




v -■'.-■ 



The Founder of Historical Societies in America. 
[From a rare print presented to the Editor by the late Stephen Whitney Phoenix?^ 

came safe to hand. I shall deposit it, with your permission, and in your 
name, in the American Museum, lately instituted by the St. Tammany 
Society in this city, for the express purpose of collecting and procuring 
everything relating to the natural or political history of America. A 
small fund is appropriated to that purpose, and should the society exist 



L-MBIAN I El EBRATION OF 1792 

.ad to something useful. I have not time to 

this society, oi which I am a member, further 

istitution founded on a strong- republican basis, 

es will serve in some measure to correct the aris- 

: 

n«nv. intensely interesting as it is, to give an account 

true causes of the origin, and the formation 

Columbian Order. That is a subject which 

1 the hour devoted to these meetings, even to 

ic. [t has never yet been done with the fullness, and 

1 are demanded by its historic importance, as well as by 

- icial and political, which have flowed from it, in 

md nation. 

lation to the Columbian tercentenary of 1792, is all that 

set forth. At the dinner on the second anniversary of 

May 12, 1 79 1, about five weeks after Pintard's letter to Dr. 

•ntioncd, in which he announced the society's decision to 

e the third centenary of the discovery, the eighth toast drank, 

v of the renowned Columbus — may our latest posterity 

ilv land which his intrepidity explored, and his sagacity 

sentiment than which none better can possibly be given at 

the addresses, to which we are about to be bidden to 

• 

:mber of the same year, 1791, a formal proposal by 

a celebration by the Massachusetts society was " post- 

isideration." In the following March, however, the proposal 

by that society, and Dr. Belknap was invited to deliver an 

October 12. 1792, at the Brattle street church, Boston. The 

same day, " voted that the corresponding secretary 

spondence with the St. Tammany Society of New York." 

had been elected to that office, accordingly addressed 

1 John Pint aid, Esq., secretary of the Tammany Society of 

a friendly intercourse, exchanges, etc., etc., and sent 

of a publication called The Apollo which the Boston 

in to issue. Mr. Pintard replied with expressions of 

y and offer of aid in every way. 

1 day the Massachusetts society went in procession, 
' > th< Brattle street church, and heard Dr. Belknap's 
I poem, or rather an ode, in honor of the occasion ; after 
to a reactionary party then existing. 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 5 

which, in the language of the day, " His Excellency the Governor, His 
Honor the Lieutenant-Governor, and such of the honorable council as 
were in town, accompanied the members [of the society] to dine with the 
Hon. James Sullivan, the president, at his house, where the memory of 
Columbus was toasted in convivial enjoyment, and the warmest wishes 
were expressed that the blessings now distinguishing the United States 
might be -extended to every part of the world he has discovered." 

Such was the celebration of 1792 in Boston. Dr. Belknap, however, 
found that his address, which was subsequently published, was not an easy 
one to write ; for he tells his friend, Ebenezer Hazard of New York, under 
date of the 27th of the preceding August, " My labour for October 3d is 
nearly accomplished. I find myself obliged to dip deeper into antiquity 
than I was first aware, but I think I can vindicate Columbus against those 
who would rob him of his fame, not excepting Mr. Otto." * 

The change of date in this letter to " 23d of October " was a mistake in 
adapting the old style to the new. In 1792 but nine days only were 
required to correct the difference of the calendars, which would have made 
the 2 1st the true day ; instead of which, eleven days were stricken from 
the old calendar, an error later corrected. These facts have been stated 
somewhat at length to show that the action of Massachusetts in 1792 and 
its celebration were really due to the primary movement of New York 
through its earlier organization the Tammany Society or Columbian Order. 

What that society did, and how it carried out its own idea in its own 
city, will now be stated. 

On October 10, 1792, each member received the following "Notice: 
The members of the Tammany Society or Columbian Order, are here- 
by notified that an extra meeting will be held in the Wigwam [then in 
Broad street] the 12th inst., at seven o'clock, to celebrate the third cen- 
tury since the discovery of America by Columbus. 

By order of the Grand Sachem, 

Benjamin Strong, 

Secretary. 

October 10, 1792. 

The society accordingly met at the wigwam, and an address was deliv- 
ered by Mr. John B. Johnston, which was followed by a dinner and the 
drinking of appropriate toasts. Previous to the meeting there was dis- 
played at the wigwam an illuminated monument in honor of Columbus, 

* This was Lewis William Otto, who had printed a paper in the Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, to prove that Martin Behaim of Nuremberg had discovered South America 
before Columbus embarked on his first voyage. 



,n ell EBRATION OF 1792 

» ing is an account of it, and the celebra- 
■. which is of more interest than any briefer state- 

•- New York, October 17, 1792. 

>mmencement of the IV. Columbian Cen- 

: . Festival by the Tammany Society, and 

sentiment which distinguishes this social and 

the evening a monument was erected to the 

lamented by transparency with a variety of suit- 

n was exposed for the gratification of the public 
• previous to the meeting of the society. 

1 was delivered by Mr. John B. Johnston, in which 

ipal events in the life of this remarkable man were 

ibed, and the interesting consequences, to which his 

5 had already conducted, and must still conduct the 

were pointed out in a manner extremely satisfactory. 

s entertainment, a variety of rational amusements 

following are some of the toasts which were drank : 

Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of this new 

1 never experience the vices and miseries of the 
happy asylum for the oppressed of all nations and of all 

nd liberty ever pervade the United Columbian States.' 
the last centenary festival of the Columbian Order that 
I 

litnry be as remarkable for the improvement and 
; rights of man, as the first was for discovery, and the 
• :. of nautic science.' 

America never experience that ingratitude from 
h Columbus experienced from his King.' 
; of liberty, as she has conducted the sons of Columbia 
nent of the fourth century, guard their fame 
• 

1 patriotic songs, inculcating the Love of Country and 

gratifying in the highest degree. Among others an 

ed and ung on the occasion (some stanzas of which are 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 



Vk W& 







lit? Iff %%t 






in WT./J ii* mi 
«* mm m if* 



TAMMANY HALL IN 183O. 
THE BUILDING NOW OCCUPIED BY THE " NEW VORK SUN.'" 

' Ye sons of freedom, hail the day, 

That brought a second world to view ; 
To great Columbus' mem'ry pay 
The praise and honor justly due. 
Chorus ; Let the important theme inspire 
Each breast with patriotic fire. 

Long did oppression o'er the world, 

Her sanguine banners wide display : 
Dark bigotry her thunders hurl'd, 
And freedom's domes in ruin lay. 
Justice and liberty had flown, 
And tyrants called the world their own. 

Thus heaven our race with pity viewed ; 

Resolved bright freedom to restore : 
And, heaven directed o'er the flood, 
Columbus found her on this shore. 

O'er the bless'd land with rays divine, 
She shone, and shall forever shine. 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1/0,2 

. ihe great decree 
stial notes along, 
a ever shall be free," 
thousands swell the song. 
Patriots revere the great decree, 
nbia ever shall be tree. 

Here shall enthusiastic love. 
Which freemen to their country owe; 

idled, glorious from above, 
In every patriot bosom glow, 

Inspire the heart, the arm extend, 
1 ig ts of freedom to defend. 

Secure forever, and entire, 

The Rights .7" Man shall here remain: 



Here commerce shall her sails extend, 

Science diffuse her kindest ray : 
K gion's purest flames ascend, 

And peace shall crown each happy day. 
Then while we keep this jubilee, 

While seated round this awful shrine, 
Columbus' deeds our theme shall be, 

And liberty that gift divine.' 

:nt is upwards of fourteen feet in height, being well illu- 

• i. and resembling black marble; it blended, in an agreeable man- 

ind solemn with a brilliant appearance. At the base a globe 

ging out of the clouds and chaos, presenting a rude sketch 

cultivated coast of America. On its pyramidal part, History 

\ up the curtain of oblivion, which discovers the four fol- 

• ations : 

the right side of the obelisk, is presented a commercial 

inding ocean ; here Columbus, while musing over the 

eometry and navigation, the favorite studies of his youth, is 

•1. e i" cross the great Atlantic. She appears in lumin- 

ringover it. skirts; with one hand she presents Columbus 

nd w ith the other, she points to the setting sun. Under 

phere, the eastern half of which is made to represent the 

1 terraqueous globe; the western is left a blank. On the 

' • following inscription : 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 9 

THIS MONUMENT 

WAS ERECTED BY THE 

TAMMANY SOCIETY, or, COLUMBIAN ORDER 

OCTOBER 12, MDCC, XCTI, 

TO COMMEMORATE 

the IVth COLUMBIAN CENTURY: 

AN INTERESTING and ILLUSTRIOUS 

On the upper part of the obelisk is seen the arms of Genoa, supported 
by the beak of a prone eagle. The second side, or front, of the monument 
shows the first landing of Columbus. He is represented in a state of 
adoration ; his followers prostrate as supplicants around him, and a group 
of American natives at a distance. Historical truth is attended to, and 
the inscription on the pedestal is as follows : 

SACRED to the MEMORY 

OF 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, 
THE DISCOVERER OF A NEW WORLD, 

OCTOBER 12, I492. 

Above, the arms of Europe and America are blended and supported as 
on the right side of the monument. 

The third or left side exhibits the splendid reception of Columbus by 
the court of Spain, on his first return from America. He is seated at the 
right hand of Ferdinand, and his illustrious patroness, Isabella. A map 
of the newly discovered countries, and some of their peculiar produc- 
tions, lying at his feet, distinguish the interesting scene. Above, the 
prone eagle supports the arms of Isabella, and on the pedestal is the 
following inscription : 

COLUMBUS 

WAS BORN AT GENOA, 

H47, 

WAS RECEIVED BY THE COURT OF SPAIN 

IN TRIUMPH, 

1493; 

WAS PUT IN CHAINS BY ITS ORDER, 

SEPTEMBER, I 500 ; 

died at VALLADOLID 

MAY 20, 1506. 






... ; \\ CEI EBRAT10N Ol- 1792 



. on the rear 
;t its bare wal 



or fourth, side of the obelisk, 

scribed ; Columbus is seen in his 

The chains with which he had been 

on which is seen written, " The 
ingratitude of Kings." 
To cheer his declining 
moments, the Genius of 
Liberty appears before 
him : the glory which 
surrounds him seems to 
illuminate his solitary 

/ habitation. The em- 

blems of despotism and 
superstition are crushed 
beneath her feet ; and, to 





intimate the gratitude 



ft S- & 

and respect of posterity, 
she points to a monu- 
ment, s a c re d to his 
memory, reared by the 
Columbian Order. On 
n caressing her various progeny ; her tawny off- 
n over the urn of Columbus. The upper part of the 
;llished as on the other sides. But the eagle, as an emblem 
ent, is seen no longer prone, or loaded with the decora- 
y : she soars in an open sky, grasping in her talons a ferule, 

the RIGHTS of MAN. 



[ANGl IN BROAD STR] 

I IN THE TAMMANY 
v's MUSEUM. 



monument at the close of the celebration was placed in that 

• Tammany Society, which Mr. Pintard " engrafted " upon it, 

3 in the letter which has been quoted. This " museum " 

room in the " Exchange," a building upon arches which 

line of Pear] street, across, and facing up Broad street, 

<• old De Lancey house at south-east corner of Pearl and 

I by Etienne De Lancey in 1701 ; the same building 

1 old by Colonel Oliver De Lancey, the youngest 

h r, about 1750, was finally bought by the famous mulatto, 

e . the Delmonico of his day, for a tavern, and was the house 

bade far-well to his officers in 1783. It still stands, 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 II 

and is now the oldest building in New York. The monument remained in 
the Exchange, occasionally illuminated for exhibition, till the close of 1792. 
Shortly after that date, the museum was given up by the Tammany Society 
as its own, and transferred to Gardiner Baker who had been its curator 
and keeper. While he was in control he added new objects of interest to 
the public, and advertised its attractions in the papers of the day. One of 
these was"" A collection of wax-work figures belonging to a Mr. Bowen," 
and another was "The excellent American patent steam jack," which was 
shown in operation during the evening. Mr. Bowen withdrew his wax 
figures in June, 1794, and afterward exhibited them at No. 75 Broad street, 
the house of Mrs. McEwen. How long after the Tammany Society gave 
up the idea of forming a museum it continued in existence is unknown, 
as well as the ultimate fate of the Columbus monument. 

It is a striking fact, that this Tammany monument, and another after- 
ward projected in Baltimore, antedated by over half a century any monu- 
ment to Columbus in the city of Genoa itself. 

This celebration of 1752 was not the only one at which the memory 
of Columbus was honored by the Tammany Society. In 181 1, it did so at 
the laying of the corner-stone of its new building, Tammany hall, at the 
corner of Nassau and Frankfort streets, now the property of Mr. Charles 
A. Dana, and the publication office of his Sun newspaper, in which it 
remained until the erection of its present " hall " in East Fourteenth street. 
"The procession on that occasion," as described in the papers of the 
day, " was very picturesque and attractive. In the centre of the ninth 
division, between the files of the first six tribes, Tammany and Columbus 
appeared in character: Columbus bearing the cross of the ancient flag- of 
Christendom and the civilized world ; and Tammany, the thirteen Ameri- 
can stars or constellations. Smoking the calumet of peace alternately 
with Columbus, they were seated on an elevated car or seat, on the rear 
part of an extensive stage (or float), in the centre of which appeared the 
Genius of America supporting the great standard of the United States, 
attended by her attributes; the flames of liberty burning on an altar dedi- 
cated to freedom, directly in front of Tammany and Columbus, the attri- 
butes continually feeding the flames. The stage represented an open field 
covered with grass and shrubbery, and an oak tree in the rear under which 
Tammany and Columbus sat ; the whole drawn by six white horses con- 
ducted by postilions. A grand band of music preceded the car, playing 
native airs." 

But to return to the tercentenary of October, 1792. The proposed 
celebration of it in New York and Boston, which was noticed in news- 



i: COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1792 

the country during the whole of the preceding summer, 

attention : and when the day came, there were minor 

nany places in Baltimore, Windsborough, South Carolina, 

I de Island, Richmond, Virginia, and numerous towns, 

ilitary parades, dinners, and toasts. 

on August 3, 1792, was laid the corner-stone of an 

n the gardens of a villa called " Belmont," the country- 

lier de Nemours; and on the 12th of the following Octo- 

nscriptions on bronze were to be affixed to the completed 

is, however, scorns to have been the result, of private or semi- 

n, and whether it was actually erected is not known. 

\ .• illy enough the approach of the end of the eighteenth century 

rawn to the great discovery the attention of educated and thoughtful 

In 1786 the first edition of the poems of Philip Freneau appeared in 

iladelphia, and in it are three poems referring to Columbus. The first, 

in [770, is an appeal to Ferdinand for aid ; the second, The Rising 

America, written in [771, and the third, entitled Sketches of Amer- 

also refer to Columbus by name. The next year, 1787, 

Iso, in Philadelphia, The Miscellaneous Works of Mr. Philip 

lume of poetry and prose which opens with " The Pictures of 

nbus the Genoese," a series of eighteen brief poems, depicting his 

er, written in 1774. The first of these four poems, Columbus to 

. is very remarkable for a fine translation of those famous lines 

in the Medea, containing his prophecy of America's discovery. 

iu, a graduate of Princeton and a fine classical scholar, thus renders it : 

" The time shall come when numerous years are past, 
The ocean shall dissolve the bands of things, 
And an extended region rise at last ; 
And Typhis shall disclose the mighty land, 
I- ir. tar away, where none have roved before ; 
Nor shall the world's remotest region be 
r's rock or Thule's savage shore." 

an and Pint aid were warm personal and political friends, as well 

the Tammany Society. Another Princeton graduate deliv- 

; merit of 1 792, on taking his degree, an oration on 

which was of merit enough to be printed in a magazine of that 

.; . T:i s was Jos< pi) Reed, a son of the President of Pennsylvania of the 

d father of the late distinguished historical writer William B. 

d the late learned Professor Henry Reed of the University of 

1' y\\ inia. 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 



13 



Another work which appeared in 1787 was The Vision of Columbus, by 
Joel Barlow, published by subscription, a pretentious poem of some merit, 
which the author recast and extended into a massive quarto volume in 
1807, and which, being practically the whole of American history in 
verse, fell by its own weight, and, though having some fine passages, is 
now scarcely known. 

In England, in 1792, two Columbian works saw the light : one by an 



M. fe 



» * ft 



II in 

Hilt urni 




1 % 1 



FRAUNCES TAVERN, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BROAD AND PEARL STREETS. 



American, the Rev. Elhanan Winchester, the other by an English barrister 
of Lincoln's Inn, Thomas Morton by name. 

Winchester was a New England Baptist clergyman, who became a 
Universalist, and finally went to England to reside. There he published, in 
London, an oration in honor of the discovery and Columbus. It is a 
resume of Columbus's career, but is only noteworthy for a prophecy, since 
fulfilled, in these words: 

" Behold the whole continent highly cultivated and fertilized, full of 
cities, towns, villages, beautiful and lovely beyond expression. I hear the 
praises of my Creator sung upon the banks of rivers unknown to song! 



\ OF 1792 

Sec the silver and gold of America 

of the whole earth ! See slavery with 

lied ! Sec a communication opened 

i north to south, and from east to west, 

hold the glory of God extending, 

igh the whole land ! " 

1 for he was a dramatist as well as a barris- 

World Discovered, an historical play as it is 

e Royal, Covent Garden." It opens with Colum- 

»n by an Indian king. But the story is drawn, 

Aztecs and their worship of the sun, and 

two from Columbus nothing is seen or heard of 

Maal lor a spectacle, however ; had a moderate 

was produced in New York. The references 

aid contemporary interest in the discovery at the time 

live incident, but of a different kind, was the presenta- 

\ \ York, through its president, Lieutenant-Gover- 

mdt, in 17S4, of an ancient portrait of Columbus of 

o in. donor was Mrs. Maria Farmer, by birth a Gouverneur, 

• portrait was taken from an original painting, of 

1 in her family for one hundred and fifty years. 

' id 1 1 say, unlike most early gifts, is still at Albany 

state. It is a bust portrait, and represents Columbus 

fe. Another picture, of a little later date than 1792, was 

Ivvard Savage, the artist, whose portrait of Washington is 

r painted. Savage established an exhibition of paint- 

2, at the " Pantheon," No. 30 Greenwich street, 

i:.d Morris street, which he called " The Columbian 

•rv." In it he showed a collection and his own painting of 

»f Christopher Columbus," which the catalogue, still extant, 

1 lumbus is the size of life, richly dressed, with a drawn 

1, at tin- time he set his foot on the New World which 

I. Tin- portrait of Columbus is copied from the original 

collection of the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Florence." 

• of this painting, or what its later history is, I do not know. 

Mini of the Columbian celebration of a hundred 

mould be made of the evidence adduced by a former 

and officer of this society, now no more, on the con- 

: of the birth-place of Columbus. Mr. John R. Bartlett, 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 



15 



whom the older members of the New York Historical Society will remem- 
ber with great pleasure, after he removed to Providence to take charge of 
the great American library of John Carter Brown, gave much attention 
to the study of Columbian history ; and he produced well-nigh conclu- 
sive evidence of the discoverer's birth-place. 

Very many of my hearers may have visited Genoa, and none who have 
done so, can ever forget her great beauty as she sits enthroned on her 
amphitheatre of mountains, their bases gently washed by the azure waves 




' > 



;/ 




JOHN RUSSELL BARTLETT. 



of the Tyrrhene sea. A magnificent church, built somewhat after St. 
Peter's at Rome, stands out on the highest part of the promontory which 
forms the eastern bounds of her semicircular bay, some three hundred and 
seventy feet above the water. Ascend with me to the gallery surmount- 
ing its lofty dome. What a view, magnificent in its extent and splendor, 
meets our eyes! Far to the east, gleaming with beauty, stretches the 
glorious mountain coast-line of the famed Riviera di Levante — the east- 
ern Riviera — stretching away toward Spezia and its romantic gulf, and 
beyond. At our feet lies the proud old Ligurian city, never more 






COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1/92 



day, her gardens and terraces filled with orange 
..d vines, with her palaces,' 

.. tic, walls of arabesque, 
»ns clustering in patrician splendor." 

beneath us, filled with steamers and feluccas, the 

rbors of Italy. Far to the west, bright with picturesque 

UU 1 p.daees. perched amid its purple mountains over- 

beauty the magnificent Riviera di Ponente, the 

Before us is the wide blue expanse of the glorious 

the h^h coast o\ Corsica rising- above the southern hori- 

: azure sky and brilliant sun of Italy. In one of 

e white villages upon the sea, at the western end of the 

i the old republic of Genoa, was Columbus born, 

an ancient historian of Genoa, who there wrote and 

in 1331. less than half a century— forty-five years only— 

nbus died at Valladolid. This Genoese historian was Paolo 

s by no means impossible, may have actually seen and 

it discoverer himself. His work, entitled A Brief History 

. one of the rarest works of its day, Mr. Bartlett obtained. It is 

ban. and the account its author gives is thus translated by 

: •• Tin- happiness of the city was disturbed, in 1491, by a ter- 

which spared hardly a fifth of the population, by the freez- 

about the wharves and bridges, and also because the 

en into some disputes with Ferdinand, King of Castile, 

b ii.i. Francesco Marchesio and Giovanni Antonio 

envoys to adjust them. On their return they estab- 

ertainty of tin: glorious discovery of the new land west of that 

by Christopher Columbus, a Genoese, whose name pos- 

• :rnal veneration. This man (for I do not think the 

rlooked), born of most obscure parentage, in a town 

from our city, on the Riviera di Ponente, called 

sailor's life, rose to be a guide or pilot of vessels that 

ran, and with the dexterity of unaided genius (although of 

rience in taking the sun and the pole, acquired by 

tions, he came to have so much confidence in himself 

elf to an enterprise which few others attempted 

ible to believe that by sailing from the straits of 

hould fail to make new land, he applied to the Catholic sov- 

Spain, -tnd having, after many delays, received from them three 



COLUMBIAN CELEBRATION OF 1 792 



17 




VIEW OF THE CITY OF GENOA, LOOKING EAST. 



caravels and one hundred and twenty men, he took his way toward the 
Fortunate Islands [the Canaries] and, sailing thence, in the space of 
thirty-two days from the time of his departure, and after many debates 
and contests with his men, who wished to turn back, he discovered those 
islands which gave him indication of Hispaniola, and that with so much 
glory to the moderns, for the size of the land which has thus been con- 
quered and brought to the faith of Christ, that he may be said to have 
given life to another world." 

This statement and testimony Mr. Bartlett brought to the knowledge 
of American scholars. But, singularly enough, it does not seem to have 
been considered by our numerous writers of these latest Columbian days. 

A great pageant, both military and naval, to celebrate the fourth cen- 
tenary of the great discovery of Columbus, will, in a few days, pass before 
the eyes of many hundreds of thousands of people. From all quarters will 
these hundreds of thousands be gathered together in this city and on the 

Vol. XXIX.— No. 1.— 2 






v S CE1 EBRATION OF 1 792 




bay. And while gazing upon its splendor and 

be forgotten that to the Tammany Society or 

the city of New York was due the first Columbian 

e only one ever witnessed till now in the United 

\ lerica. Honor to whom honor is due. 

CHRISTMAS SENTIMENTS 

the only holiday in the year that brings the whole human 
non communion; the only time in the long calendar of 
n and women seem, by one consent, to open their shut- 
ts freely." — Dickens. 

^•■c\\oc^ of that song which proclaimed peace on earth and 

;es up a dormant sense of universal brotherhood in 

ther season of the year is the predominant spirit of 

fectually rebuked; — and never are the circles of love so 

idened."— Hervey. 

»n for kindling the fire of hospitality in the hall, . . . 

• of charity in the heart." — Washington Irving. 
ound over all waters, reach out from all lands — 

I chorus of voices, the clasping of hands: 

g hymns that were sung by the stars of the morn, 

of the angels when Jesus was born." — WJiittier. 

THE MOLLY SONG 

\. thou winter wind! Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky! 

• unkind Thou dost not bite so nigh 
gratitude; As benefits forgot; 

1 een, Though thou the waters warp, 

art nol seen, Thy sting is not so sharp 

• breath be rude As friend remembered not. 

igh, ho! Heigh, ho! sing heigh, ho! 

green holly ; Unto the green holly ; 

lip : f' igning, Most friendship is feigning, 

g mere folly. Most loving mere folly. 

— SJiakespeare, 



AN INCIDENT IN GENERAL JACKSON'S CAREER 

In 1824 there was a social gathering in Paris of many distinguished 
Englishmen, among whom was an American, then representing his country 
abroad, who had served on the staff of General Jackson at the battle of New 
Orleans, and another American who related the following incident. The 
conversation turned on the pending Presidential election, and fears were 
expressed that, should General Jackson be elected, the amicable relations 
between the two countries might be endangered in consequence of his 
implacable hostility to England and his high-handed exercise of power as 
evinced during his command at New Orleans. The necessity on the part 
of the American diplomatist of replying to these observations was antici- 
pated by the prompt and generous outbreak of one of the Englishmen — 
Colonel Thornton of the eighty-fifth regiment — an officer well known for 
his frank and gallant character, and whose regiment suffered severely in the 
attack on the 8th of January, 181 5. It was probably the same Colonel 
Thornton mentioned as having been seriously wounded in the battle of 
Bladensburg, and who was with Commodore Barney in the hospital at 
Bladensburg, where both recovered from their wounds.* He testified in the 
handsomest terms to ! the conduct of General Jackson as an able and faith- 
ful commander on that occasion, and declared that, had Jackson not used 
the power confided to him in the " high-handed " way alluded to, New 
Orleans would inevitably have been captured. As to the charge of " impla- 
cable hostility," Colonel Thornton declared that, in all the intercourse, by 
flag and otherwise, between the hostile commanders, General Jackson was 
peculiarly courteous and humane, and, to support this assertion, begged 
leave to mention one circumstance. He said that on the day after the battle 
the British were permitted to bury such of their dead as were lying beyond 
a certain line, one or two hundred yards in advance of General Jackson's 
intrenchments — all within that line were buried by the Americans them- 
selves. As soon as the melancholy duty was performed, the British general 
was surprised at receiving a flag, with the swords, epaulets and watches of 

* " The Battle of Bladensburg and Burning of Washington in 1814." By Hon. Horatio King. 
Magazine of American History for November, 1885 [xiv. 438-457]. An account of the scene in 
Paris, when Colonel Thornton related the incident concerning General Jackson after the battle of 
New Orleans, maybe found in the volume of the Jeffersonian for the year 1833, a newspaper 
published in Portland, Maine. 



vx IN . m is GENERAL JACKSON'S CAREER 

h had fallen , and a note from General Jackson, couched in 

lCTC raying that one pair of epaulets was still miss- 

Srd;^ being -dl and, when found, it should 

articles-always considered fair objects of war plunder 

lera l Jackson, and thus handed over with a request 

smitted to the relatives of the gallant officers to 

ttand the franka „d soldierly style m whtch it was to d 
holc curr ent of feeling in favor of the general and drew fo 
expres sion of applause. The Americans were thnlled w^h 
.carta thanked the old general for provmg by his 
onduct that the defenders of America were above the sordtd 

mercenary warfare. _ 

act of • Old Hickory," though not so broad in its benefi- 
generous consideration of General Grant at the Appomattox, 
„ m ore touchingly inspiring and eloquent. Either could have 
ned .mly by brave and true soldiers. 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 

The honor of being the first European to set foot on Castine's rocky 
heights is accorded to the great Champlain himself, about 1604. It appears 
probable, however, that a French settlement, either for fishing or for trad- 
ing purposes, existed prior -to Champlain's advent ; its members leading 
the usual life of privation and activity proper to such an existence. The 
district was at this time included in the tract known on early charts as 
"Pentagoet." Its Indian inhabitants were the stalwart tribe of Eche- 
mins, or Tarratines. Succeeding to Champlain's visit — whatever that 
amounted to — in the year 1605 James Rozier explored the Penobscot 
river and bay, and his name is perpetuated in the beautiful headland 
known on our coast-survey charts as Cape Rozier. In 1614 Captain John 
Smith appeared in the neighborhood, and he makes a reference to find- 
ing French traders installed in it. 

In that eager and jealous search for every item of whatever includes 
history, into which our American communities have entered of late years, 
it has often appeared that the rewards must be unjustly distributed. It 
hardly can be said that in comparison with scores upon scores of European 
localities any single town or neighborhood in the United States is lucky 
enough to possess too much local history. But if the absolute barrenness 
as to its historic past, of this or that spot in various parts of our country, 
be taken into account, and if we allow our remembrances to run over the 
names of the populous towns and imposing cities, the foundations of which 
have not yet grown green through more than the time of two generations, 
one well can wish that there existed, even latent in them, a little of that 
dignity of age which belongs to many of New England's mere villages. 
Had they only even a modest part of that honor that appertains not 
merely to a trade-centre and an aggregate of millionaires, but to places 
that have nurtured patriots who knit their brows in anxiety over the Dec- 
laration of Independence, who fought at Lexington, and camped in the 
snows of Valley Forge, and whose graves in our churchyards may be 
unsung, but are never in any danger of being unhonored ! History in the 
instance of a town corresponds with established character in the individ- 
ual. Quite as a pictured landscape often is doubly attractive if empha- 
sized in details by a sombre background, so does either a hamlet or a 
metropolis please better the thoughtful mind if its individuality comes 
forth from a shadowy past of stress and storm and patriotic activity. 



11 IK STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 

[n what is here written o\ Castine — externally nothing more than a 
quaint and beautiful village on the Maine coast with a great, green, British- 
tort still overlooking it — nothing new or notably original is practi- 
ro three or tour industrious workers in the little field invaded, 
new friend o( the place must pa}- tribute.* But it is a new story 
nany, told so far south of the Penobscot; and one that includes almost 
undue share oi our national patriotic coloring, in proportion to the town's 
I present importance in New England. Castine is able to spare 
.'. hundredweight of historic dignity to Cincinnati or Chicago, or to 
man>- of our smart Middle States towns. As one speaks of the place 
with its soft French name, the mind of the poetry reader reverts to Mr. 
^fellow's verse, or to that of Mr. Whittier, and the Baron de St. Castine 
up from the gloom, like some mediaeval myth. The form of the 
hollow-eyed French Jesuit, in his black robe, succeeds, eager to baptize a 
Convert from the dirty Tarratines, or to be burned, a martyr at the stake, 
in one of their war-dances. The figure of Champlain is beheld, gravely 
surveying the township's forest heights for the first time. Sir John Moore 
.p. a young and enthusiastic soldier, without a presage of the silent 
drum and voiceless burial that is his in the schoolboy's ballad. The Dutch- 
man is seen walking about the town in his short breeches and owner- 
ship. We hear the revolutionary skirmishes with the British, and watch 
one fort after another erected in Castine's limits. We see one squadron of 
ships after another, American or British, in the lovely harbor, manoeuvring 
and spouting fire. We have the worthy General Wadsworth scouting the 
invaders, and being routed by them, and finally making an escape from 
an imprisonment in the village, worthy of a romance. We have the revo- 
lutionary activity of the place subsiding as the young nation's liberty was 
ieved. And — lastly — to-day the eye of the visitor rests not on shapes 
from the land of shadows, the past, but on hay-fields and peaceful farms; 
and it is difficult, save for the green glacis of the forts, to believe that war 
rolled its thunders into so lovely a spot for peace to enjoy and to 
>rn. 

In the year 1626 something approaching a permanent colony was 
founded in Castine's forests. Isaac Allerton, a member of the Plymouth 
society, erected a block-house, and conducted, with his companions, a suc- 
il trade in furs with the natives. This offshoot of the Plymouth 
colony continued to abide in Castine — it must be remembered that it was 
not yet called by that name, but merely " Pentagoct " — until 1635, nine 

il acknowledgments are due to Dr. George A. Wheeler of Castine, whose admir- 
able local - a model of its sort of record. 



THE STORY OF CAST1NE, MAINE 



23 






g** 'tit s 


** uC£V, '- v^ 





STREET SCENE IN CASTINE, 1892. 



years, when the French, who had pillaged the block-house once already, 
long having been aware of the advantages of the place, sent a small 
force from Acadia under one de Charnissy, an officer of that military post. 
De Charnissy drove southward the Plymouth colony emigrants. He 
occupied whatever buildings they had possessed. From this date, 1635, 
until 1654, nineteen years, Pentagoet was a French post. In the year last 
named, the English protectorate sent a handful of troops at Cromwell's 
own suggestion, and recovered the place. So it became again English. In 
1667 it was ceded to the French, and formally occupied by them under the 
Chevalier de Grandfontaine in 1670. This last French official consider- 
ably developed the little settlement, and proceeded with the aid of his lieu- 
tenant, a certain de Marson, to put Pentagoet into a fortified condition. 
Of course, this could not be elaborate ; but the value of the topographical 
situation of the colony was more and more recognized. 



24 THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 

I: was not. however, until 1667, that this little Maine hermitage was 
known as Castine, which name it has borne ever since the coming to 
it of the locally and otherwise celebrated Jean Vincent de St. Castin, a 
ected, adventurous nobleman, originally from Oleron, a town in the 
Pyrenees. About this time dismissed rather cavalierly from the Quebec 
garrison by its French commandant, as a superfluous officer, St. Castin 

- - 1 embittered by the affair that he decided to turn his back on his 
own people, to make the Indian his brother, and to abjure civilization 
even more than its modest degree across the Canadian frontier. It is 
this man — not by any means a hero, not at all a saint, and, I fear, 
scarcely more than by courtesy a Christian, but a resolute, arbitrary, 
quick-tempered character, and with a very fair share of manly goodness in 
his blunt disposition — that the name of the village perpetuates to-day, Jean 
Vincent de St. Castin ; the same adventurer that Mr. Longfellow's charm- 
ing verses depict, and that Mr. Whittier's dramatic lines have portrayed, 
not to speak of other belles lettres references to him in prose and poetry. 

As to St. Castin, or Castine, himself, I am not going to be an apologist 
for him — in fact, it is not a very clear task; but there are these things to 
be .-aid of him : that he bought his land from the Indian king in power 
over the region at the time ; that he lived in faithfulness to all his con- 
tracts with the natives, and among them as their friend, without anything 
but their highest esteem and even veneration ; and that whether he had 
been aforetime a dissipated French wanderer, loose of tongue and morals 
and sword in the army of his own countrymen, St. Castin ripened now into 
a sort of friendly demi-god among the Tarratines before he and they parted 
company in 1 701, through his ultimate return to France, a rich man, 
advanced in life. Long after the Indian parents who had known St. Cas- 
tin were dead, their children in the wigwams spoke his name with affection 
and with honor; and there was no rupture between him and his red pro- 
tege-. Mr. Longfellow alluded to him as 

" Abroad in the world, alone and free ; 
. . . hunting- the deer through forests vast 
In the royal grant of Pierre du Gast ; " 

and of the night in old Oleron, when one could sec that 

. . . " The front of the old chateau 

Is a blaze of light above and below : 

There's a sound of wheels and hoofs in the street, 

A cracking of whips and a scamper of feet ; 

Bells are ringing and horns are blown, 

And the Uaron hath come again to his own. . . ." 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 25 

And Mr. Whittier's picturesque passage in Mogg Megone gives us more 

correctly a view of 

. . . " One whose bearded cheek 
And white and wrinkled brow bespeak 
A wanderer from the shores of France. . . ." 

As may be supposed, Baron de St. Castin very materially added to the 
fortification of Castine. Down on the street that runs to-day along the har- 
bor's azure waters, you will find the site of the strong little fort he erected, 
with its chapel, well, orchard, and stanch block-house. Some years ago 
a considerable portion of its stone-works was uncovered, along with vari- 
ous relics of the baron's residence ; and 'these are now in care of the Maine 
Historical Society and of some private individuals, but its site is distinctly 
marked, and the visitor can trace the outlines at his will to-day. 

Abominated by the English as a distinctly inimical influence in poli- 
tics and in religion, and looked at askance by his own people in Castine 
and Canada, the bluff French nobleman further strengthened his relation- 
ship to the Tarratines with an act that is, perhaps, the most romantic, and 
certainly the best-known, of any of St. Castin's doings. His marriage 
(first without legal formalities, but later, at home, in due form) with the 
daughter of the Tarratine chief Madockawando is one of those unions 
which, like that of Pocahontas with Mr. William Rolfe, has always inter- 
ested the social historian. And it was, apparently, a perfectly happy 
experiment. The young Indian girl is said to have been of great loveli- 
ness of person and nature — allow, as we must, for romance's glamour — and 
certainly lived happily with her husband, a record not possessed by many 
more recent and fashionable French and American alliances. Her return 
with her husband to France completes a pleasing picture in the imagina- 
tion, of her being transformed into a provincial chatelaine, and courtesying 
in a contra-dance, instead of cutting off the noses of French prisoners at 
a war-dance. One regrets to add that there is a record that St. Castin 
took to himself four other dusky, or, rather, copper-hued, partners,, how- 
ever much special affection he undeniably felt for this one; but we must 
make allowances for the notions of his day on such over-appreciation of 
the fair sex, and it is certain that they were all left behind as superfluities 
in Castine, when he sailed back to France and Oleron. Possibly , this 
much marrying of his is but a slander, or a sort of quadruplication of excel- 
lence and beauty, by time's slow course ; and it is, indeed, to be doubted 
if any husband would rashly espouse four wives, any single one being able 
to scalp him with neatness and despatch, at an instant's provocation, if he 
refused them new beads, feathers, hatchets, and the like, all around (in 



rHE STORY OV CASTINE, MAINE 

lew bonnets), or would not permit them to run the longest possible 
seventeenth century Castine store. 
1 have dwelt thus, at some length, on the Baron de St. Castin, because 
is to-day its figure-head, in preference even to De Grandfontaine, the 
ernor, romantically and practically. I pass rapidly now over 
between his date and the revolutionary outburst. The little 
own began to thrive, but it was handed back and forth, from one nation to 
ler, like a plate oi refreshments at a drawing-room rout. In 1674 a 
Flemish pirate. The Flying Horse, sailed up to it, from Curacao, completely 
;ed the French habitants, and held the village to a heavy ransom. 
In 1071 the Dutch sent a very good-sized man-of-war and captured Castine 
uit of hand. So it became a Dutch port until the French and their 
Indian aids expelled the invaders. In the year 1688 (it is to be remem- 
bered that St. Castin and his people were still living in the place — with 
r without those three extra wives — along with several missionary priests), 
after a previous notification, Sir Edmund Andros, the New England 
nor, suddenly arrived at Castine in a frigate, The Rose, and, though 
the guest of the baron, demanded the surrender of the place to the 
British. Some of us will remember the old story of the darkey to whom 
somebody propounded the question: " Pompey, if in the day of judgment 
the devil stands at one end of the road to catch you, and Gabriel, 
with his sword of fire, stands at the other, what will you do?" Pompey 
replies: "In dem cases, massa, dis yer' chile doan' do neider — he takes 
to de woods." The baron took to the woods with all his family, and 
left the place to Andros, who sailed away from it in a few days. The 
colony of Massachusetts denied all participation in this affair, and even 
offered a reparation. St. Castin, however, said that the English annexa- 
tion of the settlement was not to be postponed. It was formally ceded 
to the English. A year later the matter was confirmed, and Governor 
William Phipps of Nova Scotia established its ownership to his queen. 
As has been said, St. Castin returned to France in 1701, his voluntary 
: over, a rather elderly prodigal son. He had several direct de- 
scendant-. 

There i^ a considerable hiatus in any eventful history of the town 
between the year 1704 and the beginning of the Revolution. The period 
intervening included Queen Anne's war. The colony apparently fell off 
as to it> numbers, particularly in its French element. After 1667 we find 
ences to new settlers — Averill, Perkins, McCullam, and others. They 
d gradually, and General Gage in 1775 found it convenient to 
destroy the block-house on the settlement's western side, lest disaffected 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 2J 

colonial inhabitants should make it useful against British misrule. And 
it is quite certain that, however limited the colonial population, patriotism 
was latent in it very early. 

The war of liberty was declared. Although far from the hot centre, 
Castine was not to be separated from its stir. The geographical location 
forbade.. In 1779, with the battles in progress, there came a fleet under 
General Francis McLean and a force of seven hundred British soldiery, 
and a strong fort was thrown up — the remarkably well-preserved and dig- 
nified old earth-structure visible to-day for miles about the town, and the 
pride of the place in its verdant decadence. Colonial attention was at 
once directed to this act. In June of the same year an American fleet 
of nineteen fully-armed vessels, the Black Prince, the Warren, the Defiance, 
the General Putnam, the Vengeance, and so on, a really noble little squadron, 
with a patriot force commanded by Generals Solomon Lovell and Peleg 
Wadsworth and Colonel Paul Revere, set out for Castine, and on the 
morning of July 28 landed their not very numerous hundreds at a point 
a little removed from the village. A sharp engagement ensued, in which 
the British were entirely victorious. In this affair Sir John Moore was 
a participant — not then a knight — and Captain James Henry Craig was 
another actual assistant. The month of July was an active one in Cas- 
tine's revolutionary story. On the 31st, General Wadsworth set in order, 
upon the high hill back of the village, those rifle-pits and battery-coverts 
still there. On August 11 a general attack was made, by land and sea, 
on the fort, and our forces had the satisfaction of taking it, but with 
an unfortunate sequel. In view of the news of a squadron of the enemy 
standing up Penobscot bay, General Lovell retreated in good order, 
abandoning the place to the enemy as far as to the fleet. Its departure, 
however, was intercepted by the expected British ships. The American 
vessels, awkwardly handled, were all destroyed by their crews. The 
American ownership of Castine's position was thus ended in anything but 
a success or a credit to us. 

After this engagement the British continued to hold Castine and to 
garrison the fort — still known as Fort George — throughout the remainder 
of the Revolution, until peace was declared; nor did they evacuate it till 
1783. Sundry attempts were made upon it, but not with effect nor by the 
state. The fort, an admirably contrived and well constructed one, was kept 
in constant repair and use ; and I know of no similar structure to-day that 
is in such satisfactory and, indeed, extraordinary preservation.* It is at 

* Not a little, it may be said, through the public-spirited generosity of Mr. George Witherlee of 
Castine, who spares no care nor taste in the preservation of its relics. 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 

iuty and a strength to the landscape. In its compass the tennis 
\ ers ilit about under the blue skies on fair days, instead of 
iguresof the British infantry; and on its green rampart 
ntide stroll of Castine's inhabitants to-day takes the place of 
patrollings, and friendly greetings stir the echoes instead of 
But it is still soldierlike and stanch, still an intact fort, not 
illocks; and from its verdant bastions one looks always farther 
ban to the opposite shores of the Penobscot or of the harbor, even 
o the days when our fathers fought for their liberty and lives, some- 
ith defeat, but with defeat swallowed up in victory, whereof we enjoy 
ceful fruits. 
It is proper to say here, that during the succeeding British occupation 
of the place, the colonial population were well treated — so well treated as 
ply a good-sized Tory element in the town, a Fabri, as has been inti- 
mated. This fact is recognized in a military order to General Lovell in 1 779, 
1 which he is ordered to keep a wary eye on the villagers. But during the 
h tenancy the townspeople generally were not permitted to meddle 
with fire-arms or visit the garrison; they were forced to contribute rations 
liberally. Strangers suspected of colonial sentiments, and not able to 
give a good account of themselves, not only were banished summarily, but 
whipped. On one occasion, when a colonial soldier, during a skirmish-attack 
2 English works, then in progress, attempted to procure some water 
a spring at close range, a somewhat extraordinary circumstance hap- 
letl ; the man being fired upon by at least sixty soldiers, without receiv- 
y any wound from the whole broadside. Whether it was a matter of 
bad marksmanship or invulnerability I shall not attempt to say. His towns- 
II believed it the latter, and proportionately reverenced him. 
During the progress of the Revolution, Castine and Fort George often 
>ns of more or less importance. In this connection is to be 
nicled the really notable escape effected from the place in February, 
; . by our revolutionary officer, General Peleg Wadsworth, mentioned as a 
participator in an early engagement at the town — an escape not unlike the 
of the European adventurer Casanova from his durance — the 
nocturnally making his way out to freedom, along with a compan- 
was retaken unhappily), from a grated room, via the ceiling, 
ntries, over the stockade and chevaux de frise, down the glacis 
the ditch, and so across the Penobscot inlet, below the fort that 
trs his name- and is associated with his audacity ! * 

this incident are in a manuscript by Wm. D. Williamson, in the Maine 
; fully quoted, however, by Dr. Wheeler in his scholarly Castine record. 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 29 

The war was over at last. The piping times of peace had come. The 
fair, rolling country landscapes of Maine grew ripe with harvests, and 
populated by busy agriculturists. Castine's development was slow but 
sure. Shipping interests advanced it, and as the land grew wonted to its 
new conditions, prosperity settled upon the place, and only the scars of 
battles being left as their witnesses, substantial fortunes were made by the 
residents. Its trade and social life, its connection with other communities, 
were steady processes, and a handful of villages like itself sprang up on 
one or the other side of its harbor. It is difficult to name a more exquis- 
ite spot for an American home than its brilliantly green heights, and the 
deep indigo-colored sea washing the rocky shore. But the fundamental 
simplicity and sober-minded ways of the village were not materially affected 
by any fungus growths from the cities, nor by the license of too many new- 
fangled ideas. Castine grew old as a conservative, modest, retired com- 
munity. Such it is to-day. There are quaint anecdotes of its post-revo- 
lutionary development, of its early events, and public and private doings 
and topics. We find its village hotel-keeper's wife, in one remote year, 
solemnly telling the minister, in her dying moments, that she wanted to go 
to heaven, but that " she wanted to go there by way of Boston " — an aspi- 
ration likely to stir a sympathetic nerve in the heart of many rural New 
England folk, even if it does not quite reach to touching the highest 
string, nor vie with Gabriel, in the mind of New Yorkers. We find the 
surprising record of a calf born that weighed at the time " only twenty- 
seven pounds," but that within less than a month increased its avoirdu- 
pois to one hundred and twenty-seven — oh prodigious growth ! We hear 
of the village postman daily carrying the mails about tied up in a yellow 
pocket-handkerchief, that he directed to be borne on a rod, like a flag, or 
veritable signal of distress, at his funeral ; and we also learn of a later 
mail-deliverer, who having lost one of his team of horses, regularly supplied 
the missing animal's place with a heifer yoked with the remaining horse — 
a system of letter-service that in respect of speed appears often to be 
imitated in our own metropolitan post-office. 

There are stories of pirates and privateers, and that other naval anec- 
dote, dear to local chroniclers, the account of how one Captain Whitney, 
in the ship Hiram, made a bold stand, and navigated his own vessel into 
one foe's keeping to save it from another enemy. We read of the com- 
munity's early judicial executions ; of one Seth Elliot who refused with 
strong oaths to pay a doctor's bill on the night before the gallows was to 
receive him, on the very fair ground that no man ought to die and be 
expected to pay a physician's bill, in which view we can concede, to some 



rili; STORY OF CASTINE. MAINE 



rhere is also the fact of a similar end — rope's end — for 
. whose hanging in 1811 elieited a long mortuary poem 
son Kisher oi Blue Hill, which concludes solemnly: 

•• Take warning then, oh, my dear friends ! 
Let me advise you all : 
Pray slum all vice, and do not die 
Like Ebenezer Ball 1 " 

tin ancient stone oven in the village, an Indian woman, a ser- 

. was wont to put her pappoose to sleep while occupied or out. One 

nistress, in her absence, made a fine fire under the oven without 

g to open the door. I leave the catastrophe to the imagination. 

There is a haunted house in the village, where a little ghost speaks or 

infantile Penobscot. In the elegy on the excellent Dr. Powers, 

n after that venerable clergyman's death from consumption, in 1 807, 

the event is set forth with as much medical perspicuity as poetry : 

"Seized with a cold, while laboring in the cause 
Of great Immanuel and his holy laws, 
Opprest with fever and consumption's force, 
The worthy Powers has fulfilled his course." 

Pastoral vacations in those days seem to have been differently regarded 
from those of our time, inasmuch as we find this same excellent Mr. 
Powers allowed by explicit vote of his parish four Sabbaths in each year, 
in which he is understood — not to go to Europe, but — " to visit his friends 
and preach to the poor.'* 

During the civil struggle, Castine sent a goodly group of her fathers 

to the front. The conflict was watched on every step by those 

left at home, in an intense and nobly loyal spirit. On the village-green 

lay a monument commemorates its regard for those who did not come 

k to Maine from the fields of The Wilderness, of Gettysburg, and of 

Shi loh. 

From those days of America's third war to the present ones, Castine 
ettled into only a deeper tranquillity. Nothing marred its peaceful- 
. and those who must needs be busy in the world, or make a noise in 
it, have fallen into a way of leaving the village, for qualifying such ambi- 
■ sities. It is a corner of our country where it is " always after- 

noon": and to spend a month there is to eat daily the leaves of the lotus. 
mall centre of rural happiness and beauty, " away down east," 
in leading characteristics from many New England towns, yet 
with its own individuality of patriotism, prosperity, and simplicity. Up 



THE STORY OF CASTINE, MAINE 3 1 

and down its seven or eight green streets, the fine old colonial dwellings 
face each other in homely and home-like dignity and solidity. 

The chances of commerce and its remoteness from the highways of 
travel have dwarfed its trade energies, and stifled its manufacturing inter- 
ests. One gently, drowsily, humming ropewalk represents the last named. 
There is n.o railroad ; only the stage-coach and steamboat serve it. If the 
village does not sleep, it dozes, and seems to brood over the past rather 
than to be awake to the unromantic, struggling present. It is this attitude, 
it is this air about it, that charms the metropolitan visitor. He looks at 
it, and walks up and down and around it, and remembers the Indian war- 
riors of its aboriginal period, the sturdy Baron de St. Castin and his dusky 
bride, the British and American fights and manoeuvres ; and then, so 
looking and thinking, he says to himself, that after all, three or four hun- 
dred years is but a little time, a lightly-running matter, a tale that is told. 
And he also reflects that it is not so much to be considered whether a place 
that once knew such or such tenants now knows them no more, as it is 
a matter of how far those who are owners to-day have inherited and have 
preserved their best qualities as neighbors, as men and women, and as 
American citizens. 



2- $.tn6e#J<$z 



'?*>€<X*^ 



A GLANCE AT HIE AGE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 

without saying, every one has faults. A character would be 

ete, or at least not human, without them ; and as we become expe- 

in the ways oi the world, this general certainty is ever present 

us, which makes us skeptical when we hear of superhuman excellence. 

le, or as far as possible, we should seek to understand historical 

s as they really were, or, at any rate, we should study them with 

preconceived conviction that they were endowed with virtues as 

as faults, like the rest of mankind. It is incident to human nature, of 

Lirse, to regard with more or less disfavor any charges that reflect darkly 

pon the characters of those whom on the whole we admire ; and we as 

naturally are inclined to magnify and extol their virtues. Is it not true, 

- lakespeare says : 

" The evil that men do lives after them, 
The good is oft interred with their bones " ? 

Intellectual differences are readily admitted, because they cannot 
be denied ; but the recognition of true human nobleness is perhaps 
quite as guardedly acknowledged by some, as to brand one as utterly base 
is by others. It is certainly a trait in human nature, and among those, 
too, not morally vicious, always to try to paint in the brightest colors 
th-»se characters which by common consent have been stamped as infa- 
mous, while they are chary of praise concerning those commonly accepted 
iod. It is a very trite saying, that straws show which way the wind 
blows ; and so, oftentimes, a single career in a given age, or notable inci- 
in the life of a single person, will serve to a great degree in marking 
the character of a period and those prominent in it, as certainly as the 
quality of the water in a stream reveals the nature of the sources from 
which it flows. There is, perhaps, no more famous name in the annals of 
English history than that of Queen Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry VIII. 
and Anne Boleyn, who ruled England for nearly fifty years, and during 
e long reign some of the great problems of human destiny were 
solved, and the course of human progress was directed into the channels 
in which it has since moved onward. Early in her reign charges most 
derogatory to her character were circulated, not only in England, but on 
Ofltinent of Europe. Many persons among the reading and non- 
reading classes to-day have heard of these charges, and without knowing 
or inquiring upon what ground or foundation they rest, have formed an 



A GLANCE AT THE AGE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 33 

opinion and reached a conclusion concerning this most extraordinary 
woman. Of course, the subject is one, to say the very least, of large 
dimensions and great magnitude. But it is merely my purpose to show, 
by the consideration of a few incidents happening in her day and in close 
connection with her person — under her very eye, as it were — which reflect 
a glorious light upon an age of which it is not too much to say none has 
exerted a greater influence, and of which she was, perhaps, the most dis- 
tinguished and prominent leader: these straws will show to some extent 
which way the wind blew. Let us remember that the age in which she 
lived was one which was just emerging from the darkness of the mediaeval 
past into the bright light of knowledge and peace, which now shines so 
brightly and grandly throughout the world. But it is quite incredible 
that she could have lived and moved within the sphere which surrounded 
and encompassed her daily and on every side ; that she could have been 
so conspicuous and potent a figure and factor in the midst of affairs such 
as then obtained, and occupied the minds of men — as she was by all around 
her confessed to be — guiding, influencing, controlling among men not 
only noble, high-minded, and truly great, but deeply religious men withal 
— as we have abundant evidence to prove ; some of whom, none greater in 
all these respects have ever lived — without herself being a truly noble and 
virtuous woman. 

I would call attention to the kind of letters men wrote in those days to 
their young sons. The following, by Sir Henry Sidney, most intimately 
associated with her for a long term of years in the administration of her 
government, is an extract from one addressed by him to his son, the 
courtly Sir Philip Sidney, when scarcely eleven years old : " Let your 
first action be the lifting up of your mind to Almighty God, by hearty 
prayer ; and feelingly digest the words you speak in prayer, with continual 
meditation and thinking of Him to whom you pray, and of the matter for 
which you pray. And use this as an ordinary act, and at an ordinary 
hour ; whereby the time itself shall put you in remembrance to do that 
you are accustomed to do in that time." 

His father wrote concerning Philip after he had attained his twenty- 
fourth year, to his younger brother Robert, as follows : " In truth — I speak 
it without flattery of him or of myself — he hath the most rare virtues that 
ever I found in any man. Follow your discreet and virtuous brother's 
rule, who with great discretion, to his commendation, won love, and could 
variously ply ceremony with ceremony." 

That England was in a very much better moral state than the rest of 
Europe at this time, we have the evidence of Robert Ascham, Philip's 

Vol. XXIX. -No. 1.— 3 



J4 A GLANCE AT THE AGE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 

tutor, who. halting but nine days in Venice, says that " in that time he saw 
more Liberty to sin than lie ever heard tell of in our noble London in nine 
As illustrative of the high moral tone and thoughtful and serious 
character oi his mind, the following extract from one of Philip's letters is 
Linly remarkable, especially when we consider that it was written from 
Italy before he had attained the age of twenty, and while he was closely 
observing with intense interest the working out of some of the most 
momentous problems that have ever been played on the political chess- 
board oi Europe. " Refreshing of the mind consists more than anything 
else in that seemly play of humor which is so natural and so engrafted, 
as it were, in the characters of some of the wisest men." This sentiment 
concerning humor is very beautifully expressed by Dr. Weir Mitchell in 
the January number of The Century. It is a very desirable habit, he says, 
u to ease the frictions of life with the precious ointment of mirth." One of 
Philip's most intimate and life-long friends wrote concerning him: "Soldiers 
honored him, and were so honored by him, as no man thought he marched 
under the true banner of Mars that had not obtained Sir Philip Sidney's 
approbation. Men of affairs in most parts of Christendom entertained 
correspondence with him. . . . His heart and capacity were so large 
that there was not a cunning painter, a skillful engineer, an excellent musi- 
cian, or any other artificer of extraordinary fame, that made not himself 
known to this famous spirit, found him his true friend without hire, and 
the common rendezvous of worth in his time. Neither was this in Sir 
Philip a private but a public affection ; his chief ends being not friends, 
wife, children, and himself, but above all things the honor of his Maker, 
and the service of his prince and country." It may be well for us to con- 
sider what one held in so high and universal esteem thought concerning 
Queen Elizabeth. After speaking of the scandalous stories that were 
sometimes floated concerning her, he said : " I durst with my blood answer 
it, that there never was a monarch held in more precious reckoning of her 
people ; and before God how can it be otherwise ? A singular honor God 
hath done you to be, indeed, the only protector of his church, the example 
of princes, the ornament of this age." Sir Philip Sidney was mortally 
wounded in a desperate charge at the battle of Zutphen, and died when 
he lacked but six weeks of being thirty-two. In his last moments the 
attending chaplain comforted him with texts of holy Scripture, and pious 
assurances. Sidney, lifting up his eyes and hands exclaimed: " I would 
not change my joy for the empire of the world." It is not too much to say: 

" He was the expectancy and rose of the fair state, 
The observed of all observers." 



A GLANCE AT THE AGE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 35 

As is universally conceded, the fair and illustrious fame of Sir Philip 
Sidney has not been dimmed by the lapse of ages. His father, his highly 
gifted and most accomplished mother, his brothers and sister, who bore a 
striking resemblance to him, were all singularly exemplary in their lives 
and characters, not only when viewed in the light of the high circle and 
sphere in which they lived, but their virtues and the purity of their walk 
and conversation would have adorned the Christian character in the low- 
liest and humblest stations. Surely such noble examples could not but 
have exerted a most wholesome and elevating influence upon all who came 
within their sphere, especially when we are assured by many contempora- 
neous witnesses that their virtues were estimated and esteemed at their 
true value. It is not pretended that all in Elizabeth's court possessed 
such exalted merit, though the incidents cited were by no means isolated 
cases; but if I, 5 ^ ^ ^ 

"Vice be a monster of such hideous mien, 
That to be hated needs but to be seen," 

surely the presence of such distinguished worth and pre-eminent virtues, 
which were so highly extolled and appreciated by those living at the time, 
and in their constant company, ought to go very far and weigh greatly 
toward convincing us that there were many lofty and noble and pure 
souls in daily contact and intercourse with the great queen, of whom all 
were proud, and felt that they honored themselves in yielding her the 
homage of their profound regard. Surely a queen could not have been 
endowed with a low, base, much less degraded nature and soul, who 
could excite and draw forth from such lofty spirits as these the tributes 
which they ungrudgingly bestowed, not simply upon her intellectual 
endowments, but also upon her virtues and worth. 

We have too, by a contemporary writer, a beautiful account of an 
English church service in the time of Queen Elizabeth, in St. George's, 
Windsor; the narrator being a foreigner — Frederick, Duke of Wurtem- 
berg. ''This castle," he says, "stands upon a knoll, or hill; in the outer 
or first court there is a very beautiful and immensely large church, with a 
flat, even roof covered with lead, as is common with all churches in this 
kingdom. In this church his highness listened for more than an hour to 
the beautiful music, the usual ceremonies, and the English sermon. The 
music, especially the organ, was exquisitely played, for at times you could 
hear the sound of cornets, flutes, then fifes, and other instruments ; and 
there was likewise a little boy, who sang so sweetly amongst it all, and 
threw such a charm over the music with his little tongue, that it was really 



A Gl ANCF. AT THE AGE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 

lerful to listen to him. After the music, which lasted a longtime, had 
ended, a minister ascended the pulpit and preached in English." 

This is not such a narrative — the incidents related are not such as we 
should expect from the pen of a foreigner who has visited a dissolute 
court, whose sovereign, although the ruling and controlling spirit thereof, 
was held to be not a good woman. 

Beesley, in his recent Life of Elizabeth, admits that few rulers, male or 
female, have had to contend with such formidable and complicated diffi- 
culties as the English queen, and that few have surmounted them so 
triumphantly. This is the criterion which determines the judgment of 
practical men ; and, although research may modify, it can never set aside 
the popular verdict. There are writers who have described Elizabeth as 
selfish and wayward, short-sighted, easily duped, faint-hearted, rash, 
miserly, wasteful, and swayed by the pettiest impulses of vanity, spite, 
and personal inclination. They have not explained how it could happen 
that a woman with all such disqualifications for government should have 
ruled England with such signal success for nearly forty-five years. Good 
luck will not explain so long and so unbroken a period of efficient rule. 
No one had a better opportunity or a higher capacity for estimating the 
greatness of Elizabeth than had Francis Bacon. He said of her: "It is 
not to closet penmen that we are to look for guidance in such a case; for 
men of that order, being keen in style, poor in judgment, and partial in 
feeling, are no faithful witnesses as to the real passages of business. It is 
for ministers and for great officers to judge of these things, and those who 
have handled the helm of government and been acquainted with the diffi- 
culties and mysteries of state business." 

George G. Hepburn 



HOW TO STUDY UNITED STATES HISTORY 

For some time educational thinkers have concerned themselves with 
the question of what our public schools should teach. To instructors, 
however, this question is subordinate to the one of how a subject deter- 
mined upon should be taught. We thus see the questions what and how 
presenting themselves at every stage of school work ; the one involving 
the philosophy of education, the other, its science and art ; the one of 
interest to the general public, the other intimately associated with profes- 
sional success. 

A complete system of educational philosophy may be summed up in 
three words: quality, as applied to intellect; expression, as related to 
thought ; and application, as associated with acquired knowledge. Judged 
by the canons of this philosophy we find an ideal study to be one whose 
mastery has a culture value, whose application bears directly upon the 
conduct and practical affairs of life, and whose methods give full scope to 
individual expression. Such a study is the history of one's country. 

A special significance is attached to the study of United States history, 
which is better understood when it is conceived that the prime function 
of the American public-school is to train to intelligent and patriotic citizen- 
ship. Intelligence implies the possession of certain knowledge, the power 
to acquire additional knowledge, and the ability to apply acquired knowl- 
edge whenever practicable. Citizenship implies the possession of rights 
and privileges, which are more satisfactorily exercised when their origin 
and nature are known. The mental equipment of any intelligent citizen 
includes a knowledge of his country's past, an understanding of his rela- 
tions to the various governmental organizations placed over him, and a 
proper apprehension of the duties pertaining to his sovereignty. 

The intimate relation that history bears to other subjects of human 
interest gives it additional importance. Dealing with persons, it is closely 
associated with biography and literature. Dealing with places, it enters 
into inseparable companionship with geography. Dealing with motives, 
causes and effects, national and local life, community relations and institu- 
tions, it trenches upon the domains of psychology, philosophy, political 
economy, and sociology. Furnishing standards by which the student may 
gauge and pattern his own conduct, it bears upon the subject of ethics. 
Viewed from every standpoint and in every light, its position in the com- 
mon school curriculum is unassailable. 



HOW rO STUDY UNITED STATES HISTORY 

the question arises as to how a given subject may be successfully 
it we are led naturally to consider the principles underlying successful 
teaching in general. An analysis of these principles enables us to make 
groupings of elements which go to make up success. The first consists 
oi qualities possessed or cultivated by the teacher, which may be briefly 
summarized as follows: (i) Thorough familiarity with the subject taught; 
Ability to secure and retain attention ; (3) Skill in devising and 
ting the methods best suited to existing circumstances; (4) Will 
(5) Earnestness; (6) Enthusiasm. The second grouping corn- 
rises the four consecutive steps embraced in all successful methods of 
parting full knowledge of a subject. Teachers will recognize these in 
the brief and technical terms of: (1) Instruction; (2) Drill; (3) Testing; 
14) Review. 

In particularizing the successful teaching of history, it may be added 
to what has been said, that the teacher should have at all times in mind 
a clear idea of the ground to be covered and the relation sustained by 
each lesson or topic to the whole subject. He must apprehend fully 
the sequences of historical cause and effect, and be able to group events 
that bear upon one another. In no other branch of instruction is the 
teacher's fund of general information so valuable ; and it may be well 
said that a teacher who is full of his subject is a never-failing source of 
inspiration. 

As it is much easier to generalize upon what not to do than upon what 
to do, the following, crystallized from a professional experience of some 
years, is appended for the benefit of young teachers. 

THE TWELVE DON'TS. 

(i) Don't require the text to be memorized. That is cultivating verbal 
memory, not teaching history. 

(2) Don't follow a strictly chronological order. The idea of time is a 
poor one about which to group events that are otherwise unrelated. 

(3) Don't burden the mind with unimportant dates. Beyond the 
memorizing of twelve important dates no special effort in this direction 
should be required. It is only necessary toknowthe relative and approxi- 
mate time of most events mentioned in history. 

(4) Don't assign lessons by pages. Let the lessons be upon subjects or 
topics. 

(5) Don't assign long lessons. Short lessons well understood are of 
more value than long ones cursorily dealt with. 



HOW TO STUDY UNITED STATES HISTORY 



39 



(6) Don't fail to make preliminary expositions of the lessons assigned. 
Pupils often need instruction as to what and how to study. 

(7) Don't explain too much. Leave something for the pupil to do. 
Quality of intellect depends upon concentrative mental effort. Too much 
explanation frequently imbues the pupil with the idea that he knows 
the lesson without further study. This over-confidence results unsatisfac- 
torily. 

(8) Don't be afraid to make the recitation interesting. While there is 
no substitute for earnest study, and the teacher should never relieve the 
pupil of responsibility in the matter, yet the mental application once 
secured, every facility should be extended to the pupil to express himself 
fully and freely during recitation. 

(9) Don't fail to review frequently. Thoroughness is indicated not in 
what is learned but in what is remembered. 

(10) Don't neglect to keep posted upon current events. History is 
being made every day. Read the newspapers, call frequent attention to 
the connection between present and past events. 

(11) Don't confine yourself to one text-book or authority. Encourage 
parallel readings, and interest the pupils in the investigation of some few 
selected subjects thoroughly. 

(12) Don't imagine that everything in a complete school history is to be 
mastered. Advanced histories are works of reference as well as class- 
books. The thorough study of successive lessons may be insisted upon as 
means of culture. What is best to be remembered is covered by review 
questions of a broad and general nature, as given in most works of a 
standard character. 




Tulane University, New Orleans 



BLACKHAWK'S FAREWELL SPEECH 

On August 27, 1832, after the suppression of an Indian emeute near the Four 
Lakes, by the United States army, the great Indian chief, Blackhawk, losing all 
hope, surrendered himself at Prairie du Chien. On this occasion he delivered a 
remarkable speech, a full record of which is given in the second volume of Dr. 
Shaffner's History of America. The following is a metrical version of his eloquent 
remarks : 

You've caged the Indian eagle, you've rent his lordly wings, 
And he shall soar no longer o'er the mountains' belted rings ; 
But while I'm pinioned by your gyves, my only grief will be 
That I did not pay back to you the pains you dealt to me ! 
I fought you to the very last, and boldly face to face, 
For we the children of the winds are still a valiant race ; 
Your bullets flew, like angry birds, fast fluttering in our ears, 
Or like the breezes, swift and keen, that sweep the barren meres ; 
My warriors fell — yes, one by one, beneath your raking shot, 
Yet while the last of them survived, Blackhawk surrendered not ! 

My evil day had come to hand. The sun that dawn rose dim, 

And when the evening shadows fell, the skies looked red and grim ; 

The sunset like a ball of fire, gleamed from its dying bed — 

Oh, 'twas the last of all the suns to shine on Blackhawk's head ! 

For now his heart is bleak and cold, all lorn and lone is he — 

The white men are his masters, and he's no longer free ! 

Oh, now their chains are on my limbs, their fangs are at my throat, 

But the red Indian, who would fear, is scarcely worth a groat ! 

No coward I — I swear it here, by the great spirit-god, 

For craven souls never took root within our forest sod ! 

The white man's thongs might lash my frame till death's last dirge shall toll — 

He has no thongs to whip or maim my still unconquered soul ! 

Great spirit ! we did pray to thee — to thee we cried for years 
To give us life with liberty, and wipe away our tears ! 
Thy council spoke, and urged us on, to fight for land and squaw, 
And crush with all our might and main the white man's odious law; 
But we failed, O god of gods, for all our beavers fled — 
Throughout the land there reigned, alas ! the silence of the dead ; 



blackhawk's farewell speech 4* 

Our crystal streams grew dry as dust, our squaws starved everywhere — 

'Twas then the spirit of our sires called us to do and dare ! 

Around the council fire we stood, and leaving fools to talk, 

We raised the fierce war-whoop once more, and clutched the tomahawk ! 

Our knives shone proudly bright that day, and Blackhawk's heart swelled high, 

And from his lips the vow went forth to conquer or to die ! 

Oh, if he died, he knew his soul would pass through cleansing fires, 

And reach the spirit-land above, and greet his warrior sires ! 

Death would be glad if he had not a wife to leave behind — 

He cared not for himself alone, but only for his kind ! 

And, oh, he fears his countrymen, whipped like ignoble slaves, 

Will spend their days in servitude, and fill unholy graves, 

For though the whites scalp not the head, yet with a devil's art, 

They do far worse — they pour the death of poison on the heart! 

Quite soon the reds will be as whites — you cannot trust the race, 

For guile will stain each Indian soul, and varnish every face ! 

The heart and mind will be divorced, and lips no more will shrink 

From utt'ring words and phrases sleek they do not really think. 

Farewell, my land, your Blackhawk tried to rend your galling chain, 

And right your sad and bloody wrongs, but, oh, he tried in vain ! 

He drank the blood of many a white — oh, would he could once more ! 

But fate has willed it otherwise, his chequered race is o'er, 

His end is. near, his sun has set — oh, nevermore to rise — 

And Blackhawk goes with heavy heart to scale the starry skies ! 



c^re-Tui- i^ 




THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

" HORSE SHOE ROBINSON " 
[Concluding chapter, continued from page 468] 

This village was full of whig troops, and the retreat of Butler's captors 
tow aid King's mountain, whither he was being followed by Williams and 
his army, led the Virginia volunteers to march rapidly in the same di- 
rection. Horse Shoe and young Lindsay joined the military party, 
anxious to participate in the great battle which now appeared imminent, 
leaving [Mildred under the care of Allen Musgrove and his daughter, with 
a small guard of soldiers. But Mildred was restless, and persuaded Allen 
Musgrove to accompany her to some point near the probable battle-field. 
They reached the neighborhood of King's mountain, an elongated ridge 
rising out of the bosom of an uneven country to the height of five hundred 
feet, like an insulated promontory, just as the two hostile armies were 
about to engage in deadly conflict. The attack was made by the con- 
tinentals, the chief leaders with their forces having arranged to scale the 
heights and make the onset in several places as nearly as possible at the 
same instant. 

Mildred, with Mary Musgrove by her side, watched from a high knoll 
the movements of the armies. The advancing continentals, in close ranks, 
with a serried thicket of rifles above their heads, now and then deploying 
into files to pass some narrow path, their bodies bent, and moving with 
the speed of hunters for wild game, was a strangely fascinating sight. 
The scarlet enemy were to be seen on the crest of the mountain, actively 
preparing for the assault. Henry Lindsay stood beside Mildred for a 
moment ere he rode on with his company, to say to her that he was to serve 
as aid-de-camp, and that Horse Shoe was to help him. Horse Shoe had 
given some valuable hints to Campbell, who had divided his army into 
three equal parts, telling him that the British had no cannon on the 
mountain, and "that the advancing columns should not deploy until near 
the crest." 

The description of this battle is one of the best portions of the famous 
novel, but it is no part of our present purpose to reproduce it here. The 
incidents were innumerable and of thrilling interest. When the conti- 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 43 

nentals came within musket-shot of the British regulars, the sharp and 
prolonged volleys rattled along the mountain side, and volumes of smoke, 
silvered by the light of the afternoon sun, rolled over and enveloped the 
combatants. Horse Shoe was in the thick of the fight with no other 
weapon but his customary rifle, galloping over an adversary, or round him, 
as the emergency rendered most advisable. 

At a moment when one of the refluxes of battle brought him almost 
to the summit of the mountain, he descried a small party of British 
dragoons stationed some distance in the rear of the British line, whose 
detached position seemed to infer some duty unconnected with the 
general combat, and he thought he recognized the figure and dress of 
Arthur Butler, who stood near them, bare-headed, upon a projecting mass 
of rock, apparently watching the exciting scene. Without an instant's 
hesitation he rode swiftly toward the Virginia rangers, and called upon 
Stephen Foster to select half-dozen of his best men, and follow him. This 
was done, and by a circuit along the right side of the mountain, Horse 
Shoe soon conducted the party to the summit at a point between the 
British line and the dragoons, which effectually cut off the latter from 
their friends in front. The dragoons charged with the custody of Butler 
were taken by surprise, with no alternative but to defend themselves or 
fly. " Huzza for Major Butler," cried Horse Shoe. " What, ho, James 
Curry! stand your ground, if you are a man! "he shouted in the next 
breath, riding furiously after his foe, who was scurrying into the woods for 
safety. 

The two soldiers met in fierce encounter, and Curry was killed. The 
dragoons fled panic-stricken at the loss of their leader, and Butler was left 
in the midst of his friends. " God bless you, major ; spring across the pom- 
mel," cried Horse Shoe, and seizing Butler by the arm, assisted him to 
mount, and the faithful horse dashed away at full speed toward the base 
of the mountain with his double burden, followed by Stephen Foster and 
the whole party. 

Mildred, pale with emotion and intensely agitated, was clinging to 
Mary Musgrove's arm, speaking her terrors unconsciously from time to 
time. " In God is our trust ; His arm is abroad over the dangerous paths, 
for a shield and a buckler to them that put their trust in Him," said the 
miller, reverently. " Ha ! there is Ferguson's white horse, rushing with a 
dangling rein and an empty saddle down the mountain, through Camp- 
bell's ranks. The rider has fallen. And there, look ! is the white flag wav- 
ing in the hands of a British officer. The fight is over. Hark! hark! 
our friends are cheering, the battle is won ! " In the busy movement that 



nil: SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

followed, a party of horsemen was seen through the occasional intervals of 
the low wood that skirted the valley on the right, sweeping along the 
base oi the mountain toward the knoll where Mildred was standing. 
These horsemen were lost to view among the trees and angles of the hills 
for a brief time, but when they emerged and once more attracted Mil- 
dred's eyes, they were so near that she recognized them all — Horse Shoe 
iii the lead with Butler seated on the same horse, and Stephen Foster and 
his Virginians following, w r ho had been joined by Henry Lindsay on his 
way to announce the tidings of victory to his sister. " There, take him ! " 
shouted Horse Shoe, with an effort to laugh, which was husky, as spring- 
ing to the ground, he swunsf Butler from the horse. " Take him, ma'am ; I 
promised myself that I'd give him to you. God bless us — : but I'm happy 
to-day." 

11 My husband ! my dear husband ! " were the only articulate words 
that escaped Mildred's lips, as she fell senseless into the arms of Arthur 
Butler. 

In this celebrated battle many brave men fell on both sides. The 
fight was relentless, vindictive, and bloody. The men of the mountains 
remembered the cruelties of the enemy during the brief tory dominion, 
and pursued their foes with the unquenchable rage of revenge. It was 
with a yell of triumph that they saw the symbol of submission raised aloft 
on the mountain crest, and for a time the forest rang with their loud and 
reiterated huzzas. They sustained a severe loss in the death of Colonel 
James Williams, who was struck down in the moment of victory. He was 
young, ardent, and fearless, and a great favorite among his military asso- 
ciates. The sun was yet an hour high when the conflict ended, and the 
conquerors forming in two lines on the ridge of the mountain, guarded the 
prisoners as they were brought forward in detached columns and laid 
down their arms on the intervening ground. Many sullen and angry 
glances were exchanged between the victors and the vanquished, the 
former noticing among the columns of prisoners some of their bitterest 
persecutors. 

Preparations were made for night quarters, and the whole host (the 
prisoners more numerous than their captors) were ordered to march to the 
valley. The surgeons remained to care for such of the wounded as could 
not be moved, and shelters were constructed from the boughs of trees, and 
fires kindled to guard the sufferers from the early frost of the season. 
\\ hile Campbell was attending to these details, a messenger came running 
to summon him to a scene of unexpected interest. A gentleman, not 
attached to the army, had been dangerously wounded in the fight, and 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 45 

now lay at the farther extremity of the mountain ridge, attended only by 
a private soldier of the British army. He earnestly begged for an inter- 
view with the commanding officer, and Campbell hurried to the spot. 
The gentleman was evidently breathing out his life, and to Campbell's 
gentle inquiry, said he was Philip Lindsay, of Virginia, in pursuit of his 
children. " My daughter Mildred, I have been told, is near me — I would 
see her, and quickly." Campbell was much shocked, but he lost no time in 
sending for a surgeon, with other necessary assistance. Lindsay's wounds 
were dressed, and a litter was constructed on which he was borne by four 
men to a place of shelter in a cottage at the foot of the mountain. Mean- 
time Campbell rode with all possible speed to communicate the discovery 
of their father to Mildred and her brother. 

Mr. Lindsay's movements may be briefly chronicled. He had jour- 
neyed with Tyrrel into the low country of Virginia to meet officers of the 
royal government, who sought his financial aid in their expeditions, and 
was absent three weeks. Nothing decisive had occurred, however, when 
they both returned to the Dove Cote, where Mr. Lindsay first learned that 
his son and daughter had started for the seat of war. Mildred's letter 
(which she left behind her) nearly struck him dumb, for in it she related 
the story of Arthur Butler's misfortunes, and announced to her father that 
she had been for about a year past the wedded wife of the captive officer. 
The marriage had been solemnized the preceding year in a hasty moment, 
as Butler traveled south to join the army, and the witnesses were Mrs. 
Dimock, under whose roof it occurred, Henry Lindsay, and the clergy- 
man. The reason for the secret marriage was explained, both Mildred 
and Arthur hoping by this irremediable step to reconcile Mr. Lindsay, 
and turn his mind from his unhappy broodings. As Arthur Butler's wife, 
Mildred declared in her letter that she felt it her duty to go to his rescue. 

Tyrrel artfully proposed to Lindsay to pursue his children, hoping to 
lure him into the camp of Cornwallis, and connect him with the fortunes 
of war. The chances of life, Tyrrel said, were against Butler ; he evi- 
dently had reason to believe that the snares he had laid for him had been 
successful. Lindsay was finally persuaded, and went on the long journey, 
reaching the headquarters of Cornwallis within a week after Mildred's 
interview with that officer. While remaining there he heard that Mildred 
had turned aside from her homeward journey in quest of Butler, and, 
accompanied by Tyrrel, he continued the pursuit, arriving at King's 
mountain at the moment of the attack. 

The scene in the cottage when Mildred, Henry, and Butler arrived 
must be left to the reader's imagination. Mr. Lindsay was composed and 



46 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

tranquil. He could talk very little, but he took Mildred's hand, and 
placed it within that of her husband, and said, " God bless you, my chil- 
dren : 1 forgive you." During the night he was in a high fever and 
delirious, occasionally sleeping, and, with the surgeon, Mildred and Mary 
Musgrove kept watch in the apartment, while Butler, with Horse Shoe and 
Allen Musgrove, remained anxiously awake in the adjoining room. Henry 
Lindsay was stretched in a deep sleep on the floor. 

The cottage was about half a mile from the encampment of the army, 
and a little before sunrise singular noises were heard in that direction. 
Horse Shoe stole quietly away to discover the cause. He had not walked 
far when he saw a confused crowd of soldiers in the valley, at some dis- 
tance from the camp, and hastened to the spot. The recent executions 
which had been permitted in Cornwallis' camp, after the battle of Camden, 
and atrocities practised by some of the tories among the captured, had 
suggested signal retribution. Therefore, several obnoxious men were 
being dragged forth from their ranks at early dawn for summary punish- 
ment by the excited soldiery, in spite of all remonstrance or command. 
Eight or ten had already been hung on the limbs of a large tree, and 
preparations were being made to lift a trembling wretch of gaunt form 
to the same fate. Horse Shoe recognized in the victim Wat Adair, who, 
frantic with terror, sprang with a tiger's leap toward him, crying, " Oh, 
save me! save me! Horse Shoe Robinson !" " I am no friend of yours," 
replied Horse Shoe ; but he turned to the crowd, shouting, " Hold ! One 
word, friends; I have somewhat to say in this matter." One of the execu- 
tioners exclaimed, " He gave Butler into Hugh Habershaw's hands ; " and 
another yelled, " He took the price of blood, and sold Butler's life for 
money — he shall die." A chorus of voices cried, " Up with him; we want 
no words." 

11 Friends," said Horse Shoe calmly to the multitude, " there is better 
game to hunt than this mountain-cat ; let me have my say." The crowd 
fell back, and formed a circle round Horse Shoe and Adair. " I give you 
your choice, Wat Adair," said Horse Shoe, " to tell us who put you on to 
ambush Major Butler's life at Grindall's ford, and answer all other ques- 
tions we may ax you, and have your life, taking one hundred lashes to the 
back of it — or be strung up to yonder tree." " I will confess all," cried 
Adair, with eagerness. " James Curry told me of your coming, and gave 
the money to help Habershaw." " The name of James Curry's master?" 
said Horse Shoe, sternly. Adair hesitated for an instant, then stammered 
out, " Captain St. Jermyn." " Was he at your house ? " " He was there," 
said Adair. " Curry acted by his directions, and was well paid for it ; he told 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 47 

me he would have got more if a quarrel among Habershaw's people hadn't 
stopped them from taking Butler's life. When the major wasn't killed 
at the ford, it was thought best to have a trial, wherein James Curry and 
Habershaw agreed to swear against the major's life." " And were paid 
for it ? " " It was upon a consideration, of course," replied Adair. " And 
Captain St. Jermyn contrived this?" " They said he left it all to Curry, 
and rather seemed to take Butler's side at the trial. He did not want to 
be known in the business." "Where is this Captain St. Jermyn ?" de- 
manded many voices, and there was an immediate rush toward the 
quarter where the prisoners were assembled ; and, in a shorter space of 
time than it takes to tell the story, that officer met his death by hanging. 

By this time Butler and Henry Lindsay had arrived in the valley, 
attracted by the singular uproar, and Butler, seeing the body of an officer 
swinging from the tree, exclaimed with astonishment : " Is not that St. 
Jermyn?" "No; it is Tyrrel," replied Henry, "What!" said Butler; 
" Tyrrel and St. Jermyn the same person ? This is indeed a mystery. 
St. Jermyn was not with Ferguson. How came he here to-day ? " Horse 
Shoe appeared at this moment, saying : " These schemers and contrivers 
against other's lives are sure to come to account first or last. The devil 
put it into St. Jermyn's head to make Ferguson a visit, and he came only 
yesterday with Mr. Lindsay, and got the poor gentleman his hurt. You 
mought remember James Curry, and the man he sarved when we saw him 
at the Blue Ball, him they call Tyrrel? This is that same Tyrrel — master 
and man travel one road." 

When Butler returned to the cottage he found Mr. Lindsay in a dying 
condition, and Mildred and Henry by his couch in mute anguish. In the 
midst of their sorrow the retiring army passed by with military music and 
the professional indifference of soldiers to the calamities of war, while the 
chief officers paused at the door of the cottage for a sad farewell. 

In a lonely thicket near the margin of a little brook on the eastern side 
of King's mountain, the traveler of the present day may be shown an 
almost obliterated mound, marked with the fragment of a rude tombstone 
on which are carved the letters P. L. Here the remains of Philip Lindsay 
were buried, and after the restoration of peace were transported to the 
Dove Cote. 



When Mr. John Pendleton Kennedy, under the nom de plume of Mark 
Littleton, wrote the captivating story of Horse Shoe Robmson, of which we 
have given a brief summary in these pages, he was about forty years of 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

age, and was already known as a clever writer, having issued The Red 
. a fortnightly satirical publication, and Swallow Barn, a story of rural 
life in Virginia. He was a native of Maryland, a graduate in 1812 of the 
college that is now the University of Maryland ; studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1816 ; became a lecturer and writer on many impor- 
tant topics, notably A Discourse on the Life and Character of William Wirt, 
and a review, in 1830, of Churchill C. Cambreleng's report on commerce and 
navigation, combating its anti-protective arguments ; and he was further- 
more a close student of American history. He served in the war of 18 12, 
fighting at Bladensburg and North Point ; and he was a conspicuous mem- 
ber of the house of. delegates in Maryland from 1820 to 1823. All people 
of intelligence are aware that he was, in 1846, the speaker of the Maryland 
house of delegates, and in 1852 secretary of the navy, and that it was 
mainly through his efforts the expedition of Commodore Perry to Japan, 
and Dr. Kane's second Arctic voyage, were successful ; and that while in 
Paris, on one occasion, his friend William M. Thackeray, becoming weary 
of his work on The Virginians, asked Kennedy to write a chapter for 
him, which he agreed to do if he could catch " the run of the story." 
Kennedy actually produced the fourth chapter of the second volume of 
The Virginians, which accounts for the accuracy of the descriptions of 
the local scenery about Cumberland, with which he was familiar and 
which Thackeray had never seen. It was his knowledge of the country 
and of the character and temper of the people from central Virginia to 
South Carolina, together with his historical studies of events in those 
regions during the dark days of the Revolution, which has given such life, 
vivacity, and interest to the novel before us. It is no matter of wonder 
that three editions of the work were quickly exhausted on its issue by a 
Philadelphia publisher in 1836. Noms de plume were the fashion in those 
days, and many a delighted reader never lived to know the real name 
of the author, although as the years rolled on there was no secret about it. 
We have chosen to present our brief summary of the work from a rare 
copy of the original first edition, of which it is believed there are not more 
than three in existence. 

Mr. Kennedy closes the unique volume with a few pages devoted 
to his own personal experiences in the winter of 18 19. He tells us that 
his business called him to Carolina, whither he journeyed alone, on horse- 
back, with his baggage strapped behind his saddle. He passed through 
the district known as Ninety-six, and observed that the few inhabitants 
of the region were principally the tenants of the bounty lands which the 
state of South Carolina had conferred upon the soldiers of the Revolu- 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 49 

tion, and their settlements were separated from each other by extensive 
forests. The sun was setting one afternoon as he was traversing one of 
these oceans of wood, and having seen no living being for three or four 
hours, he was gratified when a lad not more than ten years of age, mounted 
bareback on a fine horse, suddenly came into the road a few paces ahead, 
and galloped along in the same direction he was going. Quickening his 
speed to overtake the boy, he soon discovered the horse was running 
away with him, and presently found the little fellow lying senseless beside 
the road. Dismounting to render assistance, he met the father of the lad, 
who came from a dwelling near by, and in trying to carry the lad to the 
house, they found his collar-bone broken. There was no physician within 
thirty miles, and the gentleman called an older son, and dispatched him 
for Horse Shoe Robinson ! 

The author was in comfortable quarters for the night, and was much 
interested when, an hour later. Horse Shoe Robinson arrived. He says : 
" Never before have I seen such a figure of a man! He was then some 
years beyond seventy, and time seemed to have broken its billows over his 
front only as an ocean dashes against a rock. He administered to the 
boy with ready skill, prepared a warm embrocation, worked at the dislocated 
joint, and soon set all to rights. So much so that when the physician, who 
had also been sent for, arrived, he had nothing to do. Horse Shoe and 
myself sat by the fire until near daylight. He was a man of truth — every 
expression of his face showed it. He was modest besides, and attached 
no value to his exploits. I wormed the story out of him, and made a night 
of it, in which not even my previous fatigue inclined me to sleep. The 
reader will thus see how I came into possession of much of this narrative." 

Mr. Kennedy has taken us into his confidence in the most felicitous 
manner. And he tells how, some years afterwards, during his rambles 
in Virginia, he learned that Arthur Butler and Mildred returned to the 
Dove Cote subsequently to the victory at King's mountain, and lived 
long enough after the war to see grow up around them a prosperous and 
estimable family. Mary Musgrove went home with Mildred to the Dove 
Cote, and lived there to the end of her days. 

" Another item of intelligence," says Mr. Kennedy, " to be found in 
the history of the war may have some reference to our tale. In the sum- 
mer of 1781 Colonel Butler was engaged in the pursuit of Cornwallis on his 
retreat from Albemarle towards Williamsburg. My inquiries do not 
enable me to say with certainty, but it was probably our friend Arthur 
Butler who had met this promotion." 

Emanuel Spencer 

Vol. XXIX.- No. 1.-4 



WHITTIER'S BIRTHPLACE 

In the northeast corner of Massachusetts, where the Merrimac widens 
in its flow to the ocean, a group of interesting incidents are associated 
with pioneer experiences. 

It was the scene of a tragedy perpetrated by the Indians in 1697. The 
home of Hannah Dustin still stands, from which she was carried away by 
a band of native savages, who first rifled the house before .burning it, and 
afterwards, on the journey, murdered the baby only a week old. It was a 
cruel moment for Thomas Dustin, who was left to guard his family of 
eight motherless children, and to make choice of which he should leave 
behind or which take to the harborage of a fort a mile away. Fatherly 
tenderness forbade that he should forsake the sickly one, and fatherly pride 
claimed the stout and healthy, while the youngest appealed to his mercy, 
so all were encouraged by the father's stout heart until the garrison was 
reached. Afterwards the group was rejoined by the wife and mother, who, 
with heroic frenzy, had killed all but one of the family of twelve persons, 
men, women, and children, to whom she had been assigned as captive, and 
thus escaped their cruel intentions. The heroism of Hannah Dustin 
recalls the often-quoted lines : 

" On dead men's bones, as stepping stones, 
Men rise to what they are." 

Leaving the hills, and coming to the shores of the Merrimac, a drive- 
road becomes suddenly visible. It leads through a grove of time-honored 
willows, at the end of which is a heavy piece of engineering. Here is the 
hardest working river in the United States, or in the world. Lowell, Law- 
rence, and, indeed, all the manufacturing towns along its course, are sus- 
tained by it, and it carries more spindles than any other body of water. 

Not far distant is the town of Haverhill, which abounds in historic 
memories. One large building was once the headquarters of Washington, 
and it was a pretentious structure for those times, the principal tavern of 
the town. Up the hill there stands a noble, capacious school-building, 
where once lived the parents of Harriet Newell, the young woman who 
became the first American missionary, because her heart yearned to impart 
to those less favored the privileges she possessed and the education she 
had acquired. In company with her youthful husband, and Mr. and Mrs. 



WHITTIER S BIRTHPLACE 51 

Judson, she went to India to devote her life to the enthusiasm of duty, 
and in one short year she died, a victim of the climate. 

Following along the same highway as mentioned in ''Snowbound," to 
the outskirts of the town, the sweet-scented air, the skirmishing of the 
joyous meadow-larks, and the exceeding peacefulness which broods every- 
where, make us aware of the fact that we are not far distant from the 
region where the peace-loving spirit of the poet was cradled and nurtured. 
On a bright summer day, Kenoza lake, which Whittier himself named, 
shines like an opal in emerald setting, as it reflects back the glory of a 
summer sky. The poet thus speaks of it : 

" Kenoza, o'er no sweeter lake 

Shall morning break, or noon cloud sail, 
No fairer face than thine shall take 
The sunset's golden veil. 

Thy peace rebukes our feverish stir, 

Thy beauty, our deforming strife ; 
Thy woods and waters minister 

The healing of their life." 

The hills surrounding the lake present a most beautiful outlook, through 
which the " bare-footed boy " sent his longing vision for an intimacy with 
the world that lay behind the mountain-encircled horizon. The Merrimac, 
which has its source in Lake Winnipiseogee, " the smile of the great 
spirit," flows dispassionately to the ocean. The ocean itself, a blue haze 
in the landscape, the high mountain peak of Monadnock in New Hamp- 
shire, and the old Agamenticus in Maine, point to regions far and far 
away. 

From Kenoza to the humble homestead of Whittier, the road winds 
through woods of maple and birch, and over streams where the pond-lily 
serenely floats, until a fork in the road brings to view the quiet nestling 
place of the old brown house. The roads and the foaming brook are 
unchanged, but the wooden bridge and the homestead are going to a sure 
decay. But the poet's secret, that the infancy, youth, and old age of a poet 
are one in quality, and immortal in kind, is strongly borne in upon one 
when standing upon this sacred spot. 



J 



*,.%&<. 



ELEMENTS OF SEA POWER 

The tendency to trade, involving of necessity the production of some- 
thing to trade with, is the national characteristic most important to the 
development of sea power. It is not likely that the dangers of the sea, 
or any aversion to it, will deter a people from seeking wealth by the paths 
of ocean commerce. Where wealth is sought by other means, it may be 
found : but it will not necessarily lead to sea power. France has a fine 
country, an industrious people, an admirable position. The French navy 
has known periods of great glory, and in its lowest estate has never dis- 
honored the military reputation so dear to the nation. Yet, as a maritime 
state, securely resting upon a broad basis of sea commerce, France, as 
compared with other historical sea-peoples, has never held more than a 
respectable position. The chief reason for this, so far as national character 
goes, is the way in which wealth is sought. As Spain and Portugal sought 
it by digging gold out of the ground, the temper of the French people leads 
them to seek it by thrift, economy, hoarding. It is said to be harder to 
keep than to make a fortune. But the adventurous temper, which risks 
what it has, to gain more, has much in common with the adventurous spirit 
that conquers worlds for commerce. The tendency to save and put aside, 
to venture timidly, and on a small scale, may lead to a general diffusion 
of wealth on a like small scale, but not to the risks and development of 
external trade and shipping interests. As regards the stability of a man's 
personal fortune, this kind of prudence is doubtless wise; but when exces- 
sive prudence, or financial timidity, becomes a national trait, it must tend 
to hamper the expansion of commerce and of the nation's shipping. 

The noble classes of Europe inherited from the middle ages a super- 
cilious contempt for peaceful trade, which has exercised a modifying 
influence upon its growth, according to the national character of different 
countries. The pride of the Spaniards fell easily in with this spirit of 
contempt, and co-operated with that disastrous unwillingness to work and 
wait for wealth which turned them away from commerce. In France, the 
vanity which is conceded, even by Frenchmen, to be a national trait, led 
in the same direction. The numbers and brilliancy of the nobility, and 
the consideration enjoyed by them, set a seal of inferiority upon an occu- 
pation which they despised. Rich merchants and manufacturers sighed 
for the honors of nobility, and upon obtaining them, abandoned their 



ELEMENTS OF SEA POWER 53 

lucrative professions. Therefore, while the industry of the people and the 
fruitfulness of the soil saved commerce from total decay, it was pursued 
under a sense of humiliation, which caused its best representatives to 
escape from it as soon as they could. 

In Holland there was a nobility ; but the state was republican by 
name, allowed large scope to personal freedom and enterprise, and the 
centres of power were in the great cities. The foundation of the national 
greatness was money — or rather wealth. Wealth, as a source of civic dis- 
tinction, carried with it also power in the state ; and with power there 
went social position and consideration. In England the same result 
obtained. The nobility were proud; but in a representative government 
the pow r er of wealth could be neither put down nor overshadowed. It was 
patent to the eyes of all, it was honored by all, and in England as well as 
Holland, the occupations which were the source of wealth shared in the 
honor given to wealth itself. Thus, in all the countries named, social 
sentiment, the outcome of national characteristics, had a marked influence 
upon the national attitude toward trade. 

In yet another way does the national genius affect the growth of sea 
power in its broadest sense, and that is in so far as it possesses the capacity 
for planting healthy colonies. Of colonization, as of all other growths, it 
is most healthy when it is most natural. Colonies that spring from the 
felt wants and natural impulses of the whole people, will have the most 
solid foundations ; and their subsequent growth will be surest when they 
are least trammelled from home, if the people have the genius for inde- 
pendent action. The fact of England s unique and wonderful success as 
a colonizing nation is too evident to be dwelt upon, and the reason for it 
appears to lie chiefly in two traits of the national character. The English 
colonist naturally and readily settles down in his new country, identifies 
his interest with it, and, though keeping an affectionate remembrance of 
the home from which he came, has no restless eagerness to return. In the 
second place, the Englishman at once and instinctively seeks to develop 
the resources of the new country in the broadest sense. In the former 
particular he differs from the French, who are ever longingly looking back 
to the delights of their pleasant land ; in the latter, from the Spaniards, 
whose range of interest and ambition was too narrow for the full evolution 
of the possibilities of a new country. 

The character and the necessities of the Dutch led them naturally to 
plant colonies, and by the year 1650 they had in the East Indies, in Africa, 
and in America a large number. They were then far ahead of England in 
this matter. — Captain Mahan's Influence of Sea Power upon History. 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN EUROPE 

HIS DINNER WITH THE POETS 

Henry Cabot Lodge in his essay on Gouverneur Morris, included in his 
recently published volume of Historical and Political Essays, furnishes many 
interesting anecdotes of this American statesman of the Revolutionary 
period, who was also a wit, a philosopher, a financier, and a man of the 
world and of society — a many-sided and picturesque character. It should 
be remembered that Morris was a member of the provincial congress of 
New York, that he took a leading part in framing the state constitution 
and even then, in the time of war, strove to insert a clause abolishing 
slavery, that he served faithfully on the council of safety, was active and 
efficient in sustaining the continental army and its officers, was elected in 
1778 to the continental congress although only twenty-six years of age, 
was made the assistant of Robert Morris in managing the disordered 
finances of the new republic, and was conspicuous among the framers of 
the national Constitution. During his subsequent mission to France, 
where he arrived in the winter of 1789, he recorded daily his observations 
on public and private affairs, and in the language of Mr. Lodge, "there is 
no other journal, diary, or correspondence of that period, left by any of 
our public men, which at all compares with this in its amusing, light, and 
humorous touch." The following extract was written by Morris while in 
Paris, and is among the few selections of Mr. Sparks quoted by Mr. 
Lodge : — 

" March 3 (1789) Monsieur le Comte de Neuni does me the honor of 
a visit, and detains me until three o'clock. I then set off in great haste 
to dine with the Comtesse de B. on an invitation of a week's standing. 
Arrive at about a quarter past three and find in the drawing-room some 
dirty linen and no fire. While a waiting-woman takes away one, a valet 
lights the other. Three small sticks in a deep bed of ashes give no great 
expectation of heat. By the smoke, however, all doubts are removed 
respecting the existence of fire. To expel the smoke a window is opened, 
and the day being cold I have the benefit of as fresh air as can reason- 
ably be expected in so large a city. 

Toward four o'clock the guests begin to assemble, and I begin to 
expect that, as madame is a poetess, I shall have the honor to dine with 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN EUROPE 55 

that exalted part of the species who devote themselves to the Muses. 
In effect, the gentlemen begin to compliment their respective works, and 
as regular hours cannot be expected in a house where the mistress is 
occupied more with the intellectual than the material world, I have a 
delightful prospect of a continuance of the scene. Toward five (o'clock) 
madame steps in to announce dinner, and the hungry poets advance to 
the charge. As they bring good appetites they have certainly reason to 
praise the feast, and I console myself in the persuasion that for this day, 
at least, I shall escape an indigestion. A very narrow escape, too, for some 
rancid butter of which the cook has been liberal puts me in bodily fear. 
If the repast is not abundant, we have at least the consolation that there 
is no lack of conversation. Not being perfectly master of the language, 
most of the jests escape me. As for the rest of the company, each being 
employed either in saying a good thing or in studying one to say, it is no 
wonder if he cannot find time to applaud that of his neighbor. They all 
agree that we live in an age alike deficient in justice and in taste. Each 
finds in the fate of his own works numerous instances to justify this asser- 
tion. They tell me, to my great surprise, that the public now condemn 
theatrical compositions before they have heard the first recital. And to 
remove my doubts the countess is so kind as to assure me that this rash 
decision has been made on one of her own pieces. In pitying modern 
degeneracy we rise from the table." 

Mr. Lodge remarks: " In the words to my great surprise we catch the 
peculiar vein of American humor which delights in a solemn appearance 
of ignorant and innocent belief in some preposterous assertion. It is close 
kin to the broader form exemplified by Mark Twain weeping at the grave 
of Adam, which the Saturday Review declared was a ridiculous affectation 
of sentiment." 

Of Gouverneur Morris in London Mr. Lodge says: " He was requested 
to go to England as a secret agent of our government, and endeavor to 
reopen diplomatic relations and settle various outstanding and threaten- 
ing differences with that country. To London he accordingly went in 
February, 1790, and there he spent seven or eight months in fruitless con- 
versations with the Duke of Leeds and Mr. Pitt about western ports, the 
fulfillment of treaties, the compensation for negroes, British debts, and 
imprisonment. On the last subject he said, with a concise wit which 
ought to have made the saying more famous than it is : 'I believe, my lord, 
that this is the only instance in which we are treated as aliens.' 

Whether this keen-edged remark penetrated the heavy mind of the 
noble duke to whom it was addressed does not appear ; at all events, the 



56 GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN EUROPE 

mission was a failure. English ministers, with that sagacity which has 
characterized them in dealing with the United States, were determined 
to in i ure us so far as they could, and to make us enemies instead of friends, 
if it were possible to do so; a policy which has borne lasting fruit, and 
which England does not now delight in quite so much as of yore. 

It is pretty obvious that Mr. Morris was not to their taste, despite his 
wit and good manners. He was a man of perfect courage and patriot- 
ism, and could be neither bullied nor cajoled. His brother, Staats Long 
Morris, was a general in the British army and the husband of the Duchess 
of Gordon, a fact which implied respectability to the English mind, and 
made it difficult for them to snub a person who, according to their notions, 
was so well connected. Worst of all, he was a man of great ability and 
wide information, intellectually superior to any minister he met, except 
Mr. Pitt, and therefore he was an awkward person to trample on. Stories 
were set afloat to injure him, and were so far successful that they gave 
him much trouble at home. He was charged with consorting with Fox 
and the opposition, which was not true, and with revealing his purpose 
to Luzerne, the French minister, which was true, and sprang from Mr. 
Morris's sentiment of gratitude to France, ill-rewarded, and in great 
measure cured by Luzerne's betrayal of his confidence. 

Morris found time, however, in the midst of his vain efforts, to observe 
his English friends, and note the ludicrous side of the characters of the 
various distinguished personages he met. He wrote to Washington, 
September 18, 1790, about Pitt, as follows: ' Observe that he is rather the 
queen's man than the king's, and that since his majesty's illness she has 
been of great consequence. This depends in part on a medical reason. 
To prevent the relapse of persons who have been mad, they must be kept 
in constant awe of somebody, and it is said that the physician of the king 
gave the matter in charge to his royal consort, who performs that, like 
every other part of conjugal duty, with singular zeal and perseverance.' ' 

Mr. Lodge says that fruitless wranglings and disobliging treatment in 
England tired Morris sadly, although they could not disturb his good 
humor, and that he welcomed the hour when he was at liberty to return 
to France. He made a brief tour through Germany, and in November 
reached Pans again, where he soon saw that things were going to pieces 
rapidly. He told Lafayette that " an American constitution would not do 
for that country ; that every country must have a constitution suited to 
its circumstances, and the state of France required a higher-toned govern- 
ment than that of England." Mr. Lodge says: " All this was very true 
but very unpalatable, especially to Lafayette, and the result was that he 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN EUROPE 57 

became rather cool to his frank adviser. Yet the old friendship really 
remained as warm as ever, and when Lafayette became a prisoner no one 
worked harder for his liberation than Mr. Morris. 

Although the tremendous events in the midst of which he was plunged 
absorbed his thoughts, we still get here and there glimpses of the gay 
society in which he found himself, and which was soon to be extinguished 
in the dark torrent of the revolution. 

January 19, 1791, Morris wrote: 'Visit Madame de Chastellux, and go 
with her to dine with the Duchess of Orleans. Her royal highness is 
ruined ; that is, she is reduced from four hundred and fifty to two hundred 
thousand livres per annum. She tells me that she cannot give any good 
dinners; but if I will come and fast with her she will be glad to see me.' 

January 25. Morris dined with Madame de Stael, and heard the Abbe 
Sieyes ' descant with much self-sufficiency on government.' Four days 
later he went out to Choisy with Madame de Chastellux, and dined with 
Marmontel, who seemed to his guest 'to think soundly,' a compliment paid 
by Mr. Morris to but few of his French friends. There is something very 
striking and most interesting in these little pictures of daily existence, 
which went on much as usual, although the roar of revolution was sound- 
ing in men's ears. Philosophers speculated and fine ladies jested, even if 
the world was in convulsion ; and so they continued to do until it was 
all drowned in the Terror, from which arose, after brief interval, another 
society, as light-hearted and brilliant, if not as well born, as its predecessor. 

We can mark, however, the tremendous changes in progress around 
him in the extracts from the diary. The social pictures grow fewer, the 
tone is graver, there are more interviews with statesmen and fewer chats 
with ladies of rank, while the reflections concern the welfare of state and 
nation rather than the foibles or graces of men and women. April 4th 
came the funeral of Mirabeau, with some observations in the diary which 
are eloquent and striking; and there were other and still weightier mat- 
ters then pressing upon his mind. August 26 he noted in his diary: ' Dine 
with Madame de Stael, who requests me to show her the memoire I have 
prepared for the king.' The next day he wrote : 'Dine with M. de Mont- 
morin. After dinner retire into his closet and read to him the plan I 
have prepared of a discourse for the king. He is startled at it; says it is 
too forcible; that the temper of the people will not bear it.' Mr. Morris's 
talents and the force of his arguments on the state of public affairs had 
attracted general attention, and in their agony of doubt court and ministry 
turned to him for aid. The result was the draft for a royal speech, which 
the king liked, but was prevented by his ministers from using; a memoire 



58 GOUVERXEUR MORRIS IX EUROPE 

on the state of France, notes for a constitution, and some other similar 
papers which are given by Mr. Sparks. These documents are very able 
and bold. Whether Air. Morris's policy, if pursued, would have had any 
effect may well be doubted, but there can be no question that it was the 
sanest, most vigorous, and best defined of the multitude offered to poor, 
hesitating Louis, and its adoption could certainly have done no harm. 
In the midst of these disinterested and somewhat perilous pursuits, we 
rind him writing to Robert Morris (October 10, 1791), and describing a 
scene at the theatre when the people cheered the king and the queen. 

' Now, my dear friend,' he adds, ' this is the very same people who, 
when the king was brought back from his excursion, whipped a demo- 
cratical duchess of my acquaintance because they heard only the last part 
of what she said, which was, // ne faut pas dire, vive le Roi. She had the 
good sense to desire the gentleman who was with her to leave her. Whip- 
ping is, you know, an operation which a lady would rather undergo among 
strangers than before her acquaintances.' 

Mr. Morris's sympathy for the king and queen led him further than he 
anticipated. Indeed, his attitude as an adviser of the ministry caused 
outbreaks against him on the part of the opposition. De Warville said in 
his newspaper that Morris, on one of his periodical visits to England upon 
business, was sent to thwart Talleyrand, an accusation which Mr. Morris 
met with a public denial. His doings, however, were not fortunate, in 
view of the responsibility about to be placed upon him ; for while he was 
away on this very visit to England, in the early months of 1792,11c received 
the news of his appointment as minister to France. 

Morris was not without enemies. At home, his contempt and dislike 
for the methods of the French revolution were only too well known, and 
his confirmation was strongly opposed in the senate. His good friend, the 
president, with much delicacy explained to him the ground of the opposi- 
tion, and in this way pointed out to Morris the failings which threatened 
his success. ' The idea of your political adversaries,' Washington said, 
* is that the promptitude with which your lively and brilliant imagination 
displays itself allows too little time for deliberation and correction, and is 
the primary cause of those sallies which too often offend, and of that ridi- 
cule of character which begets enmity not easy to be forgotten, but which 
might easily be avoided if it were under the control of more caution and 
prudence.' If it had been known in America just how deeply Mr. Morris 
had plunged into French politics, it may be doubted whether Washington 
even would have nominated him as a minister. As it turned out, no better 
choice could have been made, yet at the moment Mr. Morris was involved 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN EUROPE 59 

in affairs which no foreign minister ought even to have known. He 
probably felt that his efforts to save order and government by means of 
the monarchy were hopeless, but they had drawn him on into the much 
more dangerous path of personal sympathy for the king and queen, and 
thence into attempts to at least preserve their lives. The king was 
unable to. adopt Mr. Morris's views in his public utterances, but on his 
advice confided in M. de Monciel, one of his ministers, and this gentle- 
man and Mr. Morris arranged an elaborate yet practicable scheme for the 
escape of the royal family. After a short time, the king sent Mr. Morris 
five hundred and forty-seven thousand livres to carry out the plan, and 
wished also to make him the depositary of his papers. Mr. Morris 
accepted the first trust and declined the latter. The large sum of money 
seems to indicate the king's preference for the plan of Morris, in whom he 
had great confidence, yet there were half a dozen other schemes on foot 
at the same time. De Molleville had one ; Mr. Crawford, sent over by the 
British government, had another; Marie Antoinette's Swedish friend, 
Count Fersen, had a third ; and there were probably many more. One 
plan interfered with another. That of Morris and Monciel was ripe for 
execution, and still the king doubted and delayed. While he was hesitat- 
ing, the ioth of August came, the Swiss Guard was massacred, and all was 
over." 



COUNT JULES DIODATI 

Editor Magazine of American History: 

Count Jules Diodati, whose engraved portrait appears on the opposite 
page of this issue of the Magazine of American History, was a distinguished 
member of the Diodati family of Italy, descendants of Cornelio of that 
name, who removed from Coreglia to Lucca in 1300, where they held high 
position among the nobility of the latter city. During the middle ages 
they occupied many important offices, both military and civil, not only in 
Italy but in Spain, Austria, France, and Switzerland. Count Jules Diodati 
figured conspicuously in the Thirty Years' war in the service of the 
Emperor Ferdinand II., under the famous Wallenstein. His brother 
Giovanni also attained distinction as Grand Prior of the Templars in 
Venice. 

The family of Diodati has become extinct in several branches, and is 
now represented only in Geneva by Count Gabriel Diodati and his brother 
Count Aloys, and in America in the female line. 

The title of count has been confirmed to all descendants by patents in 
Italy, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. 

I have the honor to remain, 

Very respectfully yours, 



aS^^-^C^C^^' 






COMTE JULES DIODATI GENER, 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 

[Continued from page 486] 



California 



August. The George Washington, the 
first river steamer in California, begins 
regular trips on the Sacramento, followed 
before the end of the year by several 
other boats. 

August 1. Election in San Francisco; 
board of twelve councilmen created, 
with John W. Geary as president, the 
Spanish forms being retained. 

September. A popular convention 
resolves to exclude negro slavery from 
the territory, and adopts a constitution. 

December 31. Estimated gold prod- 
uct for the year, $40,000,000. 

William McKendree Gwin and John 
Charles Fremont elected United States 
senators. 

1850. Population by seventh census, 
92,597. The great year of land specula- 
tion at San Francisco, and of mining 
claims in the gold fields. 

May 1. The American form of gov- 
ernment established in San Francisco, 
with Mr. Geary as mayor. Spanish al- 
caldes everywhere superseded by jus- 
tices of the peace, after the American 
custom. 

September 9. California admitted as 
a State by act of congress. 

A ruinous commercial panic results 
from an over supply of goods from the 
east. 

Beginning of the Chinese immigration. 
Gold product for the year, $50,000,000. 



1850, October. Cholera epidemic in 
Sacramento and elsewhere. 

185 1- 1 85 2. John McDougall, gov- 
ernor. 

185 1. Santa Clara college opened 
(Roman Catholic). 

185 1. June 9. First vigilance com- 
mittee organized. 

185 2-1856. John Bigler, governor. 

1852. Mare island purchased for a 
navy yard for $50,000. 

July 3. A United States mint estab- 
lished in San Francisco by act of con- 
gress. 

1853. March 3. Public lands ad- 
mitted to settlement under United States 
law, a commission having adjudicated 
Spanish grants in a generally satisfactory 
manner. 

California Academy of Sciences 
founded by James Lick. 

Gold product for the year, $65,000,000 
(the greatest yield for any single year). 

1854. University of the Pacific (Meth- 
odist Episcopal) opened at College park. 

1855. College of St. Ignatius (Roman 
Catholic) opened at San Francisco. 

1856-1858. J. Neely Johnson, gov- 
ernor. 

1856. Beginning of the Sacramento 
valley railroad. 

May 19. Execution of Casey and 
Cora, two desperadoes, in San Francisco, 
by the vigilance committee. 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



August 21. Vigilance committee dis- 
bands after having executed four notori- 
ous criminals, and banished some eight 
hundred malefactors. 

i S5S-1 860. John B. Weller, governor. 

1858. The overland mail begins its 
trips across the continent. 

1 S5 8-1 862. Beginning of the wine- 
growing industry. 

1S60-1862. John G. Downey, gov- 
ernor. 

1S60. Population by United States 
census, 379,994- 

Milton S. Latham, governor. 

The " pony express " begins its trips. 

Southern sympathizers, led by Senator 
Gwin, endeavor, without much success, 
to create a disunion sentiment. 

Hesperian college opened at Woodland. 

1 86 1. California declares in favor of 
the Union in spite of well-laid plans to 
enlist her on the southern side. 

Pacific Methodist college opened at 
Santa Rosa. 

February 22. Great Union meeting 
in San Francisco. 

May 17. The legislature formally 
pledges the support of the state to the 
national government. 

June 28. Central Pacific Railroad 
Company organized ; Leland Stanford, 
president. 

October. Completion of the trans- 
continental telegraph line, and discon- 
tinuance of the pony express. 

1 862-1863. Leland Stanford, gov- 
ernor. Arrest and imprisonment of Sen- 
ator Gwin for disloyalty. 

1 863-1 867. Frederick F. Low, gov- 
ernor. 

1864, February. Northern California 
railway opened. 



April 15. News received of Lin- 
coln's assassination. Several secession 
newspaper offices sacked in San Fran- 
cisco. 

1861-1865. Men furnished for mili- 
tary service of the United States in the 
civil war, 15,725. They were mainly 
employed as home guards to repress In- 
dian outbreaks. 

1867-187 1. Henry H. Haight, gov- 
ernor. 

1867. St. Vincent's college (Roman 
Catholic) founded at Los Angeles, and 
the college of St. Augustine (Protestant 
Episcopal) at Benicia. 

1868. Foundation of the University 
of California, endowment $7,000,000. 

1869. April 28. Completion of the 
first transcontinental railway — the Cen- 
tral Pacific. 

1870. Population by United States, 
census, 560,247. 

Napa college founded at Napa City. 

January 1. San Francisco and North 
Pacific railroad opened. 

October 12. Southern Pacific Rail- 
road Company formed by consolidation 
of existing lines, aggregating in 1892 
nearly five thousand miles. 

1871-1875. Newton Booth, gov- 
ernor. 

1874. California college (Baptist) 
opened at Oakland. 

1 875-1 880. William Irwin, governor. 

1875. Romnaldo Pacheco, governor. 
Mongolians excluded from naturaliza- 
tion rights. 

1876. Pacific Coast railway opened. 
September 21. First "sand lot" 

meeting, organized by Dennis Kearney, 
of a communistic labor party ; threaten- 
ing labor agitations followed. 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



63 



October 1. Death of James Lick, 
millionaire, leaving large bequests for 
public works, including the astronomical 
observatory at Mt. Hamilton. 

1877, May 15. Northern Pacific 
Coast railway opened. 

1878, September 28. State constitu- 
tional convention meets (session lasted 
one hundred and fifty-six working days). 

1879, San Joaquin valley college 
opened at Woodbridge. 

1 880-1 883. George C. Perkins gov- 
ernor. 

1880, Population by United States 
census, 864,694. 

Foundation of the University of 
Southern California (Methodist Epis- 
copal) at San Fernandino. 

May 30. First observation of Memo- 
rial day. 

August 23. Sonoma valley railway 
opened. 

Opening of the Hotel del Monte at 
Monterey. 

1 88 1, April 18. Carson and Colorado 
railroad opened. 

November 15. Bodie and Benton 
railway opened. 



1882, January 2. California southern 
railway opened (finished 1885). 

1883-1887. George Stoneman, gov- 
ernor. 

1885. Belmont school founded. 

1 887-1 891. R. W. Waterman, gov- 
ernor. 

1887. Washington Bartlett, governor. 
San Pedro, Los Angeles and Utah rail- 
way begun. 

1888. Cogswell Polytechnic college 
opens at San Francisco. 

1890. Population by United States 
census, 1,208,130. 

1891-1895. H.H.Markham, governor. 

1 89 1. Gold product for the year, 

te,^, 000 J siiver > $75>4i 6 ,5 6 5- 

" Leland Stanford, Junior," university 
founded at Palo Alto, by Leland Stan- 
ford, as a memorial to his son ; endow- 
ment of several million dollars. 

Passage of a secret ballot law by the 
legislature, also an act to prohibit Chi- 
nese immigration. 

1892. Restoration of " Sutter's Fort " 
at Sacramento, under the " Native Sons " 
Societies, almost exactly as it was in 
1848. 



( To be continued) 




MINOR TOPICS 

THE OLDEST BELL IN CANADA 

The Montreal Herald records an interesting antiquarian find on the part of Mr. 
Henry J. Morgan of this city, in the shape of an old church bell belonging to the 
Anglican congregation at St. Andrews in the Ottawa valley. The bell in question, 
as the figures on its face denote, was cast in the year 1759, which was also, as may 
be remembered, the year of the conquest of Canada. It was brought to this coun- 
try by Sir John Johnson, who formerly owned the seigniory of Argenteuil and 
resided, during a portion of each year, at the old manor house at St. Andrews, the 
ruins of which may still be seen near the confluence of the Ottawa and North 
rivers. Sir John, like his distinguished father, General Sir William Johnson, who 
gained the battle of Crown Point and Niagara, for which services he was created a 
baronet and received a grant of money, held the office of superintendent-general 
of Indian affairs for North America. He died in 1830. His eldest son, a colonel 
in the army and an "Ottawa boy " by birth, married a sister of Sir William de 
Lancey, Wellington's favorite general, who fell at Waterloo. Upon his death the 
widow married Sir Hudson Lowe, who held Napoleon in captivity at St. Helena. 
The old bell found by Mr. Morgan turns out to be the oldest Protestant church bell 
in existence within the Dominion, the next oldest being the one formerly belonging 
to the private chapel of another old seignior, Hon. James Cuthbert, at Berthier, 
which was cast in 1774. The congregation of Christ church, St. Andrews, whom 
the old bell with all its historical associations clinging to it summons regularly to 
their religious duties every Sabbath, may well be proud of so interesting a relic. — 
Ottawa Evening Journal. 



GENERAL SUMTER OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Thomas Sumter was born in Virginia in 1734, but he removed early to South 
Carolina, and lived there until his death in 1832, when he was ninety-eight years of 
age, and the last surviving general of the Revolution. A volunteer soldier in the 
French and Indian war, he was present at the memorable defeat of Braddock. In 
March, 1776, we find him lieutenant-colonel of the second regiment of South Caro- 
lina riflemen. After the capture of Charleston by the British, in 1780, he takes 
refuge in the swamps of the Santee. Rising to the rank of brigadier-general, he 
becomes foremost among the active and influential leaders of the South. Follow 
him in his gallant career. This same year he defeats a British detachment on the 



MINOR TOPICS 65 

Catawba; and although surprised and routed at Fishing creek, August 18, he 
collects another corps, and November 12 defeats the bold Colonel Wemyss, who 
had attacked his camp near Broad river. After a few days General Tarleton, a 
British officer, attempts to surprise him while encamped on the Tiger river, but is 
driven back with a severe loss of men. We find Sumter, though wounded in the 
attack, soon again in the field. In March of the next year, 1781, he raises three 
new regiments, and, cooperating with the brave Marion, Pickens, and others, he 
harasses the enemy along their posts scattered amid valleys and swamps. Foi his 
heroic services congress, in January, 1781, passed a vote of thanks to him and his 
men. When the American government was established, General Sumter, from 
1789 to 1793, was a representative in congress ; from 1801 to 1809 a United States 
senator ; and in 1809 he was appointed minister to Brazil, where he continued for 
two years. In 181 1, at the advanced age of seventy-seven years, he closed his 
long term of honorable and eventful services. — Dr. Muzzey's Prime Movers of the 
Revolution. 



INDIAN MEDALS 



Many years ago a silver medal was found in the town of Manlius, New York, 
of which a slightly incorrect account will be found in the second volume of Clark's 
Onondaga. It is about the size of a dollar, and has a loop at the top for suspen- 
sion. The name of Montreal, in capitals, appears above the representation of a 
fortified town, over which flies the British flag, and the initials " D. C. F." are in a 
cartouche at the bottom. The other side was made plain, but Clark said that on 
it " are engraved the words canecya, Onondagoes." His error is in this. The 
word Caneiya appears in script, and the word Onondagos is in capitals below this. 
The medal now belongs to L. W. Ledyard, of Cazenovia, New York, who kindly 
allowed me to draw it. 

In the Medaillier du Canada, published in Montreal in 1888, is a figure and 
description of another of these medals. In the description it reads, " Rev.: Plain, 
in order to write the name of the Indian chief to whom the medal was awarded." 
Mr. McLachlan, of Montreal, has described several of these. One belonging to 
him has the word Onondagos across the centre, with the word Tekahonwaghse, in 
script, at the top. The nearest approach to this name which I find among the 
Onondagas is Takanaghkwaghsen, one of the signers of the treaty of 1788, and he 
may have been Tagonaghquaghse, appointed chief warrior in 1770. This would 
make it a medal of the Revolution, but Mr. McLachlan thinks it commemorated 
the taking of Montreal by the English. I prefer the later date ; and, in doing so, 
would identify Caneiya with Kaneyaagh, another prominent Onondaga of 1788. 

Of another medal of the same design, Mr. McLachlan says : " The inscription 
on the reverse is ■ Mohicrans ' in the field, and ' Tankalker ' at the top ; metal, 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 1.-5 



66 MINOR TOPICS 

pewter." He sent me accounts of some others. One had Mohawks in the field, 
surmounted by Aruntes, in script. He knew of another in New York, and thought 
it was of silver, bearing the name of Onondagos. 

The Albany Argus, September 27, 1875, described another of these silver 
medals, found at Ballston. It had the same design on the obverse, with Mohicans, 
in capitals, on the reverse, and " Son Gose," in script. 

I have seen one larger silver medal of the reign of George II., but without 
inscription. The style is bold, and it has on one side the British coat of arms ; on 
the other, the king's head. This seems the one of 1753. 

The smaller bronze medals of the first two Georges are of less interest, from 
having no personal character. The king's head is on one side, and an Indian 
aiming at a deer on the other. 

Mr. McLachlan's idea is that these medals were issued at the taking of Mon- 
treal in 1759, or rather in commemoration of it. I need not go over his argument, 
though not convinced by it. His own medal has, scratched across the lower part, 
these three lines : " Taken from an Indian | chief in the American | war, 1761." 
There was no American war in that year, and I feel sure that the date should be 
1 781, which includes the period of the Revolutionary, then known as the American 
War. The fact that two of these medals bear the names of two prominent Onon- 
dagas of that time strengthens this belief, originally founded on the fact that Colonel 
Daniel Claus was then Indian agent at Montreal. W. M. Beauchamp 



THE FIRST IRON INDUSTRY IN AMERICA 

The city of Lynn has recently been the recipient of a specimen of the first cast- 
ing made in America, in 1642, an iron kettle of good form and weight, of the type 
used in colonial days. Mr. C. J. H. Woodbury, of Lynn, who secured the relic so 
closely associated with the early history of the town, gave in his presentation 
address an interesting account of the development of iron smelting in this country. 
Mr. John E. Hudson, a descendant of the original owner of the pioneer iron works 
at Lynn, where the kettle was made, formally presented it to the mayor of that city, 
who accepted it in a very graceful and appropriate speech. The addresses have 
been printed in a little monograph, which is well worth permanent preservation. 



WASHINGTON'S DESCRIPTION OF HIS OWN PERSON AND HEIGHT 

IN 1763, WHEN THIRTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE 

Editor Magazine of American History : 

I met with the enclosed article while traveling last summer, credited to the 
Washington Post. It will interest all your readers. 

" The gentleman who brought forward the following communication had not 
only the original letter in his possession, but was also the owner of the ' measure/ 



MINOR TOPICS 67 

composed of stiff paper carefully sewed together and with the marks written upon 
it in the general's handwriting. It was sent to the tailor through Washington's 
agents, presumably ' Cary & Co., merchants.' It is noticeable for the same ex- 
actitude and precision as the more important matters which the general had con- 
nection with, and gives the absolute condition of his physique in that year. 

' Virginia, 26th April, 1763. — Mr. Lawrence : Be pleased to send me a genteele 
sute of cloaths, made of superfine broad cloth, handsomely chosen ; — I should 
have enclosed you my measure, but, in a general way, they are so badly taken here, 
that I am convinced it would be of little service ; I would have you, therefore, take 
measure of a gentleman who wears well-made cloaths of the following size, to wit : 
Six feet high and proportionably made ; if anything, rather slender than thick for 
a person of that heighth, with pretty long arms and thighs. You will take care to 
make the breeches longer than those you sent me last, and I would have you keep 
the measure of the cloaths you now make by you, and if any alteration is required 
in my next, it shall be pointed out. Mr. Cary will pay your bill. I am, sir, ^our 
very obedient humble servant. George Washington. 

Note — For your further government and knowledge of my size, I have sent 
the inclosed, and you must observe, yt from ye coat end to No. 1, and No. 3, is ye 
size over ye breast and hips, No. 2 over ye belly and No. 4 round ye arm, and from 
ye breeches : To No. a is for waistband ; b, thick of the thigh ; c, upper button- 
hole ; d, kneeband ; e, for length of breeches. 

Therefore, if you take measure of a person about 6 feet high of this bigness, I 
think you can't go amiss ; you must take notice that the inclosed is the exact size, 
without allowing for seams, etc. , George Washington. 

To Mr. Chas. Lawrence, London.' 

As Washington was thirty-one in 1763, his height, as he states it — viz., six feet 
— is apparently at variance with the popular belief that he was six feet two inches, 
but it may be that some peculiarity, either of his length of limb or of his body, 
caused him to tell his tailor to measure a gentleman of only six feet, assured that 
by some slight difference on his part from other men, he may have exactly the cor- 
rected difference. He was so correct in all his directions that this seems the only 
elucidation of the discrepancy." 

This shows conclusively by Washington's own testimony that he was only six 
feet high, not six feet two inches, as the historians would have us believe. The 
editorial comment in the last clause of the article is a good illustration of how an 
editor, or writer, will try to make facts bend to theory or prejudice, when they dis- 
prove the view he entertains. The idea that a sensible man like Washington would 
deliberately order from his tailor a suit of clothes two inches shorter than his own 
height is too ridiculous to believe. 

The original of this letter should be framed and presented to the ladies of the 
Mount Vernon Association for preservation in Washington's own house. 

December 14, 1892 WESTCHESTER 



68 



NOTES 



NOTES 



New year's pay in the mohawk 
vali ey — In the Starin Genealogy^ just 

issued. Mr. VV. L. Stone says "the 
Dutch of :he Mohawk Valley were dis- 
tinguished for their good nature, love 
of home, and cordial hospitality. Fast 
young men, late hours, and fashionable 
dissipation were, in the olden time, un- 
known. There was, nevertheless, plenty 
of opportunity for healthful recreation. 
Holidays were abundant, each family 
having some of its own, such as birth- 
days, christenings, and marriage anniver- 
saries. New Year's day was devoted to 
the universal interchange of visits. Ev- 
ery door in the Mohawk Valley was 
thrown wide open, and a warm welcome 
extended to the stranger as well as the 
friend. It was considered a breach of 
established etiquette to omit any ac- 
quaintance in these annual calls, by 
which old friendships were renewed, 
family differences settled, and broken 
or neglected intimacies restored. This 
is one of the excellent customs of ' ye 
olden tyme ' that has its origin, like 
many others, traced exclusively to the 
earliest Holland settlers of New York." 



King hendrick — If I rightly re- 
member, in speaking of the name of 
Hendrick, the Mohawk chief, some time 
since, I did not mention the condolence 
of '' Tiyanoga, alias Hendrick," and 
others who fell at the battle of Lake 
George, the condolence being held Feb- 
ruary i8. 1756. Each one was replaced 
by a French prisoner. 

W. M. Beauchamp. 



Broadway in 1892 — Broadway, for 
so great a thoroughfare, gets its people to 
bed at night at a very proper season. It 
allows them a scant hour in which to eat 
their late suppers after the theatre, and 
then it grows rapidly and decorously 
quiet. The night watchmen turn out 
the lights in the big shops, and leave 
only as many burning as will serve to 
show the cases covered with linen, and 
the safe, defiantly conspicuous, in the 
rear ; the cars begin to jog along more 
easily and at less frequent intervals ; 
prowling night-hawks take the place of 
the smarter hansoms of the day, and the 
street-cleaners make drowsy attacks on 
the dirt and mud. There are no all- 
night restaurants to disturb the unbroken 
row of business fronts, and the footsteps 
of the patrolman, and the rattle of the 
locks as he tries the outer fastenings of 
the shops, echo sharply, and the voices 
of belated citizens bidding each other 
good-night as they separate at the street 
corners, have a strangely loud and hol- 
low sound. By midnight the street is as 
quiet and desolate-looking as a summer 
resort in mid-winter, when the hotel and 
cottage windows are barred up, and the 
band-stand is covered an inch deep with 
snow. It is almost as deserted as Broad- 
way is on any Sunday morning, when 
the boys who sell the morning papers 
are, apparently, the only New Yorkers 
awake. — Richard Harding Davis in Great 
Streets of the World. 



Memorial to mrs. harrison — The 
American Monthly for November con- 
tains an interesting memorial of Mrs. 



QUERIES — REPLIES 



69 



Harrison, the first president of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. 
It announces the names of the national 
committee, who are to collect a fund for 
a portrait of Mrs. Harrison, to be hung 
in the White House. Otherwise the 
November might be called a " Dolly 



Madison number." There are several 
papers relating to her and the destruc- 
tion of the public buildings in Washing- 
ton in 181 2, and two original engravings 
of Mrs. Madison. The first passage at 
arms in the Revolution, and other his- 
torical matters, receive attention. 



QUERIES 



Tom thumb and haydon — Will some 
reader of the Magazine of American 
History please explain to a dweller in 
the far west how Tom Thumb killed 
Haydon, the historical painter ? 

Abner Linwood. 

Wabuska, Nevada. 



DlD WASHINGTON AND FRANKLIN 

smoke ? — Editor of Magazine : Can 



you or some of your readers inform me 
what were the views and practice of 
Washington and Franklin in regard to 
the smoking habit ? I cannot find any- 
thing on the subject in any of the stand- 
ard biographies, and I have a particular 
interest in being informed on that point. 

Hiram M. Chittenden. 
St. Paul, Minnesota. 



REPLIES 



The curtain is the picture [xxviii. 
394] — Editor Magazine of American 
History : The expression " The curtain 
is the picture," about which " Teacher " 
queries in the current number, doubt- 
less refers to the alleged contest in skill 
between two celebrated Greek painters 
in the fifth century before Christ, thus 
described in Lempriere's dictionary : 
" When they had produced their re- 
spective pieces, the birds came to pick 
with the greatest avidity the grapes 
which Zeuxis had painted. Immedi- 
ately Parrhasius exhibited his piece, and 
Zeuxis said : ' Remove your curtain, that 
we may see the painting.' The curtain 
was the painting, and Zeuxis acknowl- 
edged himself conquered, by exclaiming, 



' Zeuxis has deceived the birds ; but 
Parrhasius has deceived Zeuxis him- 
self ! ' " 

William Gilbert Davies. 

New York City. 



Bishop William R. Whittingham 
[xxviii. 473] — Let your English corre- 
spondent, E. P. C, of Liverpool, ad- 
dress Miss M. H. Whittingham, No. 
1 108 Madison avenue, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. Miss Whittingham is the librarian 
of the valuable Maryland Episcopal Li- 
brary, which her father, the dear bishop, 
left to the Diocese of Maryland. 

Edmund M. Barton. 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 



70 



REPLIES 



The mound builders of ohio 
[xviii. 394, 473]— ln the November 
issue oi your magazine Mr. Amasa Oak- 
lev asks for some definite information 
from some antiquarian concerning the 
people who built the mounds of Ohio. 
While I am not an " antiquarian," and 
onlv claim to be interested in the study 
of the history and traditions of our 
American Indians, still I may be able 
to give Mr. Oakley the present judg- 
ment of leading students of ethnology. 
Mound building has been carried on 
by different tribes within the historic 
period, and the opinion is gaining ground 
with the best authorities of the day, that 
all the mounds in the United States 
were the work of tribes known to us, 
or their ancestors. 

The Cherokees claim that the Grave 
Creek mounds of Ohio were built by 
their ancestors during their occupancy 
of that region. How long that may 
have been is not known, but, evidently, 
they had enjoyed peaceful possession of 
the country for a long period before the 
advent of the Lenni Lenape (Dela- 
wares). Mr. Hale thinks that the con- 
test for the possession of that region 
between the Lenape and the Tsalake 
(Cherokees) must have lasted for a hun- 
dred years before the Cherokees were 
driven southward, which event he places 
in the ninth century. Professor Cyrus 
Thomas, judging from traditions and 
other data, places it in the eleventh or 
twelfth century. The evidence of the 
mounds and their contents would indi- 
cate that they were erected at different 
periods and by different people. 

Mr. Walter K. Moorehead in his in- 
teresting account of his survey of Fort 



Ancient, judging from the " Wigwam 
circles," and identity of pottery found 
in that locality with the pottery of the 
Mandans, together with their tradition 
of having at a remote period occupied 
the Ohio valley, suggests the possibility 
that the Mandans were the builders of 
that great fortification. While Professor 
Putnam of Peabody Institute in his care- 
ful study of the Great Serpent mound 
of Adams county finds evidence that it 
was a religious structure, and believes 
that the region has been occupied by 
various types of men from the glacial 
period down, he offers no opinion as to 
who or what particular tribe built the 
mound. As the plumed and crested 
rattlesnake entered largely into the 
mythology of nearly all the North 
American tribes, the serpent form can 
hardly be a reason for ascribing it to 
any special tribe. 

In the skulls found in the mounds of 
the lower Mississippi valley are many 
resemblances to the Mexican, and it is 
claimed that there can be no doubt of 
the unity of the truncated pyramid of 
the same locality, with the Mexican teo- 
calli. Professor Jones thinks the Natch- 
ez were the connecting link with the 
Nahuas. The late Mr. L. H. Morgan 
stated that the balance of evidence was 
in favor of a common origin of the dif- 
ferent tribes of North America, which 
would account for similarity of ideas in 
many respects. I know of no evidence 
that would warrant the theory advanced 
by C. H. Gardiner in the December 
issue, that the Aztecs were the builders 
of the Ohio mounds. Mr. Holmes of 
the bureau of ethnography classifies the 
pottery of the mounds into three great 



REPLIES 



71 



groups : the Upper, Middle, and Lower 
Mississippi. The pottery of the Upper 
Mississippi region belongs to a distinct 
family, and evidently the tribes who 
manufactured it have at different times 
occupied Manitoba, Iowa, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. 
This ware is closely allied to that of the 
eastern and New England states. Mr. 
L. H. Morgan was of the opinion that 
the Mound-builders lived in communal 
houses, in some cases built upon mounds 
enclosing a court for games and other 
purposes, and that in most respects their 
life was very similar to that of the 
Indian tribes whom the white people 
first met here. The opinion of to-day 
among the leading ethnologists, is that 
they were in no way superior in art or 
modes of life to the historic tribes. 

It is to be hoped that the efficient 
and able director of the bureau of 
ethnography, Major Powell, will with his 
capable staff of assistants prosecute their 
studies of the aborigines of America, and 
that they may find other clues which, in 
their skilled hands, will lead to a more 
thorough and accurate knowledge of 
these ancient people. 

Harriet Philltps Eaton 
Jersey City, New Jersey. 



The mound-builders [xxviii. 394, 
473] — Numerous articles have been pub- 
lished in this magazine from time to 
time on The Mound-builder j-, which will be 
of special interest to students and writers 
on the subject. Dr. Cyrus Thomas con- 
tributed an article of eleven pages to the 
May number, 1884, entitled The Chero- 
kees probably Mound-builders. He also 



described Houses of the Mound-builders 
in the preceding February number. 
General Thurston discussed The Mound- 
builders in Tennessee in the May num- 
ber, 1888, and Dr. Thomas responded 
in July, 1888, under the title of, The 
Mound-builders were Indians, in which 
he brought many interesting facts to bear 
upon the mounds in Ohio. Still another 
valuable article from the same pen on 
the same theme, under the title of In- 
dian Tribes in Prehistoric Times, ap- 
peared in the September number, 1888. 
We might point to many more learned 
treatises on the subject in this magazine, 
if space permitted. But if the student 
will run his eye over the index to each 
volume, he will find material worthy of 
his attention concerning the Mound- 
builders. 

Editor 



Error corrected [xxviii. 389] — Un- 
der the California seal, second line, " di- 
mensions, 770 miles northeast and south- 
west," should read northwest and south- 
east. 

C. H. R. 

Tarrytown, New York. 



Error corrected [xxviii. 87] — In 
speaking of one of the ladies of the rev- 
olutionary tea party, in Edenton, North 
Carolina, as Mrs. Mary Hoskins, the 
author should have said Mrs. Winifred 
Hoskins. The lady was the wife of 
Richard Hoskins, and was my great- 
grandmother. My grandmother was only 
seven years old at that time. 

W. M. E. Bond 

Edenton, North Carolina. 



SOCIETIES 

SOCIETIES 



New YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY — The 
stated meeting for December was held 
on the evening of the 6th instant, the 
Hon. John A. King presiding. The 
final paper of the Columbus series was 
read by Mr. Eugene Lawrence ; his sub- 
ject was " Columbus in Poetry." It was 
an exceptionally interesting study in a 
field hitherto unexplored in connection 
with the Columbian celebration, and a 
large and cultured audience listened 
with close attention to the orator in his 
admirable presentation of his theme. 



The historical society of trinity 

COLLEGE, NORTH CAROLINA, has had 

three regular meetings during the present 
term. The meeting for October was a 
Columbus symposium. Dr. Stephen B. 
Weeks read a paper on " Columbus and 
the spirit of his age " ; Prof. J. L. Arm- 
strong read selections from Sidney 
Lanier's " Psalm to the West "; Mr. J. A. 
Baldwin presented a paper on the 
" Naming of America," and Mr. J. F. 
Shinn one on " The Fortunes and Fate 
of Columbus." 

At the December meeting Mr. Shinn 
read an interesting paper on the u First 
discovery of gold in North Carolina in 
1799." Dr. Weeks called attention to, 
and asked subscriptions for, the new 
confederate monument which is now to 
be erected in Raleigh to the memory of 
the North Carolina soldiers in the con- 
federate army. He also made some 
remarks on the extent and character of 
the work of the confederate press, for 
a history of which he is collecting 
materials. 



Virginia historical society — A 
meeting of the executive committee of 
this society was held November 1, at 
the Westmoreland club-house, Rich- 
mond, President William Wirt Henry in 
the chair. Gifts of a large number of 
books, manuscripts, etc., were reported. 
The following may be specially men- 
tioned : A large mass of papers, bills, 
and documents relating to the Carter 
family of Virginia, covering the period 
from 1700 to 1800, of the highest 
interest in the information they afford 
of life in Virginia ; a most valuable 
bequest from the late Cassius F. Lee 
of Alexandria, Virginia, consisting of 
books relating to the history of Virginia, 
the family Bible of Richard Henry Lee, 
letter books of William Lee and of 
Arthur Lee, many papers of the Ludwell 
and Lee families, and highly interesting 
autograph letters of the distinguished 
brothers, Richard Henry, Francis Light- 
foot, William and Arthur Lee. 

Mr. Levin Joynes, Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, was elected a regular member of 
the society. 

Messrs. Tyler and Brock were ap- 
pointed a committee to make arrange- 
ments for an annual meeting, and to 
secure historical papers to be read be- 
fore the society. 

The Rochester (new york) histor- 
ical society held its December meeting 
in the chamber of commerce, and was 
largely attended. 

Mrs. J. M. Parker read an interesting 
and carefully prepared paper on " The 
Jesuit Relations ; " and Mrs. Theodore 



SOCIETIES 



73 



E. Hopkins read some " Reminiscences 
of the Rochester Female Seminary." 



THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

held a meeting on November 14. Val- 
uable gifts.were reported. The commit- 
tee on Columbian celebration reported 
that the same had taken place, and was 
highly successful and gratifying. Mr. 
Upham, from the committee to obtain 
the papers of the late General Sibley, 
reported that his heirs promised them to 
the society, and that they stated " that 
there were seven barrels" of them. Mr. 
Wm. H. Grant addressed the society with 
much earnestness, declaring that the so- 
ciety must begin steps to secure a fire- 
proof building for its use. Other mem- 
bers seconded the proposition, and it was 
voted that the president appoint a com- 
mittee to report a plan whereby such a 
building could be secured. 



Rhode island historical society — 
At the meeting of this society on the 
evening of November 29, at the cabinet, 
in Providence, the Rev. William C. 
Langdon, D.D., lectured on the " Old 
Catholics of the Italian Revolution." 
He said, before directly treating of the 
" Old Catholics " : "I wish to make 
clear the exact position which the Church 
held to the Italian government. The 
papacy was the complex of four factors 
— the bishopric of Rome, the temporal 
power of the pope, the spiritual suprem- 
acy, and fourthly, the Curia Romana, 
the complex machinery by which the 
papacy carried on its administration. 
We who are outside of Italy think more 
of the third of these factors, the spiritual 
supremacy, and starting our thinking 



here, we are apt to think of Rome a^ t he- 
location where that power is exercised. 
Yet we speak of moving the papacy ; 
an error, for the papacy, strictly speak- 
ing, cannot be moved. The primary 
thing is the bishopric of Rome. There 
is attributed to it a feeling of primacy 
over the nation in which the bishopric 
is located. We are next led to the step 
that when the Roman empire was broken 
up the bishopric of Rome should not 
become so attached to one of the frag- 
ments as to lose authority in the other 
parts. The Italians, as a rule, were not 
alienated from the bishopric of Rome. 
They were indifferent to the claim of 
spiritual supremacy outside of Italy, ex- 
cept as it was to them a matter of pride 
and national sentiment. While the Ital- 
ians adhere to the bishopric of Rome, 
they are hostile to the temporal power. 
Italy cannot be a nation while the tem- 
poral powder remains. All attempts to 
unify Italy came through aiming blows 
at the temporal power of the Church. 
The average Italian patriot is deter- 
mined to blot out forever the temporal 
power, but is practically indifferent to 
the spiritual supremacy. The patriot 
party, including almost the entire mass 
of the people, take this position of loy- 
alty to the bishopric, but are hostile to 
the temporal power. Practically the 
papacy is arrayed against the' national 
movement. The patriot class is three- 
fold. One class rejects the Church 
bodily; another element, who do not 
give up their .religion, are evolving a 
philosophical basis for religion outside of 
the Church. There is a third element, 
who adhere strictly to the Church but 
who are at the same time Nationalists." 



74 



SOCIETIES 



The huguenot society of America 
held its first regular meeting of the win- 
ter season on the evening of December 
15, at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. 
James M. Lawton, 37 Fifth avenue. 
This meeting was to have taken the 
form of a reception to the president of 
the society, Hon. John Jay, but, owing 
to a severe illness, he was unable to be 
present. He sent a very interesting 
letter, however, which was read by the 
secretary, Mr. William Bayard Black- 
well, to the assembled guests. The 
reception was from eight until nine 
o'clock, in the handsome drawing-rooms 
of Mrs. Lawton, when the party, num- 
bering some seventy-five, adjourned to 
a spacious hall, where seats were pro- 
vided for all, and the meeting was called 
to order by Vice-President Edward F. 
DeLancey, who introduced the speaker 
of the evening, Professor J. K. Rees, 
the celebrated astronomer, who is of 
Huguenot descent and a member of the 
society. His subject was " The Moon 
and Planets," illustrated with stereopti- 
con views embracing the latest observa- 
tions, and the appreciative audience 
applauded with genuine enthusiasm. 

A pleasant feature of the reception 
was the exhibition by Mrs. Lawton of 
the portrait of her father, General Rob- 
ert H. Anderson, of Fort vSumter fame, 
which she has presented to the alumni 
that General Anderson founded at West 
Point academy. Mrs. Anderson, who 
was unable to be present at the meeting 
of the society, of which she is a member, 
presented a dainty little badge, consist- 
ing of a marigold with the Huguenot 
knot, to every lady and gentleman who 



graced the occasion. The membership 
of the Huguenot society represents the 
intellect as well as the best families of 
the metropolis and of the land, and its 
chief object at present is to collect data 
for an extensive biographical volume, 
that will show how largely the Huguenot 
element has contributed to the progress 
of this country in every line that is up- 
lifting, good, and noble. The society 
has twelve vice-presidents, among whom 
are Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop, Hon. Thomas F. 
Bayard, and Richard L. Maury of Vir- 
ginia ; and the executive committee for 
1892 includes R. Fulton Cutting, Fred- 
eric J. DePeyster, Rev. W. W. Atterbury, 
D.D., and William Cary Sanger. The 
meetings are held on the third Thurs- 
day of every month during the winter 
season. 



The historical society of south- 
ern California (Los Angeles) held its 
annual meeting for the election of offi- 
cers on the first Monday of December. 
The following-named members were 
elected a board of directors for the en- 
suing year: E. W. Jones, Rt. Rev. Jose 
Adam, J. M. Guinn, C. P. Dorland, 
Edwin Baxter, Miss Tessa L, Kelso, H. 
D. Barrows. At a meeting of the board 
of directors, held after the adjournment 
of the society, the following were elected 
officers of the society : Major E. W. 
Jones, president ; Edwin Baxter, first 
vice-president ; H. D. Barrows, second 
vice-president ; J. M. Guinn, secretary 
and curator ; C. P. Dorland, treasurer. 
The society holds regular meetings the 
first Monday evening of each month. 



BOOK NOTICES 



75 



BOOK NOTICES 



THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER 
UPON HISTORY. 1660-1783. By Cap- 
tain A. T. Mahan, U.S.N. Second edition. 
8vo, pp. 557. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 
1S92. 

The purpose of this well- written work is made 
very clear to the reader. It illustrates the effect 
of sea power upon the general history of Europe 
and America during a period of great import- 
ance. The determining influence of maritime 
strength upon great issues has apparently been 
overlooked heretofore, historical writers not 
generally being familiar with the sea, and pos- 
sessing as little special interest as knowledge ; 
while naval historians have confined them- 
selves to their own field, as simple chroniclers, 
without investigating the mutual relation of 
events. Captain Mahan has therefore covered 
unoccupied ground in giving us a unique and 
informing volume ; and writing as a naval officer 
in full sympathy with his profession, he has dis- 
cussed questions of naval policy, strategy, and 
tactics, with great force. He has wisely avoided 
technical language as far as possible, thus un- 
professional readers cannot fail to be intei'ested. 
The work opens with a chapter on the elements 
of sea power, in which the development of col- 
onies and colonial posts, the influence of colonies 
on sea power, the character and polity of the 
governments of England, France, and Holland, 
the weakness of the United States in sea power, 
and the dependence of commerce upon secure 
seaports, are among the themes most graphic- 
ally discussed. The second chapter is chiefly 
historical, showing the state of Europe in 1660, 
describing the second Anglo-Dutch war, 1665- 
1667, and the sea-baltles of Lowestoft and of 
the Four Days. This war was wholly maritime, 
and had the general characteristic of all such 
wars. The description of the justly celebrated 
Four Days' battle, in June, 1666, is one of the 
best we have ever seen. Accompanying maps 
add greatly to a proper understanding of the 
conflict. 

The wai-s between 1 672 and 1678 are also 
treated with discriminating fulness. The Eng- 
lish Revolution and the war of the League of 
Augsburg form the fourth chapter, and the fifth 
is devoted to the war of the Spanish succession, 
1702-1713. The author says in this connection, 
" Great as were the effects of the maritime su- 
premacy of the two sea powers upon the general 
result of the war, and especially upon that undis- 
puted empire of the seas which England held 
for a century after, the contest is marked by no 
one naval action of military interest. Once only 
did the great fleets meet, and then with results 
that were undecisive ; after which the French 



gave up the struggle at sea, confining themselves 
wholly to a commerce-destroying warfare. This 
feature of the war of the Spanish succession 
characterized nearly the whole of the eighteenth 
century, with the exception of the American 
revolutionary struggle. The overwhelming sea 
power of England was the determining factor in 
European history during the period mentioned, 
maintaining war abroad while keeping its own 
people in prosperity at home, and building up 
the great empire which is now seen ; but from 
its very greatness its action, by escaping opposi- 
tion, escapes attention." We turn with interest 
to the agitation in North America at the time of 
the French war, 1 756-1 763, when Dr. Franklin 
wrote : " There is no repose for our thirteen 
colonies so long as the French are masters of 
Canada." The long reach of England's sea 
power was also felt in the West Indies, in Por- 
tugal, and in the far east. Then came the Ameri- 
can Revolution and the maritime wars conse- 
quent upon it, this volume closing with the 
signing of the definitive treaties of peace at 
Versailles, September 3, 1783. It is an instruc- 
tive work of the highest value and interest to 
students and to the reading public, and should 
find its way into all the libraries and homes of 
the land. 



ADMIRAL FARRAGUT. By Captain A. 

T. Mahan, U.S.N. i2mo, pp. 435. New 

York : D. Appleton & Co. 1892. 

No better name could have been selected to 
head the list of great commanders than that of 
David Glasgow Farragut, and probably no one 
could have been found better qualified to write 
his life than the accomplished naval officer now 
president of the United States Naval War col- 
lege, already known to letters through the pub- 
lication of several valuable works, which have 
secured him a permanent place among the 
authors of our time, notably " The Influence of 
Sea Power upon History," which it has been 
our pleasure to commend with enthusiasm in the 
preceding notice. 

Farragut must ever occupy a unique position 
among great naval commanders. His sea ser- 
vice began early in the century, when babies 
were sent to sea as midshipmen. (What a pity it 
is, by the way, that some uneasy innovator has 
managed to have the historic grade of ' ' middy " 
stricken from the rolls!) He learned his knots 
and splices behind the guns of the old sailing frig- 
ates, and before the end of his active life had 
commanded and encountered iron-clads in ac- 
tion. His professional career, therefore, bridged 
over the transition period from canvas to steam. 
And it is not easy to conceive how equally 



BOOK NOTICES 



romantic conditions can ever arise in the naval 
history oi the future. That he was a military gen- 
ius was abundantly proven by the readiness with 
which he met and solved the problems that were 
presented during the adventurous years of the 
civil war. How he successfully fought river and 
harbor forts with sea-going ships, and captured 
formidable ironclads largely with wooden ships, 
are tales that will long be told to successive gen- 
erations of American patriots. 

This volume introduces a series of biographi- 
cal -ketches under the editorship of General 
James Grant Wilson, which promises to be a valu- 
able addition to the trustworthy romance of mili- 
tary history. The forthcoming volumes are not 
yet announced, but judging from this foretaste, 
they will worthily sustain the reputation alike of 
authors and publishers. 



THE STORY OF MARY WASHINGTON. 

By Marion Harland. i6mo, pp. 171. 

Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin 

& Company. 1 892. 

Mrs. Terhune has made a book which is not 
only a reverent tribute to the memory of a re- 
markable woman of strong and beautiful char- 
acter, one who as the mother of our first 
president is entitled to our intimate acquaint- 
ance and lasting esteem and affection, but she 
has given within its dainty covers an interesting 
picture of life in Virginia in the early part of 
the eighteenth century. Epping Forest, where 
Mary Washington was born in 1706, was the 
homestead of the family of Ball, which was one 
of dignified respectability in that region of 
country. Mrs. Terhune's descriptions of coun- 
try-house life and pursuits in old Virginia are 
exceedingly realistic, and read like chronicles of 
English country life. We learn in these pages 
how Colonel Joseph Ball, Mary's father, con- 
structed a gallery in the church known as White 
Chapel, when it was in process of erection in 
1740, for his family pew. Stipulation was made 
that the pew should " be completed at the same 
time with the church, and finished in the same 
style with the west gallery.'* We read that " the 
Ball house was a square frame structure, plain 
in architecture, with a porch in front, and upper 
and lower porticos recessed by the half wings, 
in the rear. A grove of native trees surrounded 
it on all sides. We get our first mention of the 
baby-girl in a will executed by her father when 
she was between five and six years old." 

Mrs. Terhune gives many welcome particu- 
lars in relation to Mary Washington's origin 
and breeding, with the purpose of correcting 
false impressions among superficial readers of 
American history. She has gathered extracts 
from some of Mary's early letters, but few of 
which, however, are known to exist, and has 
dilligently sought for information about her in 



innumerable directions. In her reference to the 
Washingtons, Mrs. Terhune does not allude to 
the recent researches of Henry F. Waters, A.M., 
which practically settle all doubts in relation to 
the exact line of ancestry of George Washing- 
ton. The John and Lawrence Washington who 
came to America were sons of the royalist clergy- 
man Lawrence Washington, who died before 
1655. The wife of this clergyman died about 
the same time as her husband, and their children 
were thus left orphans. The eldest son, John, 
was about twenty-four in 1657, and Lawrence 
was twenty-two. Mr. Waters says : " Supposing 
them to have been young men of only ordinary 
enterprise and ambition, with the desire to get 
on in the world, what chance had they in Eng- 
land at that time, known as belonging to a royalist 
family, with all or most of their friends royal- 
ists like themselves, and Cromwell firmly seated 
in his protectorate?" Mrs. Terhune adds to 
her valuable narrative an account of the various 
attempts and failures to erect a suitable me- 
morial to Mary Washington, and gives the his- 
tory of a portrait which by some is believed to 
be that of the subject of the volume, although 
proofs are wanting. The book is one that will 
be cherished, and it may be added that no one 
who reads it can fail to have a much more vivid 
idea of the environment which gave to Wash- 
ington some of his most characteristic traits ; 
and it shows with clearness the highly organized 
state of society from which came the men who 
founded our republican government. 



ALONG THE FLORIDA REEF. By 
Charles F. Holder. i2mo, pp. 350. 
New York : D. Appleton and Co. 1892. 
A great many voyagers have gazed from pass- 
ing steamers upon that low-lying line of islands 
that borders the swiftest part of the Gulf 
Stream from Cape Florida to the Tortugas, but 
very few comparatively have ever experienced 
the delight of exploring those wonderful 
channels in small boats, camping on the snow- 
white coral beaches, and studying the myriad 
forms of life that throng the air and water. 
Professor Holder was for several years engaged 
in scientific exploration of the Keys, and he has 
brought together his notes and reminiscences in 
a volume that should prove most attractive and 
instructive to young naturalists. Numerous 
illustrations, evidently drawn from the life, add 
interest to the pages and afford a taste of the 
pleasures and dangers that await explorers along 
this remarkable coast. Here alone within the 
territory of the United States "live" coral is 
found growing under the tentacles of that in 
dustrious little creature that the world persists 
in misnaming an "insect." Here may be seen 
angel fish, groupers, pelicans, sharks, curlew, 
frigate birds, and ten thousand other creatures 



BOOK NOTICES 



77 



whose names alone would fill a volume. Per- 
haps the next best thing to a visit in person is 
a reading of Professor Holder's book. 



LON DON. By Walter Besant. With illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo, pp. 509. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 1892. 
This volume possesses so many and varied at- 
tractions that it is difficult to give our readers an 
adequate idea of its well-rounded character in 
the brief space in these columns at our com- 
mand. London is a vast city, and views of its 
streets, buildings, and citizens at work and at 
play do not come to our library tables in such 
charming form every day. " The history of 
London," says Mr. Besant, "has been under- 
taken by many writers ; the presentment of the 
city and the people from age to age has never 
yet, I believe, been attempted." The first chap- 
ter is on Roman London, and brings to light 
many interesting relics of that far-away period. 
Roman London, says the author, was not mod- 
ern Liverpool. Its bulk of trade was perfectly 
insignificant compared with that of the present. 
Still it was, up to the coming of the Saxons, a 
vigorous and flourishing place, and the chief port 
of the country. Before the city was built, the 
River Thames between Mortlake on the west 
and Blackwall on the east pursued a serpentine 
way. in the midst of marshes stretching north 
and south. There were marshes all the way. 
At spring tides, and all tides a little above the 
common, these marshes were under water ; they 
were always swampy and covered with ponds ; 
half a dozen tributary brooks flowed into them 
and were lost in them. The Romans built their 
forum and basilica with the offices and official 
houses and quarters on a little hill or cliff on the 
eastern side of the Thames. Later, the mer- 
chants were obliged to spread themselves along 
the bank, and built little quays and river-walls 
to keep out the water. An old map enabled Mr. 
Besant to recover the years which followed the 
retreat of the Romans. The chapter entitled 
"Saxon and Norman " will delight every intelli- 
gent reader. Mr. Besant says: "London was 
converted in A.D. 604. This was a hasty and 
incomplete conversion, executed to order, for 
the citizens speedily relapsed. Then they were 
again converted, and in sober earnest put away 
their old gods, keeping only a few of the 
more favorite superstitions. They were so 
thoroughly converted that the city of London 
became a veritable mother of saints." It is in 
this chapter that we acquire enlightenment about 
the building of the ancient churches, when the 
people knelt on the stones in prayer ; and of the 
famous bridge, with a fortified gate, which in 
1091 was swept away in a terrible storm. The 
bridge was rebuilt, and in 1 135 was destroyed by 
The next bridge was more substantially 



fire. 



built, and there was no bridge in Europe that 
could compare with it in strength or size. In 
manner of living the Saxons were fond of vege- 
tables, especially of leek, onion, and gnrlic. 
They cultivated gardens in which were fruits 
and flowers. Their houses are illustrated, and 
their manners and customs. Three chapters are 
devoted to the Plantagenet period, and are full 
of life and reality. In the Tudor period, occu- 
pying the seventh and eighth chapters, the 
wealth of illustration is astonishing. One 
might as well be writing of the city life of this 
day, so copious seem the materials. The reign 
of Charles II. brings with it the pictures of 
the palace of Whitehall, Hungerford market, 
Cheapside, Fleet street, Belon bridge, Sion 
college, John Bunyan's meeting-house, build- 
ing of the Bank of England, and old St. 
Paul. The closing chapter is entitled " George 
the Second." In it the picture of London is 
confined chiefly to the life of the bourgeois. In 
1750 London was spreading, but not yet rapidly. 
The gates still stood and were closed at sunset 
until the year 1760. Then they were all pulled 
down, and the materials sold, as they were doubt- 
less an obstruction to traffic. The roads were 
paved with squares of Scotch granite laid on 
gravel. In the streets of private houses there 
passed a never-ending procession of those who 
bawled things for sale. The common practice 
of bakers and milkmen was to keep tally on the 
doorpost with chalk. " One advantage of this 
method was that a mark might be added when 
the maid was not looking. " The taxes of a house 
amounted to about half the rent. Servants 
found their own tea and coffee if they wanted 
any. Mail coaches started every night at eight 
o'clock with a guard. There were nine morn- 
ing and eight evening newspapers. And there 
were gibbets stuck up everywhere, and remained 
until after the beginning of this century. The 
reader will enjoy this volume, as there is not a 
dull or uninforming page between its two covers, 
and the subject is one that interests the entire 
world. 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN EAST- 
ERN CANADA AND NEWFOUND- 
LAND. By Rev. J. Langtry. M.A..D.C.L. 
[Colonial Church Histories.] With map. 
i6mo, pp. 256. London and New York : 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
1892. 

The author has made admirable use of his 
wealth of material in producing a history of the 
ten eastern dioceses of Canada in a volume of 
the limited size of the one before us. All free- 
dom of treatment and fluency of style have neces- 
sarily been excluded — even the attractive feature 
of biographical illustration. Yet even in this 



BOOK NOTICES 



brief form the work was worth the doing, for 
much valuable information has been rescued 
from apparent oblivion and here permanently 
preserved. At the treaty of Paris in 1763 the 
whole of North America north of the Alleghany 
mountains was ceded by France to England. 
The territory, however, was regarded as an im- 
penetrable wilderness, of no use except as a 
covert for fur-bearing animals. What is it 
now ? No English settlements of any impor- 
tance were effected in Canada until after the 
Revolution ; and no class fared so badly in the 
war for independence as the clergy of the Eng- 
lish Church. In Nova Scotia, which was ceded 
to the British crown by France in 1713, there 
was a mission of the Church of England about 
1749. The first colonial diocese of the English 
Church was founded in Nova Scotia in 1789. 
The diocese of Montreal was formed out of that 
of Quebec in the year 1S50. The diocese of 
Niagara was formed in 1S74. The little volume 
is crowded with facts of the first moment ; it is 
concisely written, giving evidence of the highest 
scholarship and consummate skill in the man- 
agement of data, and cannot fail to prove a 
valuable addition to church history in America. 



ALONG NEW ENGLAND ROADS. By W. 

C. Prime, LL.D. i6mo, pp. 200. New 

York : Harper & Brothers, 1892. 

Some very clever letters, written for "the 
purpose of a day," for the New York Journal 
of Commerce, during a period of more than forty 
years, form this charming little volume. Dr. 
W. C. Prime's writings are well known, and 
although he states distinctly in his preface that 
he did not want to make this book, and only 
revised and edited it because he feared another 
person might, and thus perpetuate errors of type 
that creep into rapid newspaper work, he may be 
congratulated on its production. The sketches 
are all true to life, and bring much of real inter- 
est into the foreground. It is, in its best sense, 
a book of New England travels. In driving hi 
his own carriage through the valleys of New 
Hampshire and Vermont, he on one occasion 
notices a crowd about a farm-house, and pauses 
to attend an auction. The house had been for 
a long time the home of an honest, respected 
farmer who had recently died : an old man whose 
work was ended. This auction sale was the ex- 
tinguishment of a fire that had been burning on 
a hearth a great many years, and Dr. Prime's 
description of it, and of the old kitchen, is a 
masterpiece of English composition. He was 
there only a few moments, and then drove on. 
At another time he has paused at a village store 
and become interested in a discussion among 
half a dozen men sitting about a stove, on the 
subject of miracles, and of the laws of gravita- 
tion, which was concluded by the query of one 



of the philosophers : " Which is best wuth be- 
lievin', my old mother when she told me the 
miracles was true because there's a God over 
the airth, or these consarned edicated fools that 
go around saying there never could a-been no 
miracles because they don't know how to work 
'em"? The title of one bright chapter is "Up- 
hill in a Fog": others are : "An Angler's Au- 
gust Day," "Views from a Hill Top," "The 
Triumphant Chariot," "Epitaphs and Names," 
and "Finding a New Country." Every page 
of the little volume is captivating, even to the 
" Boys with Stand-up Collars," a chapter which 
every father and mother should not fail to read. 

THE STARIN FAMILY IN AMERICA. 

Descendants of Nicholas Ster (Starin), one of 
the early settlers of Fort Orange, Albany, New 
York. By William L. Stone. Square 
octavo, pp. 233. Albany, New York : Joel 
Munsell's Sons. 1892. 

This handsomely printed genealogical work is 
something more than a mere record of the several 
generations of the Starin family. It is of special 
historical value, through its sketches of the varied 
fortunes of the first settlers in the Mohawk valley, 
and the stirring events of the French and Revo- 
lutionary wars in that quarter of our state. The 
founder of the family, Nicholas Ster, came to 
New York in 1696 from Holland, and settled in 
Albany. He brought property with him, and was 
soon engaged in an extensive and lucrative trade 
with the Indians. In 1705 he removed to the Ger- 
man flats, the soil of that region having become 
well known for its remarkable fertility. He 
changed his Dutch surname soon after his arrival 
in this country to Stern, a word meaning the same 
as Ster in the Dutch language, and a few years 
later to Starring or Starin, and these two names 
have continued to be used interchangeably by 
the family down to the present generation. 

The son of Nicholas, Adam Starin, from early 
youth participated in all the perils of frontier 
life, and lived to be over ninety years of age. 
His brother Nicholas was an Indian trader, and a 
personal friend of Sir William Johnson, with 
whom he made many journeys through the wil- 
derness. On one occasion, as they were return- 
ing from Schenectady on horseback, at the 
edge of a swamp the baronet pulled up his horse 
to ask of Starin, What animals are those making- 
such a strange noise ? Starin replied, with a grin, 
that they were bull-frogs. Whereupon the bar- 
onet spurred up his horse, not a little mortified 
to think he had but just learned, as his country- 
men would say, " what a toad or a frog was ! " 
Judge Heinrich Staring, of another generation, 
was the author of the celebrated Yankee Post, 
the amusing story of which is given in the vol- 
ume. There were numerous Starins who did 



BOOK NOTICES 



79 



good service in the Revolution, and were identi- 
fied with the patriots of the time. Two of the 
name were present at the battle of Oriskany, 
taking prominent part in the action. The author 
describes the social customs of the Dutch of the 
Mohawk valley, and their favorite holidays. A 
picture of the old Caughnawaga church, erected 
in 1763, is pertinently introduced, as John Starin, 
an Indian interpreter and confidential friend 
of Washington, led the choir in it. Many 
allied families are introduced in these pages, 
with an immense amount of important and wel- 
come information. Among the numerous bio- 
graphical sketches, that of John Henry Starin is 
of special interest. He was born in 1825, and 
his life has been identified with the progress of 
affairs since then in manifold ways. This genea- 
logical work is one of exceptional excellence, 
and will be prized by all genealogical students, 
irrespective of any connection with the Starins 
or the many allied families mentioned. A good 
index will be found at the close of the volume. 



THE STATESMANSHIP OF WILLIAM 
H. SEWARD. As seen in his public career 
prior to 1861. By Andrew Estrem. 8vo, 
pp. 83, pamphlet. Privately printed, 1892. 
In this clever monograph the author has made 
a study which he calls neither a biography nor a 
history, but which is, in a measure, a combina- 
tion of both. He has made himself familiar 
with the politics of New York near the close of 
the first quarter of this century, at the time 
when they presented the spectacle of nominally 
one party with three or four more or less an- 
tagonistic subdivisions. He does not attempt 
to explain this, but says : "New York politics 
have always had in them something that baffles 
ordinary explanation." He then traces the 
career of Mr. Seward, through his early and 
notable experiences in politics, to the councils 
of the nation at Washington, until the Union 
had become the leading idea in the statesman's 
mind — a career that, from first to last, is interest- 
ing to Americans in the superlative degree. Mr. 
Seward, as we all remember, was styled the 
"great arch-agitator" in the Southern journals, 
while he was energetically fighting the secession 
movement at every step, disputing every inch of 
ground. Mr. Seward was a statesman of sharply 
defined opinions, and was perfectly fearless in 
the expression of them. 



THE QUEEN OF EGYPTOLOGY. Amelia 
B. Edwards, Ph.D., L.H.D., LL.D. By 
William C. Winslow, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 
With portrait. 8vo, pp. 15, pamphlet. Pri- 
vately printed, 1892. 
The vice-president of the Egyptian Explora- 



tion Fund, Dr. Winslow. has written a very just 
and appreciative sketch of Miss Edwards, whom 
we all know to have been wonderfully versatile 
in various lines of intellectual labor. He found 
her many-sided as an Egyptologist, and " the 
best delineator old Egypt has ever had. Hers 
was preeminently the role of interpreter." Even 
the Saturday Review claims that no other writer 
did so much to render Egypt popular. Dr. 
Winslow says: "Intellectual culture, educa- 
tion, may everywhere regard Miss Edwards as 
a generous creditor in the great exchange of 
knowledge — for out of Egypt has chiefly come 
our knowledge of the evolution of man during a 
period of five thousand years, B.C., and among 
the delightful surprises of our day is the enthu- 
siasm, intelligence, skill, magnetism, and poetry 
with which Miss Edwards's pen and voice have 
invested the old, old subject, now regenerated 
to notice — public notice — by discovery, and by 
portrayal like hers." 



EARLY MEDICINE AND EARLY MEDI- 
CAL MEN IN CONNECTICUT. By 
Gurdon W. Russell, M.D., of Hartford. 
8vo, pp. 158, pamphlet. 1892. 
An interesting subject is admirably treated in 
this monograph, a part of which formed an 
address delivered before the centennial meeting 
of the Connecticut Medical Society, at New 
Haven, on the 25th of May, 1892. Very few 
physicians emigrated to this country in the 
earliest times ; thus the colonists were dependent 
on the clergy who knew a little about medicine, 
and upon themselves. Thomas Lord was the 
first practitioner who was licensed by the general 
court of Connecticut. He was the son of 
Thomas Lord, who came over in 1635, with his 
wife and seven children, and was among the 
landholders of Hartford in 1639. Thomas Pell 
was a surgeon at the Saybrook fort, and in the 
list which follows may be observed scores of 
well-known family names. The early physicians, 
we are sorry to say, were not always successful 
in collecting their dues, but the general court 
tried to comfort them, and voted that "it was 
a wrong to the public that a physician should 
be thus discouraged." It seems that in 1654 
John Winthrop was especially desired to re- 
move to and live at New Haven as a physician. 
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, having studied medicine 
with Dr. Jared Potter and Dr. Seth Bird, com- 
menced practice in Litchfield about 1776, after- 
wards removing to Hartford ; he was one of the 
famous wits and poets of the day. 

THE LETTER OF COLUMBUS ON THE 
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. A facsimile 
of the pictorial edition, with a new and literal 
translation, and a complete reprint of the 



^ 



BOOK NOTICES 



oldest four editions in Latin. l6mo, pp. 

01. New York : Printed by order of the 

trustees of the Lenox library. 

This facsimile reproduction of the unique 
pictorial edition in Latin printed in 1493. illus- 
trated with eight curious woodcuts, will be greatly 
: it is followed by a new and literal Eng- 
lish translation, and an appendix containing a 
parallel reprint, in ordinary type, of the oldest 
four editions in Latin, with an historical and 
bibliographical introduction, describing all the 
editions of this letter known to have been 
printed in Spanish. Latin, Italian, and German, 
before the year 1500. It is printed on fine 
paper and issued in handsome cloth binding. 



A TOUR AROUND NEW YORK AND MY 
SUMMER ACRE : Being the recreations of 
Mr. Felix Oldboy. By John Flavel Mines, 
LL.D. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 518. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 1893. 
The sketches gathered in this volume have 
appeared from time to time in the New York 
Evening Post and the Commercial Advertiser, 
under the quaint pseudonym of " Felix Old- 
boy." The author was familiar with all the 
scenes and places of which he wrote, and had a 
microscopic eye for details of topography and 
life. He was blessed also with a capacious and 
unfailing memory, and possessed a rare judg- 
ment and taste for distinguishing between what 
was purely gossip and what, though minute, 
was vital to his theme. He had the indescrib- 
able gift of the raconteur, who is personal with- 
out being egotistical, gossipy without being 
garrulous, and circumstantial without ever being 
tiresome. 

His reminiscences, or about two-thirds of 
them, relate to the New York of half a century 
ago, and the other third to rural life as enjoyed 
at the same period in an old mansion fronting 
Hell Gate on the East river. So far as the 



title would lead the reader to expect to find in 
its pages an account of the living New York of 
to-day — the great, busy, noisy, overgrown New 
York which we know — it is a misleading title ; 
it is a past New York which is charmingly 
sketched in these pages. 

Mr. Mines writes of the days when Trinity 
church was new, and Varick and Laight streets 
in their glory : when Columbia college was 
down town, and the voyage to Albany was still 
made by sloop ; when May meetings filled the 
Broadway Tabernacle, and Christy's minstrels 
and the Ravels attracted and delighted nightly 
throngs ; when Bowery life was at the full, and 
Harlem was a village and St. John's park in the 
glory of its loveliness. Then were the times of 
Hamiltons, Schuylers and Mortons, of Drakes, 
Lydigs and Delafields. Actual New York a 
hundred years ago was only a nail on the end 
of the long finger of Manhattan Island, and 
Mr. Mines knew it when it was barely more 
than that. He remembers the state prison that 
stood on what is now West Tenth street ; the 
great boarding-houses that flanked the City Hall 
park when he was a boy; the " Astor boys" 
walking daily to and from their Prince street 
office ; the long since vanished precincts of 
Greenwich and Chelsea ; the old churches and 
halls and theaters and mansions that have dis- 
appeared before the march of business ; and the 
notabilities who, like them, are only memories 
and names to-day. 

Mr. Mines writes in a style admirably adapted 
to the subject, and the subject is fascinating. 
Interesting pictures, not less than one hundred 
and fifty, add greatly to the interest of the text ; 
the precision of the historiographer is softened 
by the grace of the lover and the sentiment of 
the poet ; and the charm of all these lively 
recollections of interesting scenes, personages, 
and events can be felt throughout the entire 
volume. The work sparkles with anecdotes and 
pen-portraits, and will be treasured by all New 
Yorkers. 







1 ■ 9*$3m?W£ 



^^^^^^^^>^^^^£ 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXIX FEBRUARY, 1893 No. 2 

SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 
By James Grant Wilson 

THE choice of New York for the sittings of congress gave to that old 
home of the Dutch and Huguenots, hardly recovered from the 
war, a new dignity, and enlarged opportunities for social intercourse with 
senators, members, and high officials coming from the various states of the 
American Union, whose differing cplonial antecedents were associated 
with the best blood and the eventful history of Europe. 

There is available an opportunity of gaining an exact and minute 
acquaintance with social events, and the personages who made them what 
they were, in the early days of our republic. By a happy chance there has 
been preserved Mrs. John Jay's Dinner and Supper List for 1787 and '8 — 
a period when her husband was secretary for foreign affairs for the conti- 
nental congress. The names which the list furnishes, together with the 
memoranda afforded by occasional private correspondence, and the pub- 
lished notes of European travelers touching that interesting period, con- 
tribute to give a picture, that already possesses an historic interest, of the 
social circles of New York during its brief existence as the national capital 
under the articles of confederation, and for two sessions of the first con- 
gress under the Constitution. Armed with this list, and some concomitant 
documentary or printed aids, we can look in upon the banquet-halls of the 
substantial, spacious mansions of that day, — owned or occupied by mag- 
nates of the republic, of the state, of the city, of the diplomatic circles, and 
of society itself, — and people them again with those who were accustomed 
to gather there. We can glance along the festive boards, and observe 
who of note at home or abroad met in those days around them. 

The society of New York at that time, despite the comparative insig- 
nificance of the city in extent and population, and all that it had suffered 
during the war, presented more strikingly than in after years, when domes- 
tic and foreign immigration had made it a common centre, those distin- 
guished characteristics, derived from its blended ancestry and colonial 
history, that are still discernible in the circles of the Knickerbockers, and 
which recall alike to Americans and to Europeans the earlier traditions of 

Vol. XXIX.— No. 2.-6 



S2 SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 

the national metropolis. While here and there might be found members of 
a family which, misled by mistaken convictions, had during the war sided 
with the mother-country, or had timidly endeavored to preserve an inglori- 
ous neutrality, the tone of society was eminently patriotic, and worthy of 





x 779 

Washington's note to mks. jay on her departure for spain. 

the antecedents of an ancestry representing, in the words of an English 
historian, " the best stock of Europe who had sought homes in the west- 
ern world, and in whose forms of government, charter, provincial, and 
even proprietary, may be discerned the germs of a national liberty." With 
the culture and refinement of a class thus happily descended and fortu- 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OE THE KEI'UIiUC 



83 



nately situated was blended that love of country which lends dignity to 
wealth, and respectability to fashion. 

As host and hostess at the dinners and suppers for which the list before 
mentioned was composed, Mr. and Mrs. John Jay would deserve to be sin- 
gled out for notice before we devote attention to 
the other social luminaries. But there was another 
reason why they figured so centrally in the social 
events of that day. John Jay was now secretary 
for foreign affairs. To relate his previous services 
as patriot, chief justice of the state, minister to 
Spain, and commissioner for peace, would be 
superfluous in this paper. But it is worth while 
to emphasize the significance of his position as 
foreign secretary. In the inchoate condition of 
continental government, when congress was at the 
head, but was itself without very clearly defined 
powers ; when there was not any one person 
endowed with the chief executive functions — the 
secretary for foreign affairs was really the only 
concrete expression of the government by, of, and 
for the people, which had just been wrested from 
Great Britain, to which other nations could at all 
clearly address themselves. He, too, was the per- 
son to whom the several states must look as the 
link for communication between themselves and 
that delusive thing — the general government. Hence, John Jay's position 
made him in effect the chief of state. His was not very unlike that of 
John of Barneveld or John De Witt in the days of the Dutch republic, 
whose various members would not resign their sovereignty to a chief or 
president, whose stadt-holder mainly led the national armies, but whose 
land's advocate or grand pensionary — i. c, the principal civil functionary — 
was the man who received the ambassadors of foreign princes and in- 
structed the republic's ministers at foreign courts, and thus to all the world 
abroad was conspicuously first among all her citizens. Being thus similarly 
placed, it became John Jay's duty to do the honors for his country, and 
his wife was eminently fitted to assist him in the performance of that duty. 
It will be proper to give an account of her here. 

Her maiden name was Sarah Van Brugh Livingston, her father being 
William Livingston, governor of New Jersey, and he the grandson of 
Robert Livingston, the founder of the family in America. Her mother 




SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



was Susanna French, the granddaughter of Philip French, mayor of New 
York in 1702, and who joined Colonel Nicholas Bayard in that address 
which caused the latter's conviction of high treason. Sarah was the fourth 
daughter, born in August, 1757. She inherited some of her father's finest 
traits, intellectual and moral, which were developed by a very careful edu- 
cation. But with the father's stern patriotism and resolution she blended 

features of gentleness, 
grace, and beauty pecu- 
liarly her own. The deli- 
cate sensibility occasion- 
ally exhibited in her 
letters seems to have 
come from her mother. 
Her marriage to John Jay 
took place on April 28, 
1774, in the midst of the 
agitations that foreboded 
the shock of the Revolu- 
tion, and almost exactly 
one year before the bat- 
tle of Lexington. She 
was then not quite 
eighteen years old, while 
Mr. Jay was twenty-eight. 
Up to this time he had 
held no public office, ex- 
cepting that of secretary 
to the royal commission 
for settling the boundary 
between New York and 
New Jersey. But now, 
before the honeymoon 
was complete, in May, 




<M 



(^uy^fyL^C 



1774, Jay was called to take part in the first movements of the Revolution. 
His public duties as member of the New York provincial congress, of the 
New York committee of safety, and of the continental congress, kept him. 

] Mrs. Bayard, the wife of Colonel John Bayard, was with her husband a frequent guest at 
the dinners and other entertainments given by General and Mrs. Washington in New York and 
Philadelphia. The Bible seen in her portrait painted by Peale, is now in the possession of her 
great-grand-daughter Mrs. Jas. Grant Wilson of New York. 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 85 

constantly separated from his young wife. But finally a post of honor, y< t 
of difficulty and danger, was given him, which enabled the youthful pair to 
be more constantly together, although far distant from friends and country, 
and which at the same time was to furnish Mrs. Jay with excellent oppor- 
tunities for training to successfully occupy the position of first lady in the 
land during the decade following the declaration of peace. 

On October 10, 1779, Mr. Jay, having been appointed minister to Spain, 
sailed in the congressional frigate, the Confederacy, accompanied by Mrs. 
Jay ; by her brother, Colonel Brockholst Livingston, afterward a judge of 
the supreme court of the United States, as his private secretary ; and by 
Mr. William Carmichael, a member of congress, as his public secretary. 
After a rather quiet life in Spain came a residence of several years at or in 
the vicinity of Paris, while her husband was engaged with Franklin and 
Adams in negotiating the peace which confirmed American independence. 
Did space or scope here permit, we should be tempted to blend with this 
sketch something more than a mere glance at the historic memories of the 
period connected with the peace negotiations, in which Mrs. Jay was almost 
a participant, from her intimate association with the negotiators, who fre- 
quently met at her apartments. There is no page certainly in our foreign 
diplomacy to wdiich the intelligent American reader will ever recur with 
more national pride and interest than that which records the progress and 
result of these negotiations. Meanwhile, the scenes and the society amid 
which Mrs. Jay lived for nearly two years presented a brilliant contrast to 
the trials and hardships to which she had been subjected by the war at 
home, as well as to her more retired life during their residence at Madrid. 
As Mr. Jay declined to accept the courtesies of the Spanish court except 
as the minister of an independent nation, and as Spain would not recog- 
nize him as such, it is probable that Mrs. Jay never appeared at the royal 
assemblies. At Paris everything was different. History has made us 
familiar with the Paris of that period, so interesting as presenting the last 
pictures of the pride and splendor that were still unconscious of the im- 
pending and fierce French revolution. 

Marie Antoinette, now in her twenty-ninth year, but four years the 
senior of Mrs. Jay, still justified by her grace and beauty the enthusiastic 
encomiums of her contemporaries. Mrs. Jay wrote of her: "She is so 
handsome, and her manners are so engaging, that almost forgetful of 
republican principles, I was ready, while in her presence, to declare her 
born to be a queen." The fantasies of fashion, says a court historian, 
revealed the spirit of France as capricious and changeable. The queen 
and her intimate friends, especially the Comtesse Diane de Polignac and 



86 



SOCIETY IX THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



the Marquise do Vaudrienne, changed the mode day by day. The women 
wore the hair most fantastically raised in a pyramid, and this high edifice 
was crowned with flowers, as if it were a garden. It is both apt and 
important, in this connection, to get a view of the Parisian mode from 
Mrs. Jay's own hand : " At present the prevailing fashions are very decent: 

and very plain ; the gowns most 
worn are the robes a l'Anglaise, 
which are exactly like the Italian 
habits that were in fashion in 
America when I left it ; the sul- 
tana is also a la mode, but it is not 
expected that it will long remain 
so. Every lady makes them of 
slight silk. There is so great a 
variety of hats, caps, cuffs, that it 
is impossible to describe them. I 
forgot the robe a l'Anglaise if 
trimmed either with the same or 
gauze is dress ; but if untrimmed 
must be worn with an apron and 
is undress." 

The two circles of society where 
Mrs. Jay was entirely at home in 
Paris were those which were to be 
found in the hotels of La Fayette 
and Franklin. Among the first to 
congratulate her on her arrival 
there were the marquis and the 
marquise. If the circle she met 
at the Hotel de Noailles was 
marked by its aristocracy of rank, that which surrounded the venerable 
philosopher at Passy was no less celebrated for happily blending the 
choicest and the most opposite elements of the world of learning, wit, 
and fashion. Among the more intimate friends of Franklin were Turgot, 
the Abbe" Raynal, Rochefoucauld, Cabanis, Le Roy, Mably, Mirabeau, 
D'Holbach, Marmontel, Neckar, Malesherbes, Watelet, and Mesdames 
de Genlis, Denis, Helvetius, Brillon, and La Reillard. Thus among men 

1 Mrs. King was the only daughter of John Alsop, a prominent New York merchant. She 
was remarkable for her beauty, gentleness, and the grace of her manners ; her mind, too, was 
highly cultivated, and she was among those who adorned American society. 




J^es?r^G~<si 



cr&'v} 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



87 



and women of wit, wisdom, and beauty, amid the smiles of royalty and 
the ceremonious conventionalities of the court and courtly circles, Mrs. 
Jay was being prepared at the capital of the world of fashion for her 
prominent part in the capital of the nascent republic. On July 24, 1784, 
after an absence of more than four years and a half, she arrived in New 
York with .her husband and children. Before the arrival Jay had already 
been appointed secretary for foreign affairs. There being then no presi- 
dent of the United States, and the secretary having charge of the whole 
foreign correspondence, as well as of that between the general and the 
state governments, his position has been well described by some one as 
" unquestionably the most prominent and responsible civil office under 
the confederation." The entertaining of the foreign ministers, officers of 
government, members of con- 
gress, and persons of distinction, 
was an important incident, and 
Mrs. Jay's domestic duties 
assumed something of an official 
character. But her long residence 
near European courts, and her 
recent association with the bril- 
liant circles of the French capital, 
assisted her to fill with ease the 
place she was now to occupy, and 
to perform its graceful duties in 
a manner becoming the dignity 
of the republic, to whose fortunes she had been so devoted. 

The house which was thus made the centre of the social world in New 
York deserves a moment's attention. The home of the Jays for one or 
two generations had been in Westchester county. At the age of forty 
the father of John Jay, having already acquired a competency in mercan- 
tile pursuits, retired from business and from New York to settle in com- 
fort at a country house and farm at Rye. Jay's mother was a Van Cort- 
landt, through whom the estate at Bedford fell into his possession. At 
Rye he was born and brought up. On his marriage the occupations and 
duties to which the troubled times called him, as has been noted, pre- 
vented the youthful pair from establishing a home of their own. Mrs. 
Jay, during the almost continuous separation from her husband, passed 
the greater part of the time at the residence of her father, the governor, 
at Liberty Hall, Elizabethtown, New Jersey. But occasional visits were 
made also to her husband's parents at Rye, in Westchester county, New 




LIBERTY HALL, BIRTHPLACE OF MRS. JAY. 



88 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



York. There was no opportunity for setting- up a permanent establish- 
ment until the return from Europe in 1784. when Jay's official duties 
required his presence in New York city. He then built or rented a house 
in Broadway, which in the directory for 1789 is marked No. 133 ; but it is 
somewhat difficult to identify the exact location, since there was then no 
regularity about the numbers of houses. " Thus No. ^t, was at one of the 

corners of Cortlandt street ; No. 29 was 
near Maiden lane; and No. 58 was nearly 
opposite to it ; No. 62 was at the corner 
of Liberty street ; No. 76 was nearly 
opposite the City Tavern, which was 
between the present numbers 113 and 
1 19 ; and No. 85 was nearly opposite to 
Trinity church. Odd and even numbers 
were given to houses without regard to 
the side of the street upon which they 
stood, and in some cases two houses 
bore the same number." ! The present 
location of No. 133 Broadway, if there 
were such a number, 2 should be be- 
tween Cedar and Liberty streets, then 
respectively known as Little Queen and 
Crown streets. The only Jay house in 
Broadway which I know of was of gran- 
ite — I think a double house with plain 
exterior, on the east side of Broadway, 
below Wall street, which by Jay's will (he died in 1829) was left to his son 
Peter Augustus Jay, who sold it. The purchaser erected upon the premises 
several stores, which were used for the storage of government supplies. 

The names that are preserved in so interesting a manner upon Mrs. 
Jay's lists fall naturally into groups, and are to be studied to the best 
advantage as thus arranged. The bar of New York shall be noticed first. 
It gave to the salons of the day an array of names never since surpassed 




1 Thomas E. V. Smith, New York City in 1789, p. 24. 

% The number next to I to, in Broadway is 135. 

3 John Livingston, a Scottish Presbyterian divine, was a member of the General Assemblies, 
and in 1650, one of the commissioners from the Church of Scotland to Charles II., then at Breda. 
Banished in 1663 for non-conformity, he died at Rotterdam. He was the father of Robert Liv- 
ingston, founder of the American family, and the ancestor of Mrs. Jay. The vignette is from a 
painting in the possession of Mrs. Robert Ralston Crosby of New York, a daughter of Colonel 
Henry Livingston of Poughkeepsie. 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 89 

in our juridical history: James Duane, Richard Harrison, Aaron Burr, 
Alexander Hamilton, Morgan Lewis, Robert Troup, Robert R. Living- 
ston, Egbert Benson, John Watts, Gouverneur Morris, Richard Varick, 
John Lansing, Josiah Ogden Hoffman, and James Kent. At various times 
they appeared under the hospitable roof of the Jays, and in turn met 
at the tables of other dignitaries of their own or other professions ; and it 
will be proper to take a more particular glance at each of those named in 
the group above. James Duane was at this time fifty-six years old, and 
in the full vigor of his powers. He had been mayor of the city since 1784, 
a position which he yielded in the year 1789 to his colleague in the pro- 
fession, Richard Varick, now city recorder. His wife was a daughter of 
Colonel Robert Livingston. He had been diligent in the cause of the 
republic, but withal conservative in his temperament, of exactly the 
position in all the Revolutionary movements that John Jay, his frequent 
host, occupied throughout. He was a delegate to the continental con- 
gress when it first met, and remained a member of it all through its exist- 
ence. He was elected a member of the senate of the State for the terms 
1782 to 1785, and again in 1789 to 1790. He was appointed United States 
judge for the district of New York in 1789, serving till 1794, and in 1797 
he died. His residence was at No. 17 Nassau street, and therefore within 
a short distance of Mr. Jay's. His presence lent dignity to every gather- 
ing of celebrity of that day, either as mayor, United States judge, or state 
senator, which honors were all upon him in the year 1789, and some of 
them in 1788, the period to which the list has reference. Richard Harri- 
son was not quite forty years of age when he was wont to meet his friends 
at Secretary Jay's table, and he remained a prominent figure in the 
government, which was then yet to be initiated, until far into the present 
century. He was made auditor of the treasury by Washington in 1791, 
held that position until 1836, and died in Washington in July, 1841, at the 
age of ninety-one. He owned an estate in New York which was then far 
from the heart of the city, but which can be roughly described as corre- 
sponding to-day to the block between Eighth and Ninth avenues and 
Thirtieth and Thirty-first streets. His residence in 1789 was at 11 Queen 
(or Pearl) street, above Hanover square. In the profession of the law he 
greatly distinguished himself, and on the strength of that distinction he 
was invited to prominent houses in 1788 and 1789, as his official life had 
not then begun. 

The two names that next claim attention naturally produce a min- 
gled sensation of pleased and painful surprise — pleased to observe that 
these two brilliant minds could meet together in friendship and brighten 



C.J 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



a gay company with their undoubted talents; painful because of that 
future fatal day, which was mercifully veiled from their view, but which 
posterity can never forget when their names are mentioned. They were 
the leading lawyers of their day, often opposed, sometimes united, on 
cases : but with a generous rivalry between them, we may be sure. It 
was not on professional grounds that antagonism arose. It was the bane- 
ful influence of politics, and the lines that finally divided them had not 
yet begun to be drawn, or not very distinctly at least, when they met in 

Jay's drawing-rooms, for the federal government 
had then not yet started upon its career. We are 
concerned, therefore, with their social qualities just 
here. Burr's were eminent : his engaging manners 
made him a power when his legitimate political 
life had suffered a hopeless shipwreck. And M. 
Brissot de Warville, who met him frequently in 
the salons of the day, records with enthusiasm his 
favorable impressions. The wife of Burr, ten years 
his senior, whom he called il the best woman and 
^SPW^s ^J^^lL tne ^ nes ^ l a dy I have ever known," does not ap- 

pear upon the dinner-list. It is not likely either 
that she received at her own house, as the dread 
disease (cancer) that caused her death some six 
years later may have been already at work. The 
more celebrated daughter, Theodosia, whose bril- 
liant gifts made her a "queen of American society" later, was then but a child. 
Of Hamilton little need here be said. The vivacity of his French 
blood would make him a welcome guest at every social gathering, and the 
wit and wisdom of his conversation would flow with equal readiness there, 
as on the more serious occasions of the public debate before popular 
assemblies or in senatorial halls. As a bit of gossip, no doubt picked up 
in just such drawing-room circles, M. de Rochefoucauld Liancourt (after- 
ward the Due de Rochefoucauld) mentions the following concerning Ham- 
ilton : " Disinterestedness in regard to money, rare everywhere, very rare 
in America, is one of the most generally recognized traits of Mr. Hamil- 
ton ; and although his actual practice might be very lucrative, I learn from 
his clients that their sole complaint against him is the smallness of the 
fees which he asks of them." ' It is also well known that Mrs. Hamilton 
was a daughter of General Philip Schuyler, of Albany, and thus in her 
veins flowed the blood of one of the noblest colonial families, distinguished 

1 Voyage dans les Etats Unis if Amerique, /ygs, J796, I 797 (8 vols., Paris), vii. 150. 




SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



9 ] 



in the history of the province for more than a century, From a letter of 
one lady to another — from Miss Kitty Livingston to her sister, Mrs. Jay, 
while the latter was in Madrid — we obtain a pleasant glance into the in- 
cipiency of this happy union. It is dated at Trenton, May 23, 1780, and 
contains this passage : " General and Mrs. Schuyler are at Morristown. 
The general is one of three that compose a committee from congress. 
They expect to be with the army all summer. Mrs. Schuyler returns to 
Albany when the campaign opens. Apropos, Betsey Schuyler is engaged 
to our friend Colonel Hamilton. She has been at Morristown, at Dr. 
Cochrane's, since last February." A con- 
temporary account of Mrs. Hamilton, at 
the very time when her name was put 
down on the dinner-list, occurs in the 
pages of M. Brissot de Warville : " A 
charming woman, who joins to the graces 
all the candor and simplicity of an Ameri- 
can wife." Her own hospitalities were dis- 
pensed at her house, situated on the cor- 
ner of Broad and Wall streets. Burr's res- 
idence at this time was scarce a stone's 
throw distant, at 10 Nassau street. Rich- 
mond Hill had either not as yet come into 
his possession, or was used only in summer 
as a country-seat. In 1789 it was occupied 
by Vice-President John Adams. 

Continuing to cast the eye along the 
list of legal celebrities given above, we are 
reminded that then the city of New York, 
besides being the federal capital, was also 
the capital of the state. Here, therefore, 
resided the chancellor, Robert R. Liv- 
ingston, of the Clermont branch of that 

numerous family. His residence was No. 3 Broadway. It fell to his 
share to administer the oath of office to President Washington ; and after 
he had represented our nation at the court of the great Napoleon, win- 
ning the latter's admiration, and doing signal service to his native land in 
negotiating the purchase of Louisiana, he immortalized his name above 
all these other causes by actively pushing to success Fulton's invention 
for navigating vessels by steam, the Clermont bearing the name of his 
estate on the Hudson. Egbert Benson, another member of the group of 




^.%c*snLU< 



cr\s 



92 SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 

lawyers, was the first attorney-general of the state, holding the office from 
\~~~ to 1789. After that he was a judge of the Supreme Court of New 
York, and, living to a good old age, became the first President of the 
New York Historical Society. Another name high in the annals of the 
state government is that of Morgan Lewis. After an honorable career as 
soldier, no sooner were actual hostilities over than he resigned from the 
arnn- and began his civil career. " He was so impatient," observes his 
granddaughter, Mrs. Delafield, " to resume the study of the law, that he 
returned to New York before the British troops had vacated the town." 
There was some risk in this proceeding, for on the eve of the departure of 
the British there appeared good reason to expect a conflagration. But 
the danger passed, and Lewis, as well as Hamilton and other young 
lawyers, soon had his hands full of business. Morgan Lewis was married 
to a sister of Chancellor Livingston. He became attorney-general of the 
state in 1 791 , then chief-justice, and in 1804 defeated Burr as candidate 
for governor. Though Lewis was no longer of Hamilton's party, it was 
through Hamilton's efforts that no part of the broken federalist ranks went 
over to Burr ; and out of this gubernatorial contest grew the quarrel that 
terminated so disastrously to both those gifted men. 

An honored place in the circles of New York society was due also to 
John Lansing, who had been mayor of Albany, and was still a resident of 
that town, but who was in New York as speaker of the State assembly. 
He succeeded Livingston as chancellor, and was in turn succeeded by 
James Kent. Gouverneur Morris, too, a lawyer, but preeminently a finan- 
cier, the co-laborer in the difficult and desperate days of republican finances 
with his namesake (but not kinsman) Robert Morris, would ride into town 
from Morrisania, which he had just purchased, and be welcomed for his 
patriotic services, as well as for his descent from some of the oldest 
colonial families — from Gouverneur, the son-in-law of Jacob Leisler, and 
from the chief justice of the province when it was still a royal possession. 
In December, 1788, however, he went to England; and while there was 
appointed minister to France, serving in that post at the beginning of the 
Reign of Terror. It was also something deeper than the amenities of 
social life which brought Gouverneur Morris under the roof of Secretary 
Jay. Once, while the latter was in Europe, Morris hastily dispatched 
this note, speaking volumes for the affection which prompted it: "Dear 
Sir, — It is now within a few minutes of the time when the mail is made up 
and sent off. I can not, therefore, do more than just to assure you of the 
continuance of my love. Adieu." Of the remaining names we need only 
note that Robert Troup was a lifelong friend, from college days, of Ham- 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



93 



ilton, and born in the same year; that John Watts had received back the 
estate which his father's " loyalty " had forfeited ; and that Richard Varick, 
at first recorder, succeeded James Duane as mayor of the city. Josiah 
Ogden Hoffman and James Kent were both in their youthful vigor; the 
latter admitted to the bar in 1785, and thus just commencing the career 
that gave him, while yet living, a world-wide reputation as advocate 
and jurist, author of his celebrated law commentaries. 

Pursuing our review of the contributions from professional life to 
dinner-tables and social circles, a 
glance may be taken at the minis- 
ters and physicians eminent in 
those days. Of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church the pastors were 
Dr. John Henry Livingston and 
Dr. William Linn ; these preached 
exclusively in English, and were 
themselves not even of Dutch ex- 
traction. But in the old Garden 
Street church there worshiped a 
remnant who still loved to hear the 
mother-tongue, and Dr. Gerardus 
Kuypers ministered to them ; but 
he made no practice of mingling 
with high society. Dr. Livingston, 
however, was intimately connected, 
as his name indicates, with the 
most prominent official and social 
circles, Mrs. Jay herself being a 
Livingston. He had also married 
a Livingston, the daughter of 
Philip, the " signer" of the Dec- 
laration, who had a house on 
Brooklyn Heights at the beginning 
of the war. The doctor's tall and dignified figure and high breeding would 
make him a notable addition to any company ; his colleague, Dr. Linn, too, 
was a man of note, having the reputation of being by far the most eloquent 
preacher in New York and even in the United States. In 1789 he was elected 
chaplain to the House of Representatives, the first to occupy that office. 

Both the Presbyterian ministers, Drs. John Rodgers and John Mason, 
appear on the dinner-list. Dr. Rodgers was pastor of the Wall street and 




THE OLD BRICK CHURCH. 



94 



SOCIETY IX THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 




"Brick Meeting" churches, which were united under one government. 
The latter church stood on the site of the New York Times and the Potter 
buildings, or the triangular block bounded by Beekman and Nassau streets 
and Park Row. Dr. Rodgers was a native of Boston, an ardent patriot 
dining the war, and having served as brigade chaplain, he must have been 

on terms of familiar acquaintance with 
most of the officers of the Revolutionary 
army who were now prominent in civil 
life. He would be welcomed in society, 
therefore, and also for the reason that he 
felt entirely at home in such surround- 
ings. Mrs. Rodgers was a Bayard of the 
Delaware branch of the family. " He 
was elegant in manners but formal to 
such a degree that there is a tradition 
that the last thing which he and his wife 
always did before retiring for .the night 
was to salute each other with a bow and 
a courtesy." As to his personal appear- 
ance, " he is described as a stout man 
of medium height who wore a white wig, 
was extremely careful in his dress, and 
walked with the most majestic dignity." 
Dr. Mason was pastor of the Scotch or Covenanter Presbyterian church, 
located on the south side of Cedar street, between Nassau street and Broad- 
way, now represented by the church on Fourteenth street, near Sixth 
avenue. He, too, had been a zealous patriot, and served for some years as 
chaplain at West Point. He was a near neighbor of Dr. Linn's, living at 
63 Cortlandt street, while the latter's number was 66. He was of medium 
stature, earnest and solid in his pulpit efforts rather than eloquent, born 
and educated in Scotland, and a stout opponent there of state interfer- 
ence with the choice of ministers by congregations. His manners were 
polished, as of a man who had mingled much with people of birth and 
distinction on both sides of the ocean. 

Of the Episcopal clergy we find on the list the name of Dr. Benjamin 
Moore, who was now rector of Trinity, but had at one time been removed 
from the position because Tory votes had put him into it. He lived not 
far from the church, at 46 Broadway. But chief among them as a social 
figure, by reason of his office as well as because of his social qualities and 
undoubted patriotic sympathies, was the " easy, good-tempered, gentle- 



y^rc Affyj^ 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



95 



manly, and scholarly Dr. Provoost, Bishop of New York — a chaplain of 
Congress, and a welcome guest at the dinner table of his friends." The 
doctor had been devoted to the American cause, was a native of the city, 
and of Dutch or combined Dutch and Huguenot descent. For even then 
the city presented the curious " contradiction in circumstances," so often 
repeated since and seen to-day, that in the Dutch pulpits stood men with- 
out a particle of Dutch blood in their veins, while in the Episcopal 
churches the purest Knickerbockers led the devotions of the people. The 
bishop was in every respect a most estimable and agreeable person ; and, 
in addition to his Hebrew, classic, and ecclesiastical lore, he is said to have 
been familiar with French, German, and Italian. 
as a literary recreation — and the cir- 
cumstance seems more significant in 



It is even affirmed that 




view alike of his Episcopal duties 
and the times — he had made a new 
poetical translation of Tasso. He 
was in a position, therefore, to flavor 
his conversation at social gatherings 
with the elegancies of modern litera- 
ture, as well as to edify men with "the 
weightier matters of the law." He 
was a neighbor of the Rev. Dr. Rod- 
gers, who lived at 7 Nassau street, 
while the bishop resided at No. 2. In 
person it is recorded of him that he 
had a round, full face, was rather 
above the medium in stature, of 
portly figure, and very dignified in 
demeanor. 1 He was a public-spirited 
man, hospitable, and so liberal to the poor as to infringe rather too deeply 
upon his moderate salary of seven hundred pounds per annum, with house 
rent-free ; the pound in America then being of but half its value. 

The medical profession was represented at that day by Dr. John Charl- 
ton, Drs. John and Samuel Bard (father and son, who operated at the 
lancing of a carbuncle from which Washington suffered during his resi- 
dence in the Franklin house), Dr. Wright Post, Dr. Richard Bailey, Dr. 
Benjamin Kissam, Dr. Johnson, Dr. Jones, Dr. Nicholas Romaine, Dr. 
Charles McKnight, Dr. James Tillery, and several others. The whole 
membership of the Medical Society in 1789 amounted to twenty-eight. 

1 Wilson's Centennial History of the Diocese of New York, p. 127. 



CL/&/7Z Jnrv~uzrzrf£ 



96 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



On the dinner-list appear only the names of Drs. Charlton, Kissam, and 
Johnson. Dr. Charlton lived at ioo Broadway, and thus within easy call 
oi Jay's house, and he may have been the family physician. 1 Under one 
date on the list, the only guests for dinner are Dr. and Mrs. Charlton, and 
this little repast, almost e?i famille, would lend support to the theory. But 

the name most frequently 
occurring is that of Dr. 
Johnson. Dr. Benjamin 
Kissam may have been the 
father of the more cele- 
brated Dr. Richard Sharpe 
Kissam, who graduated at 
Edinburgh in 1789 and be- 
gan practice in New York 
in 1 791 . The former resided 
at 156 Queen (now Pearl) 
street ; to judge from the 
number — counting above 
Hanover Square — the doc- 
tor's house must have been 
a few blocks above Frank- 
lin square. It is surprising 
^-, , s-, that some of the greater 

^^5^-z^z^SL ^a^^- ^e-^g^Sz^ lights of the profession — so 

eminent a surgeon as Dr. 
Wright Post, for one — were not found more frequently at the social gath- 
erings of the day. It would be singular if they appeared elsewhere, and 
were not among the honored guests at Secretary Jay's. 

Prominent upon Mrs. Jay's list are, of course, the names of the old 
New York families — the Bayards, the Beekmans, the Crugers, the De 
Peysters, the Livingstons, the Morrises, the Schuylers, the Van Homes, 
the Van Cortlandts, the Van Rensselaers, the Verplancks, the Wattses. 
While some of these furnished men for high positions in the service of the 
nation, the state, or the city, their position in society was assured, inde- 
pendently of that, by the descent from those who bore these names with 
honor from the earliest colonial times, as well as by the possession of 
ample wealth and the refinement which several generations of affluence 
will naturally bestow. Hence the majority of the names just mentioned 

1 His portrait in crayon, of life-size, representing a handsome, portly gentleman, hangs in the 
spacious Jay mansion at Bedford. 




SOCIETV IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



97 



owed their prominence solely to social distinction. But now that New- 
York was the capital of the confederacy, the social sphere comprised 
names of honor and fame from other parts of the country. By the pres- 
ence of the congress in the city, some of the most eminent of the states- 
men and generals of " the old thirteen " who had helped to vindicate the 
independence and lay deep the foundation of the republic, mingled with 
her sons and daughters. Among the names of Mrs. Jay's list, therefore, 
may be found those of John Langdon and Paine Wingate, from New 
Hampshire; the former to be the first president of the United States Sen- 
ate in 1789, biding the arrival of John Adams ; the latter destined to reach 
the extraordinary age of ninety-nine years, having been born in 1739 and 
dying in 1838; Roger Sherman and 
Benjamin Huntington of Connecticut; 
Elias Boudinot and John Cadwallader 
of New Jersey ; Robert Morris and 
George Read of Pennsylvania; Charles 
Carroll of Maryland ; William Gray- 
son, Theodoric Bland, and James Mad- 
ison of Virginia ; Pierce Butler, Ralph 
Izard, Daniel Huger, and Thomas 
Tudor Tucker of South Carolina; and 
William Few of Georgia. Truly a 
brilliant galaxy of names, well known, 
just fresh from the political and mili- 
tary fields of contest, and adding now, 
or soon to add, new laurels to their 
fame in the more subtle conflicts 
which were to construct and perpet- 
uate a strong federal republic out of 
the feeble and incoherent materials of 
the confederation of thirteen states. 1 

These gentlemen were, in many 
cases, accompanied by their families, 

representing in part the higher circles of New England, Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, and the South. The letters of the day which have been preserved, 

1 Among the prominent members of the Continental Congress of this period who were well 
known in New York society were John Hancock, Theodore Sedgwick, and Rufus King, of Massa- 
chusetts ; John L. Lawrence, Melancthon Smith, and Peter W. Yates, of New York ; Lambert 
Cadwallader, John Cleve Symmes, and Josiah Hornblower, of New Jersey ; Colonel John Bayard, 
William Henry, General Arthur St. Clair, and James Wilson, of Pennsylvania ; James Monroe and 
Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia ; and Charles Pinckney, of South Carolina. 
Vol. XXIX.-No. 2.-7 





^/ucf-^Jf 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



both of Americans and Frenchmen, allude frequently to the grace, beauty, 
and attractiveness of many women then in society. Among them were 
Lady Mary Watts and Lady Kitty Duer — in reality, and according to a 
more republican nomenclature, Mrs. John Watts and Mrs. William Duer. 
They were the daughters of William Alexander, real, or at least titular, 

Earl of Stirling ; and there was 
enough of old-time courtliness left 
in the States to defer to English 
usage and apply to them the title of 
" lady," as above. So there was also 
Lady Christiana Griffin, the wife of 
Cyrus Griffin of Virginia, the presi- 
dent of the Continental Congress ; 
she belonged to a noble Scottish 
family. Mrs. Ralph Izard, though 
from South Carolina, was at home 
in New York society, where she had 
many relatives, for her maiden name 
was Alice De Lancey, and she was 
the niece of the whilom chief-justice 
and lieutenant-governor. Soon after 
her marriage her husband took her 
to Europe, where he was engaged 
to some extent in the diplomatic 
service of the confederation. Mrs. 
Alexander Hamilton has already 
been referred to. We may mention briefly Mrs. James Beekman, who 
was Miss Janet Keteltas; Mrs. Theodore Sedgwick, formerly Miss Pamela 
Dwight ; and Miss Wolcott of Connecticut, who afterward became Mrs. 
Chauncey Goodrich. 

To the groups already presented there must be added one that formed 
a very essential element of social life in that day, namely, the small circle 
of diplomats accredited to the United States, among whom may be logi- 
cally counted also the occasional European travelers who were attracted 
by the rising greatness of the young republic, and from whose memoirs 
may be gathered so vivid a picture of the social events at which they 
assisted and the " society people " whom they met. We are enabled to 

1 Colonel John Bayard was born in 1738, and died in 1807. He distinguished himself during 
the Revolution, and in 1785 was elected a member of the Continental Congress. He was descended 
from Stuyvesant's sister, and was the representative of the oldest branch of the Bayard family. 




SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUI5LIC 



99 



look in upon one of these events by means of the dinner-list and of a let- 
ter written by a lady who was a participant. Mrs. William S. Smith, the 
daughter of John Adams, writes to her mother and tells her that Mrs. Jay 
gives a dinner to the diplomatic corps on Tuesday evening of every week. 
On May 20, 1788, this lady attended one of these dinners, and on the next 
day discourses of it in the following style : " Yesterday we dined at Mrs. 
Jay's in company with the whole corps diplomatique. Mr. Jay is a most 
pleasing man, plain in his manners, but kind, affectionate, and attentive ; 
benevolence is stamped in every feature. Mrs. Jay dresses showily, but is 
very pleasing on a first acquaintance. 
The dinner was a la Francaise, and ex- 
hibited more of European taste than I 
expected to find." 

Now let us observe who were actually 
present at this dinner. Attention is due 
first of all to the president of congress, 
Cyrus Griffin. On the list he is often 
merely referred to as president, or Mr. 
President, so that, if dates are not watched 
closely, we are apt to think of the great 
Washington. Griffin's position in the 
country and in society deserves a mo- 
ment's consideration. He was undoubt- 
edly the first citizen. Brissot de Warville, 
the stanch French republican, happy to 
be in a country where his fond ideals 
were in actual operation, says of the office : 
"A president of congress is far from 
being surrounded with the splendor of MRS> JAMES BEEKMAN 

European monarchs ; and so much the better. He is not durable in his 
station ; and so much the better. He never forgets that he is a simple 
citizen, and will soon return to the station of one. He does not give 
pompous dinners ; and so much the better. He has fewer parasites, and 
less means of corruption." The vivacious Frenchman might have added 
another tant mieux to the last item. But although one of these character- 
istic comments was attached to the lack of pompous dinners, still Mr. 
Griffin felt called upon to give dinners of some kind. At one of these 
Brissot was present, and he has recorded that fact with some circumstanti- 
ality. " I should still be wanting in gratitude," he says, " should I neglect 
to mention the politeness and attention showed me by the president of 




100 SOCIETY IX THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 

congress, Mr. Griffin. He is a Virginian, of very good abilities, of an 
agreeable figure, affable, and polite. ... I remarked that his table was 
freed from main- usages observed elsewhere ; no fatiguing presentations, 
no toasts, so despairing in a numerous society. Little wine was drank 
after the women had retired. These traits will give you an idea of the 
temperance of this country: temperance, the leading virtue of republicans." 

The president was, of course, accompanied by his lady, sometimes 
playfully called the " presidentess " in the correspondence of those days. 
Passing now to the American guests before we single out the diplomats, 
we notice that, besides Mrs. William S. Smith and her husband, there are 
General James Armstrong, the defender of Germantown in 1777; Mr. 
Arthur Lee, active in diplomatic work abroad during the Revolution ; Mr. 
and Lady Mary Watts ; their son and daughter-in-law ; Mr. William Bing- 
ham, of Philadelphia, reputed the richest man in Pennsylvania, and cele- 
brated for the magnificent hospitality dispensed by him and his beautiful 
wife at their own home; Mr. Daniel McCormick, and Mr. John Kean, 
delegate to the Continental Congress since 1785 from South Carolina, yet 
voting against the extension of slavery to the northwestern territory. 

First among the diplomats on the list, and presumably at the dinner 
on this 20th of May, appears the minister of France, the Marquis de 
Moustier. Eleonore Francois Elie, Marquis de Moustier, was sent to 
America in 1787. Throughout his career he was a devoted and self-sacri- 
ficing adherent of the Bourbons, and suffered greatly on that account. But 
it led him into the mistake of making himself disagreeable in his official 
capacity here, inasmuch as he gave too much evidence of despising the 
republic which his own master had helped to establish. Yet, whether a 
welcome guest or not, as a member of the diplomatic corps he could not 
well be left out of the invitations. Quite different was the case with Don 
Diego de Gardoqui. " In the summer of 1785 the Court of Spain appointed 
practically a resident minister to the United States, though under the 
modest title of encargado de negocios, with a view to settle the controversy 
about the navigation of the Mississippi, which had been guaranteed to the 
United States by the treaty of peace; also to arrange a commercial 
treaty." 1 Though representing a more intense despotism, and a govern- 
ment which had diligently shunned all intercourse with our country during 
the war, De Gardoqui became exceedingly popular in New York, and his 
departure in 1789 was greatly regretted. He resided at No. 1 Broadway, 
and De Moustier was a neighbor, his house also facing the Bowling Green. 
The Spanish diplomat seems to have been unaccompanied by a lady, 

1 George Pellew's John Jay, p. 232. 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



01 



but with the French minister came his sister, the Marquise dc Brchan ; a 
near relative of hers must have been the Comte dc Brehan, who also ap- 
pears on the list for this date, unless it is in error about the title ; perhaps 
the "comte" was really the Marquis de Brehan and the brother-in-law of 
De Mousticr ; or the marquise was only a comtesse. Besides the minister, 
France had -a chargd d'affaires to represent her, M. Louis G. Otto. He 
had come to America in 1779, and evidently liked republican ways and 
people, for he married Miss Livingston, a relative of Mrs. Jay's. He 
afterward became Count de Mosloy. A sister republic was among the first 
to recognize the American commonwealth, and the ink was hardly dry 
upon the treaty of 1783 when Francis P. Van Berckel presented his creden- 
tials as minister plenipotentiary from the ^^0^^^ 
United Netherlands to the United States. 
He was a widower, but the honors of his 
domestic establishment were borne by 
his daughter, Miss Van Berckel. There 
was as yet no minister from England, 
but the nearest in rank and functions 
to that position was that of consul-gen- 
eral, and Sir John Temple held that 
office at this time. He had been lieu- 
tenant-governor of New Hampshire from 
1 761 to 1774, and, strangely enough, in 
view of his present post, was removed 
for too great an " inclination toward the 
American cause." He was a native of this 
country, and had married a daughter of 
Governor James Bowdoin of Massachu- 
setts. They were at the dinner of May 20. 

Among the distinguished foreigners on Mrs. Jay's list is found the 
name of M. Brissot de Warville, from whose well-known work on America 
we have already quoted more than once. It was written on his return to 
Europe ; and while the first volume (in the English translation) is devoted 
to an interesting account of his voyage to and experiences in this country, 
the second treats almost exclusively of commercial matters. He had come 

1 The portrait of Sir John has been copied from a photograph, made in 1890, of the original 
painting in the possession of his grandson, the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Boston, Mass. 
That of Lady Temple was made in like manner from a photograph of the original in the posses- 
sion of her grandson, the late Grenville Temple Winthrop, now in the keeping of Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop. These paintings are from the hand of the celebrated portrait-painter, Gilbert Stuart. 
The death of Sir John occurred in 1798. Lady Temple died in 1809. 




U* y^fy<^i// i L- . 



io: 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



over especially to make a study of these, in order to establish, if possible, 
improved mercantile relations between France and America. Brissot had 
been bred to the profession of the law, but in the stirring times preceding 
the revolution had drifted into journalism. When the outbreak finally 
occurred he was on the side of conservative patriotism, and of the party 
of the Girondists. He opposed the execution of the king, and in conse- 
quence he, together with several other Girondists, was arrested on October 
- -;, and guillotined on the 31st. Brissot had brought to Mr. Jay from 
La Fayette a letter commending him as a writer on the side of liberty, 

and as one of the founders of the society 
in behalf of the blacks; for Jay was well 
known to be an anti-slavery man. On 
September 2, 1788, he dined at the sec- 
retary's table. 

A marked influence was wrought upon 
the social world in New York by the in- 
auguration of the federal government, 
and the residence here of the President 
of the United States. With the latter's 
advent, the prominence of Jay, especially 
as regards diplomatic connections, gave 
way to the distinctive, as well as distin- 
guished, head of the republic. And from 
the social standpoint it is interesting to 
consider, first of all, the discussion which 
took place about the title, or mode of 
address, proper to the President. Some 
suggested " Most Serene Highness," or 
" Serene Highness," thinking it a safe ap- 
pellation, inasmuch as none of the rulers 
in Europe bore it. Madison gave it as his opinion that the chief magistrate 
should be spoken of simply as the President. General Muhlenberg, with an 
eye to the high-sounding title assumed by the States General of the Dutch 
republic, suggested " High Mightiness " ; but Washington was never quite 
certain whether Muhlenberg was in jest or in earnest. Speaking on the 
subject at the President's table, Muhlenberg remarked, aptly : " If the 
office could always be held by men as large as yourself, it would be appro- 
priate ; but if by chance a president as small as my opposite neighbor 
were elected [he might have referred to Hamilton] it would be ridiculous." 
Bancroft informs us that when the style, "The President of the United 





fc^/b t?L . 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 103 

States of America," was determined on, " the clause that his title should 
be 'His Excellency' was still suffered to linger in the draft." 1 This 
unwritten and therefore extra-constitutional title, however, was the one 
finally determined upon. In the furor of French sympathy excited by 
the first outburst of the revolution, the adherents of the democratic clubs 
inveighed against this title. 

Their republican wrath rose also to a high pitch of fervor against the 
President's receptions, which society, at its own instance, called " levees," 
smacking thus most unsavorily of monarchical institutions in Europe. The 
stately and majestic President loved these courtly manners. When he 
had a message to deliver to congress, he did not intrust it to a page or a 
messenger, but rode to Federal Hall in a coach and six, with outriders 
besides. Yet he could be plain in his own house, as befitting the Ameri- 
can Cincinnatus. Mr. Paine Wingate tells of a dinner the day after Mrs. 
Washington had arrived in New York: " The chief said grace, and dined 
on boiled leg of mutton. After dessert, one glass of wine was offered to 
each guest, and when it had been drunk, the President rose and led the 
way to the drawing-room." The President's " levees " were held on Tues- 
day afternoon ; Mrs. Washington received on Friday evening, from eight 
to ten o'clock. At the levees, we are told, " there were no places for the 
intrusion of the rabble in crowds, or for the mere coarse and boisterous 
partisan, the vulgar electioneerer, or the impudent place-hunter, with 
boots, frock-coats, or roundabouts, or with patched knees and holes at 
both elbows. On the contrary, they were select and more courtly than 
have been given by any of the President's successors. None were admitted 
to the levees but those who had either a right by official station, or by 
established merit and character ; and full dress was required of all." 

It need not be said here that President Washington resided at first in 
the Franklin house, on the present Franklin square, corner of Cherry 
street. The huge bridge now has one of its piers standing on or near the 
spot, and the house has disappeared. Later, he occupied the Macomb 
house, at 39 Broadway, because the other was inconveniently " far out 
of town." And we are fortunate in having a minute account of the 
house of one of the cabinet officers, the secretary of war, Major-General 
Henry Knox, situated at No. 4 Broadway. It was advertised for sale in 
1789, " a four-story brick house on the west side of Broadway [No. 4 
at present is on the east side], 31^ feet wide by 60 feet deep, con- 
taining two rooms of thirty feet in length, one of twenty-six, three 
of twenty-three feet." Ample opportunity, therefore, in this generous 

1 History of the United States, 6 : 342 (ed. 1883). 



104 



SOCIETY IX THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



mansion for the gatherings of the society of a capital ; for there was a 
limit to the number that could claim to form a part of it then as now. 
To-day there are the " four hundred " ; in Washington's day it was not far 
below that figure. 44 Fashionable society in New York in 1789," says 
Thomas E. V. Smith, " seems to have consisted of about three hundred 
persons, as that number attended a ball on the 7th of May, at which 
Washington was present." But the " three hundred " out of a population 
of not quite sixty thousand was a considerably larger proportion than that 
of the " four hundred " to nearly two millions. 

At these gay assemblies the dress worn by ladies and gentlemen was 
modeled then, as now, after the fashions prevailing in London and Paris. 

Brissot de Warville observes: " If there 
is a town on the American continent 
where the English luxury displays its 
follies, it is New York. You will find 
here the English fashions. In the dress 
of the women you will see the most 
brilliant silks, gauzes, hats, and bor- 
rowed hair. The men have more sim- 
plicity in their dress." But that France 
also contributed to set the fashion of 
that day in New York we may gather 
from the New York Gazette of May 15, 
1789, describing several costumes im- 
ported from Paris. " One was a plain 
celestial blue satin gown with a white 
satin petticoat. There was worn with 
it, on the neck, a very large Italian 
gauze handkerchief with satin border 
stripes. The head-dress with this cos- 
tume was a pouf of gauze in the form of a globe, the creneaux, or 
head-piece, of which was made of white satin having a double wing, in 
large plaits, and trimmed with a large wreath of artificial roses which fell 
from the left at the top to the right at the bottom in front, and the 
reverse behind. The hair was dressed all over in detached curls, four of 




PHILIP LIVINGSTON. 1 



1 Philip Livingston, the second Lord of the Manor, was born at Albany, July 9, 1686. Was 
deputy secretary of Indian affairs, and afterward (in 1722) secretary. Was a member of the pro- 
vincial assembly from Albany in 1709, and county clerk in 1721-49 He married Catharine Van 
Lrugh of Albany, and during the later years of his life entertained with great magnificence. He 
died in New York city, February 4, 1749. 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OE THE REPUBLIC 



I05 



which fell on each side of the neck and were relieved behind by a Moating 
chignon. . . . The newest costume consisted of a perriot and petti- 
coat of gray striped silk trimmed with gauze cut in points. A large gauze 
handkerchief bordered with four satin stripes was worn with it on the 
neck, and the head-dress was a plain gauze cap such as was worn by nuns. 
Shoes were* made of celestial blue satin with rose-colored rosettes." * 

As for the gentlemen, they wore very long blue riding-coats, the 
buttons of which were of steel, the vest, or waistcoat, being at the same 
time of scarlet color, and the knee-breeches yellow. The shoes were tied 
with strings, and low ; but gaiters were fastened above them, running up 
nearly to the knee, and made of polished leather. But for evening dress 
the gaiters were omitted, and the legs (more or less genuine as to shape) 
were incased in silk stockings. It was not until toward the end of the 
century that material modifications in the dress of gentlemen occurred. 
The hair was no longer powdered, nor worn long and tied in a queue at 
the back. The locks were worn short, or at a length considered proper 
to-day. For the close-fitting knee-breeches and stockings or gaiters upon 
the legs, loose pantaloons reaching to the shoe were sub- 
stituted. " The women in 1800 wore hoops, high-heeled 
shoes of black stuffs, with silk or thread stockings, and 
had their hair tortured for hours at a sitting to get the \-r 
curls properly crisped. The hoops were succeeded by 
'bishops' stuffed with horse-hair. In the early days 
ladies who kept their coaches often went to church in 
check aprons ; and Watson mentions a lady in Phila- 
delphia who went to a ball, in full dress, on horseback." 2 
About the same time, dark or black cloth took the place 
of colored stuffs for the dress of gentlemen. 

Perhaps it will be of interest to conclude this review of New York 
society with two brief glimpses into the actual doings of people in high 
life, one of a private and familiar nature, the other a celebrated public 
occasion. While Mr. Jay was absent in England on the special mission, 
Mrs. Jay wrote to him as follows : " Last Monday the President went to 
Long Island to pass a week there. On Wednesday, Mrs. Washington 
called upon me to go with her to wait upon Miss Van Berckel, and on 
Thursday morning, agreeable to invitation, myself and the little girls took 
an early breakfast with her, and then went with her and her little grand- 
children to breakfast at General Morris's, Morrisania. We passed together 
a very agreeable day, and on our return dined with her, as she would not 

1 Smith's New York in 1789, p. 95. 2 Mrs. Ellet, Queens of American Society, p. 149. 





THE TEMPLE ARMS. 



:o6 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



take a refusal. After which I came home to dress, and she was so polite 
as to take coffee with me in the evening." The other picture presents a 
fashionable ball given by the French ambassador, the Marquis de Mous- 
tier, at his residence opposite the Bowling Green, on May 14, 1789. 
Although a despiser of republics in theory, he could not very well avoid 
doing the honors of his nation to the great chief of the American com- 
monwealth, who had been inaugurated two weeks before, and his manner 
of doing it was altogether worthy of France. Elias Boudinot of New 
Jersey, writing of it to a friend, spoke enthusiastically of his experiences 
there ; and as his description has all the flavor of a contemporary and an 
eye-witness, we give it as it appeared in Griswold's Republican Court: 

" After the President 
came, a company of eight 
couple formed in the other 
room and entered, two by 
two, and began a most 
curious dance called En 
Ballet. Four of the gen- 
tlemen were dressed in 
French regimentals and 
four in American uni- 
forms ; four of the ladies 
with blue ribbons round 
their heads and American 
flowers, and four with 
red roses and flowers of 
France. These danced in 
a very curious manner, 
sometimes two and two, 
sometimes four couple 
and four couple, and then in a moment altogether, which formed great 
entertainment for the spectators, to show the happy union between the 
two nations. Three rooms were filled, and the fourth was most elegantly 
set off as a place for refreshment. A long table crossed this room from 
wall to wall. The whole wall inside was covered with shelves filled with 
cakes, oranges, apples, wines of all sorts, ice-creams, etc., and highly lighted 
up. A number of servants from behind the table supplied the guests with 
everything they wanted, from time to time, as they came in to refresh them- 
selves, which they did as often as a party had done dancing, and made way 
for another. We retired about ten o'clock, in the height of the jollity." 




RESIDENCE OF LORD STIKI.IM, 



SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 



I07 



We may properly take leave of New York society at a reception, or 
levee, at the President's house in Broadway. He stands in the midst of a 
brilliant circle of ladies and gentlemen. As guests are presented, he does 
not shake hands, but receives them with a dignified bow. He is attired 
in black velvet coat and knee breeches, a white or pearl-colored waistcoat 
showing finely underneath the dark and flowing outer garment. Silver 
buckles glitter at the knees and upon the shoes. A long sword hangs by 
his side, bright, with a finely wrought steel hilt. It is the mark of the 
gentleman of the day, and need not recall the soldier amid these peaceful 
surroundings. Yellow gloves adorn the hands that struck so bravely for 
liberty. With a lingering look of affection and admiration upon the 
noblest American that ever breathed, we pass out of the assembly-room, 
and the shadowy forms of the past dissolve. The plain present is upon 
us, a city huge and magnificent, a society possessing a wealth then never 
dreamed of, but adorned by no immortal names. Yet these are not " the 
times that try men's souls ; " and, moving under brilliant exteriors, there 
may be hearts as noble and natures as brave, to be called forth when the 
needs of the country shall demand it. 




LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

IN THE SUFFOLK DEEDS 

By A. E. Allaben 

In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Midas, 
Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pre 
Lay in a fruitful valley. 

The destruction of this Acadian village and the unhappy deportation 
of its inhabitants are pathetically pictured in Longfellow's Evangeline. 
The incident is historical. The sufferers were simple French peasants 
and fur-traders. The conquerors who dispossessed and scattered the vil- 
lagers, who confiscated their lands and burned their cottages, were Eng- 
lish. In the poem the act appears barbarous and desperately cruel, and 
in this light many historians present it. But there is another side to the 
story. For forty years these unreconciled Acadians had rejected all 
kindly overtures of the English government, losing no opportunity to vent 
their sleepless hostility. They still refused the oath of allegiance, and 
their removal seemed a military and political necessity. 

The incident is remote; it occurred in 1755, yet the country, always in 
dispute between the French and English, had already been occupied by 
the French for one hundred and fifty years. 

" The Basin of Midas," upon whose shores lay this prosperous hamlet, is 
the eastern arm or inlet of the bay of Fundy (Le Grande Baie Franchise, 
of the French), whose waters had already been the scene of contentions, 
of romantic hopes, brave endeavors, and cruel disappointments. Next in 
importance to Port Royal (on the present bay of Annapolis), and a key to 
the country, is the St. John river where it enters the sea, a spot occupied 
by Fort La Tour as early as 1635. Connected with this point is a remark- 
able history. Of especial interest is the fact that the region in the early 
day stood not only in intimate relation to the New England colonies, but 
also that this strategic point of Evangeline's country, with a goodly por- 
tion of adjacent lands, was under mortgage in due form to a citizen of 
Boston. The quaint and curious documents relating to the transaction 
are still preserved in the Suffolk Records. Furthermore, by an endorse- 
ment or memorandum upon the instrument itself, it appears, that, by 
expiration of the given time and in default of payment, a ceremony of 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA IO9 

foreclosure of some sort occurred. Whether this was, as the bond recites, 
a "liuery & seizin of the sajd bargained premisses according to the Cere- 
mony vsed in England in Cases of the like nature," putting the mortgagee 
into " full and peaceable possession," we cannot be entirely assured, yet 
so the memorandum declares in the following words : 

" Memorand that vppon the day of sale seizin & peaceable possession of y e fort & lands 
w th in specified was had taken & deliuered according to the tennor purport and effect of 
the deed w th in specified in the p r sence of y s on y e backsides." 

Unfortunately the names of those witnesses " on y e backsides " have 
not been recorded, and under the circumstances we will be justified in 
believing that the procedure was as regular, u according to the Ceremony 
vsed in England," as the times, place, and peculiar state of the case would 
admit. At all events the maker of the instrument had clear titles to what 
he conveyed under patents only one remove from the kings both of 
France and England ; by the records the heirs of " Serjeant major Edward 
Gibbons of Boston in New England Esq r " have a fair legal showing 
should they lay claim to the mouth of the river St. John in New Bruns- 
wick, a tract containing four hundred and fifty square miles ; or twice as 
much, if both sides of the river were intended. The grant was made to 
Charles Stephen de St. Estienne Lord de La Tour, upon January 15, 1635, 
together with a commission as lieutenant-general for the French king " on 
the coast of Acadia in New France." This was a renewal of a like com- 
mission given to Lord La Tour, February 11, 1631. Still earlier he had 
established a trading-post and built Fort St. Louis at Port La Tour near 
Cape Sable, where by his fidelity and spirit he won the commendation of 
the French government. 

The mortgage-deed, already alluded to, by no means covers the only 
transaction made with New Englanders by La Tour and his wife, the 
brave, enterprising Lady La Tour. No less than ten instruments of differ- 
ent date, under the hand of one or both, are preserved in the Suffolk Rec- 
ords. They are inserted with little regard to the chronological order of 
the transactions, and for a clear understanding of these curious and highly 
interesting documents they must be rearranged and woven into the life 
histories of the La Tours. 

Acadia, as the French understood it, included the present Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, and the greater part of the state of Maine, reaching west- 
ward to the Kennebec, and forming a very considerable portion of New 
France. The Barony of New Scotland, as mapped by Sir William Alex- 
ander, under the charters of James I. and Charles I., covered at the same 



1 l ^ LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

time substantially the same area. New England also claimed the country 
as far east as the St. Croix, the boundary finally secured by the treaty of 
Paris in 1783. Pemaquid and Penobscot were at various times held by 
the French. During the French and Indian war the contest of the 
French under Frontenac for possession of Acadia was wholly with the 
" Bostonians," or people of New England. 

There were two La Tours, Claude and Charles, father and son. We are 
chief!}' concerned with the son, yet some notice of Claude seems necessary. 
Claude de St. Estienne Sieur de La Tour, a French Huguenot allied to the 
noble house of Bouillon, having lost the greater part of his estates in the 
civil war, came to Acadia about the year 1609 with his son Charles, then 
fourteen years of age. He traded at Port Royal (now Annapolis) till that 
settlement was wantonly broken up by Argal, admiral for the Virginia 
colony. He then erected a fort and trading-house at the mouth of the 
Penobscot, where he remained till dispossessed by the Plymouth colony in 
1626. In the meantime his son Charles allied himself with Biencourt, the 
son of Poutrincourt, who had founded Port Royal in 1605. Charles St. 
Stephen de St. Estienne, Sieur (or Lord) de La Tour, whose full name and 
title is here given once for all, became Biencourt's lieutenant and insepa- 
rable friend. After the outrageous raid of Argal they lived some years 
together among the Indians, and young Biencourt dying in 1623 be- 
queathed to Charles La Tour his rights in Port Royal derived from his 
father Poutrincourt, who had his title from De Monts, a grant confirmed 
to him also by the French king in 1607. 

About 1625 Charles married a French Huguenot lady, Frangoise Marie 
Jacquelin, who became the real heroine of Acadia, the first and greatest 
that land has ever known. The sober truth of this lady's energy, courage, 
constancy, sufferings, and pathetic end, is no whit inferior to the poetic 
picture of the mythical Evangeline. She lived a full century before the 
time of Longfellow's story, but scarcely a hundred miles from the home of 
his heroine, the distance across the bay between the rivers of St. John and 
Gaspereaux. 

Soon after his marriage Charles La Tour left Port Royal and built Fort 
St. Louis at Point La Tour, only a few miles from Cape Sable. Two years 
later, in 1627, war was again declared between France and England. Of 
course, the quarrels of the mother countries always gave rein to unfriendly 
schemes of their weak, scattered, but intensely jealous colonies. Charles 
La Tour, realizing the feeble hold of the French upon Acadia, and the 
danger of assault, sent an urgent request to France by Claude, his father, 
for a commission for himself and reinforcements for his fort. The request 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA I I I 

was heeded ; but the entire outfit (eighteen vessels, one hundred and 
thirty-five cannon, with a large supply of ammunition) fell into the hands 
of Sir David Kirk, who sent Claude La Tour a prisoner to England. Kirk 
took possession of Port Royal, and in 1629 captured Quebec. Claude 
speedily became a great favorite in England. He married one of the 
queen's maids of honor; and Sir William Alexander, who established a 
Scotch colony at Port Royal, made him a baron of New Scotland, con- 
ferring the same order also upon his son. With the honor came a great 
tract of land from Yarmouth to Lunenbury along the eastern coast of 
Nova Scotia, about four thousand five hundred square miles. This was 
to be divided between father and son, forming the two baronies of St. 
Estienne and La Tour. In consideration of such favors Claude engaged 
to plant a colony and to secure his son's fort, St. Louis, for Great Britain. 
He came with ships, colonists, soldiers, and supplies. But Charles said his 
allegiance belonged to France, and not even for the entreaties or threats 
of a father would he betray his country's interest. At length in despera- 
tion the elder La Tour ordered two attacks, which were both gallantly 
repulsed. The commandant of the ship refused to make a third attempt, 
and sailed away to Port Royal. This was in 1630. Sir William's parch- 
ment baronetcy had been conferred upon La Tour the elder in the Novem- 
ber previous under the style of Claude St. Estienne, Signeur de La Tour, 
and upon the younger in May of this same year, as Charles St. Estienne, 
Signeur de St. Denis Court. At this time England had possession of all 
Acadia and New France, save two small posts. But the following year, 
in concluding peace, under pressure from his royal cousin of France, who 
threatened else to withhold Queen Henrietta Maria's portion (four hun- 
dred thousand crowns), Charles I. weakly surrendered the whole. He 
informed Sir William Alexander, then Earl of Stirling, to whom he had by 
charter given such wide territories and remarkable powers, that Port 
Royal, his one poor colony, must be surrendered to the French, and the 
fort demolished. So collapsed that nobleman's enthusiastic schemes of 
colonization; and the newly created barons of New Scotland were left 
suspended in air, without country or estates. The formal engagement, 
the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye, which insured this miscarriage of large 
promises and high hopes, was signed in March, 1632. 1 

1 This was a comprehensive scheme. Sir William received almost regal powers over " the 
Lordship and Barony of New Scotland in America " (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Cape 
Breton), to which was added a little later "the County and Lordship of Canady " (the present 
state of Maine, east of the Kennebec and north to the St. Lawrence, then called the great River 
of Canada). " Also that island Matowack or Long Island," described as reaching from the Hud- 
son river to the Connecticut, and thereafter to be called " the Isle of Starlinge." Nor yet did Sir 



112 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

Meantime Charles La Tour, after his gallant defense of Fort St. Louis, 
and the striking proof of fidelity to his country's cause, was encouraged 
by the arrival, in 1630, of two French ships with reinforcements, supplies, 
and a letter of hearty commendation and confidence, telling him to build 
dwellings and forts wherever he found it advantageous or convenient. 
Claude La Tour, sorely disappointed and distressed by his own failure to 
bring his son to terms, and doubtless ill at ease in the Scotch colony under 
such circumstances of failure and almost disgrace, gladly accepted an invi- 
tation to return to Fort St. Louis and his French allegiance. Thence he 
was sent with a force to establish a post and build a strong fort at the 
mouth of the St. John. February 11, 1631, Charles La Tour's courage and 
patriotism were further recognized in France by the above-named commis- 
sion making him the king's lieutenant-general in Acadia. Four years 
after, this commission was reaffirmed in connection with a grant of the 
" Fort & Habitation of La Tour on the River St. John with lands adja- 
cent having a frontage of five leagues on the river and extending ten 
leagues back into the country." He had transferred his residence to this 
place while his father took command at Fort St. Louis. 

Fort La Tour on the St. John was a structure one hundred and eighty 
feet square, with four bastions and inclosed with palisades. It stood on 
the west side of the harbor, which it commanded toward the south, as also 
a good stretch of the river northward. Here this chivalrous pioneer lord 
lived with his devoted wife, like a feudal baron, surrounded by a large retinue 
of soldiers and retainers. The peltries taken in barter from the savages, 
and sold in France at a large profit, secured not only the necessities but 

William's limitless desire and King Charles's prodigal generosity stop with such known and some- 
what definite bounds. The grant also includes fifty leagues on both sides of " the River of Can- 
ada " (the St. Lawrence) as well as an equal breadth on all its tributaries, even to the discovery of 
" the South Sea, from which the head or source of that great River or Gulf of Canada, or some 
river flowing into it, is deemed to be not far distant" . . . " up to the head, fountain and 
source thereof wheresoever it be, or the lake whence it flows (which is thought to be toward the 
Gulf of California, called by some the Vermilion Sea "), . . . " likewise all and sundry islands 
lying within the said Gulf of California ; as also all and whole the lands and bounds adjacent to the 
said Gulf on the West and South whether they be found a part of the continent or mainland or an 
island (as it is thought they are) which is commonly called and distinguished by the name of Cali- 
fornia." — Novadamu's Charter, July 12, 1625. 

For this vast domain, real and imaginary, Sir William Alexander was to pay a quit-rent of one 
penny Scots on the soil of New Scotland on the festival of the nativity of Christ if demanded. To 
facilitate the settlement he was empowered to create the order of " Knights Baronet of New Scot- 
land." to be bestowed upon one hundred and fifty gentlemen, together with a tract of land to each 
containing eighteen square miles. Between the years 1625-1635 of such barons thirty-four were 
created for New Brunswick, fifteen for Nova Scotia, twenty-four for Cape Breton, and thirty-four 
for the great island of Anticosti. 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 113 

also many luxuries not produced at home, while the forests abounded in 
game, and the water with fowl and fish. Explorations, the chase, and 
occasional warlike expeditions added the spice of adventure to this life of 
rude splendor and plenty. But this happy picture could not last. Even 
the vast reaches of a new and mainly unappropriated world were not 
ample enough to meet the insatiable greed of the adventurers who resorted 
to these shores. 

The very year of the beginning of the war of 1627 the grand "Com- 
pany of New France " was organized, including in its directorship Riche- 
lieu, De Rizilly, and Champlain. Upon the restoration of peace, arrange- 
ments for colonizing Acadia were made with new energy and zeal, and on 
a scale not before attempted. Isaac de Rizilly was in charge, and with 
him came Charles de Menou, Seigneur d'Aulnay de Charnisay, destined to 
become the rival and deadly enemy of Charles La Tour. In 1635 Char- 
nisay was sent to Penobscot, wmich he seized and fortified. The following 
year De Rizilly died, and Charnisay presently succeeded to his interests in 
Acadia, which broad and diversified country soon proved quite too narrow 
for this intriguing adventurer and his enterprising countryman already 
established at St. John. The two men were totally unlike and could not 
fail to antagonize each other. Charnisay 's headquarters at Port Royal 
were within the especial bounds of La Tour's command, while the latter's 
seat at St. John lay within Charnisay 's jurisdiction. While La Tour 
quietly attended to his own affairs, Charnisay began his intrigues in France 
with the purpose of supplanting La Tour and driving him from the country. 
Securing the favor of Richelieu, in 1641 he finally obtained an order com- 
manding La Tour to embark and return to France to answer charges. A 
few days later the king revoked La Tour's commission as lieutenant-gen- 
eral, which La Tour had so honorably won and so manfully defended for 
twelve years. Charnisay was empowered to execute the order, seize La 
Tour's person, and inventory his effects in the interest of the government. 

This was a terrible stroke to La Tour. He utterly refused to embark 
in the vessel sent for him, and Charnisay did not venture to attack the 
fort. He sent back a report of La Tour's defiance of the king's order, and 
presently went to France to strengthen himself at court, and get assistance 
for making the arrest. 

In this extremity La Tour turned to the people of New England. He 
sent a French Huguenot named Rochette as his agent. The citizens of 
Boston had great confidence in La Tour, and were quite as distrustful of 
his rival. Still they would promise only an amicable arrangement for 
trade. The following year he sent his lieutenant to Boston with a second 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 2.-8 



114 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

request for assistance. The Boston authorities and citizens entirely sym- 
pathized with him against his adversary, but were not willing to be 
embroiled in the affair by openly and officially espousing La Tour's cause. 
The merchants as a private enterprise sent out a vessel with supplies for 
Fort La Tour and to trade with other points. On the return this ship 
stopped at Pemaquid, where Charnisay showed the master his order for 
La Tour's arrest, which had been renewed in February, 1642. In France 
he had not been idle. He had perfected his title to Isaac de Rizilly's 
estate, and borrowing upon it two hundred and sixty thousand livres fitted 
out five ships with five hundred men. La Tour dispatched Rochette to 
the city of Rochelle in France. The Rochelle Huguenots promptly fitted 
out a large vessel called the Clement, which, manned by one hundred and 
forty armed men, they sent to his assistance. Meantime Charnisay with 
his fleet besieged Fort La Tour. The Clement could not enter the harbor 
to relieve the fort, since the entrance was guarded by two ships and a gal- 
liot; but La Tour, escaping the vigilance of the blockading squadron, stole 
out in his shallop by night, boarded the Clement, and set sail for Boston. 
Upon the morning of June 12, 1643, the good citizens of that place were 
astonished to see a. large armed vessel, a formidable stranger, letting go 
her anchors in their harbor. 1 

La Tour again appealed to the governor and council. The captain of 
the Clement showed papers, dated the previous April under the hand of 
the vice-admiral of France, authorizing him to carry supplies to La Tour 
as lieutenant-general of Acadia; also a letter from the agent of the Com- 
pany of New France, informing him of Charnisay's plot, and advising him 
to take care of himself, and again addressing him as lieutenant-general for 
the king. The Massachusetts authorities were convinced of La Tour's 
standing, and gave him all encouragement short of an actual official 

1 This sudden entry of La Tour's battle-ship caused great consternation. The place was- 
utterly defenseless — both city and shipping quite at the mercy of the stranger. La Tour in a boat 
hailed Mrs. Gibbons, who with a few attendants was just returning from some short trip by water, 
and sought to converse with her. Her party in a fright drew up to the Governor's landing and 
hastened to his mansion, where La Tour and his men appeared almost at the same time. There 
was a call to arms in the city, and an escort or guard was hastily called out and dispatched to the 
governor. At this distance the alarm seems almost ludicrous. The practical Winthrop, with his 
usual candor, confessed the deplorable condition of " the coast-defense." 

" But here," he says, " the Lord gave us occasion to take notice of our weakness &c, for if 
La Tour had been ill minded toward us, he had such an opportunity as we hope neither he nor any 
other shall ever have the like again. . . . Then having the Governor and his family and Cap- 
tain Gibbon's wife etc. in his power he might have gone and spoiled Boston ; and having so many 
men ready they might have taken two ships in the harbor and gone away without danger or resist- 
ance.'" — Winthrop" s Journal. 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 115 

espousal of his cause. It is at this point that La Tour appears in the 
Suffolk Records. The merchants were quite at liberty to assist him, and 
a fleet of four vessels properly fitted, armed, and manned, under the com- 
mand of Thomas Hawkins, were furnished him on conditions named in a 
long and explicit contract, from which portions only can here be quoted. 
It begins as follows: 1 

" Articles of Agreement Indented and made the thirtieth day of June Anno dom 1643 
betweene mounseir Latour knight of the orde rs of the king Leftennant Gennerall of 
new france of the one party, And Captaine Edward Gibbons and Thomas Hawkins mer- 
chant and parte owners of the good shipp called the seabridge the shipp phillip and mary 
the shipp Increase the shipp Greyhound all of them of the massachusetts bay in New Eng- 
land of the other party In behalf of themselves and of their partners, have let to freight to 
the sd mounseir dela Tour all the sd shipps in manner and vppon Condicons following, 

1. first the sd Edward Gibbons and Thomas Hawkins and ther Assignes in the 
behalfe of the owne r s of the shipp seabridge doe Couenant and promise that the sd shipp 
shall be compleately fitted with a master and fowerteene able seamen, and a boy, with 
fowerteene peece of Ordinance, with powder and shott fitt for them, with tackle and 
Apparrell victualls for the sd sixteene men for two months time from the tenth day of 
July next." 

Sections two and three provide in like terms for the Philip and Mary a 
crew of sixteen, for the Increase fourteen, and for each " tenn peece of 
ordinance " with supplies. The next specification is : 

" That the shipp Greyhound shall be Compleately fitted with fower murderers : and 
powder and shott fitting for them, with tackle apparrell and victualls fitting for eight 
men : viz a master and seven able seamen with the sd shipp, Compleately for two months 
from the tenth day of July next. 

These ships 'shall be by the Providence of God (the winde and weather serving) bee 
ready vppon demaund to sett sajle ' from Boston Roades at the date named above ; 'and 
from thence by God's Grace shall directly saile In Company with the shipp clement apper- 
taining to thesd mounseir de la Tour ; And further we promise to Joyne with the sd shipp 
clement In the defence of ourselves, and the sd mounseir La Tour ; against mounseir dony 
[D'Aulnay], his forces or any that shall vnjustly assault.'" 

On his part La Tour agrees to furnish twenty English soldiers, armed 
and provisioned at his own cost, for each of the three larger vessels, and 
eight for the smaller Greyhound? He also has the privilege of putting 
on board his own French soldiers not to exceed ten for each vessel. He 
is to pay for the Seabridge two hundred pounds per month, for the Philip 
and Mary one hundred and twenty pounds per month, for the Increase 
one hundred and fifty pounds, and for the Greyhound fifty pounds, " in 

1 Suffolk Deeds, Lib. L, p. 7. 

2 We learn from Winthrop that these English soldiers engaged for forty shillings, or nine 
dollars and sixty-eight cents, per month. 



Il6 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

peltry at the prize Currant as at the tjme of pajment, they shall beare 
at Boston," — this for a cruise of two months, without reduction of pay 
for any shortening of the time. La Tour is to furnish the ammunition, but 
the cost of that actually used is to be deducted from the ship-rent. Lastly 

" what Pillage and spoile or goods shall be taken by the afore named shipp clement 
and the sd foure English shipps or either of them shall be aequally divided among the 
merchants ouners mariners and souldjers according to the vsual Custome In such voy- 
ages And for the true performance according to the true Intent of these p r esents the sd 
mounseir Latour doth make ouer to the sd Edward Gibbons and Thomas Hawkins all 
that his fort in the Riuer of S* John, with the gunns pouder and shott therevnto belong- 
ing ; and all his property in the sajd Riuer, and the Coast of Achady together with all 
his mooveables and inmooveables therein In wittness hearof the parties above named 
have Interchangeably put to their hands and seales 

Signed and sealed De la Tour & a seale 

in the p r nce of V s 

Robert Keajne \V m Ting 

Estienne auprvs " 

This expedition proved wholly successful in raising the siege of Fort 
La Tour and putting Charnisay himself upon the defensive. Upon the 
appearance of La Tour's fleet the enemy, thoroughly surprised, precipi- 
tately took to flight. La Tour pursued, but Charnisay succeeded in making 
Port Royal (now Annapolis) bay, and ran his ships upon the beach to 
avoid capture. La Tour desired Captain Hawkins to join in an attack 
upon Charnisay's forces, who in much disorder were fortifying themselves 
in the mill. This he refused, but allowed his command to volunteer. 
About thirty Massachusetts men joined in the attack by which Charnisay 
was driven from the mill. The fleet returned to Fort La Tour. Falling 
in with a pinnace belonging to Charnisay, loaded with furs, she was made a 
prize. The English vessels were paid off and returned to Boston, having 
been absent only thirty-seven days. 

Charnisay, beaten but not crushed, rebuilt the old fort at Port Royal, 
and presently sailed for France. Lady La Tour also went to France in her 
husband's interest. Charnisay secured an order for her arrest as involved 
in La Tour's rebellion. She escaped to England, where she engaged a 
vessel and freighted it with supplies for Fort La Tour. The master of 
the ship, in spite of her expostulations, spent so much time in trade by the 
way that six months were consumed in the passage. When the ship came 
at length into the bay of Fundy, Charnisay had already returned, and his 
vessels were on the watch to intercept any relief for La Tou,r. He over- 
hauled Lady La Tour's ship, but little suspected the prize he held in his 
hand. She and her people were hidden in the hold, while the master, 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 



117 



professing to sail an English ship bound for Boston, was suffered to pass 
on toward that port. 

La Tour meantime, discouraged and distressed at his wife's long ab- 
sence, which now exceeded a year, had set out for Boston, where he arrived 
in July, 1644. He represented his condition to the governor and magis- 
trates, craving their assistance, and not failing to urge the English title to 
his possessions by grant from Sir William Alexander. All sympathized 
with him, but the matter ended as usual without official action in his favor. 
A merchant vessel, however, sailed with supplies for his fort, and in this 
case a letter to Charnisay of expostulation was added. With this La Tour 
had to content himself, and his white sails were hardly out of sight when 
Lady La Tour's chartered vessel came into Boston harbor. 

Lady La Tour promptly entered action, as Winthrop relates, " against 
Captain Baylye, and the merchant (brother and factor to Alderman Berk- 
ley who freighted the ship) for not performing the charter party," and 
causing the needless detention and peril which she had suffered. She had 
the captain and merchant arrested, who were compelled to surrender the 
cargo, valued at ,£1,100, to deliver their persons from custody. She then 
employed three vessels to convey her supplies and convoy her home. The 
contract under which she secured this fleet is also found in the Suffolk 
Records, and is as follows : 

" Know all men by these p r sents that I francoice mary Jacquelin spouse of charles sieur 
St Steeven knight of the orders of the king of fraunce Lieutenant in the Coast of the 
accady of new fraunce by virtue of a procuration given vnto me from my sajd Sr of St 
Steevens the twenty-seventh of August last past, doe Confesse to have hired of Cap tne 
John Parris three shipps to Convey me to my fort & in consideration of seven hundredth 
pounds starling wch I promise to pay or cause to be pajd by the sajd S r Called de la Tour 
forthwith vppon our Arrivall at the fort de la Toure in S* Johns Riuer the dischardge of 
w* goods I have putt aboard the sajd shipps I do further promise that the pajment of the 
abovesajd some of seven hundredth pounds shall be pajd in Pelleterje moose skines at 
twenty five shillings pr skin one w th an other marchantable beavor the skins at eight 
shillings p r pound & Coale at twelve or in other payment of Comoditjes of value farther 
promising vnto the sajd Cap ne Parris that if so be he be not fully sattisfyed the above sajd 
some vppon ou r Arrival to be ljable to make good w'euer damages may insue through 
default therof In wittnes whereof I have herevnto signed and sealed made at Boston 
this eleventh day of december 1644 francoice marje Jacquelin 

& a seale 

In p r nce of Charles dupre 

Joshua Scotto : Ed. Gibbons " 

Lady La Tour made a safe passage with her little fleet and supplies. 
We can imagine the happy meeting after this long separation, while beset 
with so many difficulties and dangers. For the time too there was abun- 



Il8 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

dance, though not without hint of financial embarrassment. Even the 
moose-skin and beaver currency gleaned out of the woods did not suffice 
for the great expenditures of this contest. Hence the following bond : 

" St. Johns, December 29, 1644. 
I mounseir charles of S { Steevens delatoure Knight & Baronet and francois marje Jacque- 
lin doe acknowledg to have Received of M r John Paris all such goods as came in the three 
shipps. Cap 1 Richardson Capt Thomas Capt Bridecake and his owne but have not given 
him full sattisfaccon, according to his Contract and ou r obligation, onely he hath received 
of me a hundred seventy two pounds in beaver sterling money and a smale chajne of Gold 
to the valleju of thirty or fouerty pound which is to be Retourned again In Case it pos- 
sibly may ; and more. besides Wee doe engage ourselves to give sattisfaccon vnto majo r 
Gibbons for the some specified in the bond ; what he hath received above specified is to 
be deducted out of the bond of seven hundred pound. 

de latour & seale 
Signed sealed and francois : marje Jacquelin 

deliuered in the 
p r nce of John Pasfeild 
Thomas Bredcake " 

Marie, Charnisay's agent, had been in Boston at the same time with 
Lady La Tour, endeavoring to persuade the authorities of La Tour's out- 
lawry and of the impropriety of their maintaining friendly relations with 
him. However, he only secured a treaty of amity and free commerce 
between the colony and Charnisay, which that vengeful Frenchman thought 
of small consequence when he heard of Lady La Tour's success. Indeed, 
his rage knew no bounds. He wrote an insolent and abusive letter to Gov- 
ernor Winthrop, and soon found opportunity to make his resentment felt. 

Although La Tour and his wife had now obtained a temporary success, 
yet the contest was ruinous to both parties. The enormous expenses and 
losses, together with the obstruction of his trade, reduced La Tour to pov- 
erty 7 . His indebtedness to the Boston merchants only increased ; but they 
seem to have had unbounded confidence in his integrity. In May of the 
following spring he owed them more than ten thousand pounds, and he 
felt constrained to give his creditors the best and only security he could. 
Hence the famous mortgage deed of Fort La Tour and the adjacent lands 
at the mouth of the St. John, recorded at length in Suffolk Deeds. 1 Only 
the first part of this long document is here given, containing a description 
of the premises conveyed, and the important exception or reservation. It 
will be observed that the tract excepted embraces seventy-two miles on 
the eastern coast of Nova Scotia proper, and as much in depth, and hence 
includes the greater part of the peninsula. It is the grant from Sir Wil- 

! Lib. I., filling 10 pages of the folio. It has been printed in Hazard's Historical Collections, 
I., 541-544- 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA I 19 

liam Alexander to Claude and Charles La Tour, to be divided into the two 
baronies of St. Estienne and La Tour. 

" This Indenture made betweene S r charles S l Steephens lord of La Tour in fraunce and 
Knight Barronet of Scotland of y e one part and Serjeant major Edward Gibbons of Boston 
in New-England Esq r of the othe r parte wittnesseth that y e sajd mounseir lord of latour 
for & in consideration of the full some of two thousand eighty fower pounds To him the 
sd moun ser in hand pajd by the sajd S^ 1 major Gibbons and also for diverse other good 
causes and Considerations him the s d moun ser herevnto especially moving hath Graunted 
bargained sould enfeoffed and confirmed vnto him the s d S^' major Edward Gibbons his 
heires and Assignes all that his fort called fort La Toure & plantacon w th in y e northerne 
part of america wherein y e s d mouns r together with his family hath of late made his Resi- 
dence, Scittuate & being at or neere the mouth of a certajne Riuer Called by y e name of 
S* John's Riuer together also with all the Ammunition and weapons of warr or instru- 
ment of defence & other Implements necessarjes And together also with all the land & 
Islands Riuers lakes woods & vnderwoods mines & mineralls whatsouer and all and sin- 
gular other the comoditjes & Appurtenances to the same plantacon belonging or in any 
wise appertayning either by right of discouery or first Inhabitting and there graunted 
vnto him by the grand Company of Cannida merchants or as the same were heeretofore 
purchased of S r Willjam Alexander Knight by S* chaude of S l Stephen Lord of latour for 
and in the name of him the sajd S r charles his heires and Assignes by the name of the 
Countrje of new Scotland formerly called the Countrje of Laccadie as it lyeth along the 
sea coast eastward as by a deede thereof in the french toung made bearing date the 30 th 
of Aprill 1630. . . . To have & to hold — " 

No need to give the remaining tedious formula. The time of redemp- 
tion was fixed " at or before the twentjeth day of february which shall be 
in the yeare of o r Lord God one thousand six hundred fifty and two ; " 
that is, by our reckoning, February 20, 1653. The instrument is signed: 
" Charles de sainct Estienne," and witnessed by seven persons. 

No doubt La Tour hoped that, by this solemn and formal conveyance 
to a very prominent Boston citizen, the personal interest as well as the 
sympathies of the people and authorities might be more fully enlisted in 
his cause. Certainly Governor Winthrop and others did not regard La 
Tour's title lightly, and they were by no means indifferent to securing a 
substantial claim to the lands and harbors patented to him. So Win- 
throp remarks : , 

" In the opening of La Tour's case it appeared that the place where his fort was had 
been purchased by his father of Sir William Alexander, and he had a. free grant of it and 
of all that part of New Scotland under the great seal of Scotland, and another grant of a 
Scott Baronet under the same seal ; and that himself and his father had continued in pos- 
session &c. about thirty years, and that Port Royal was theirs also until D'Aulnay [as 
Charnisay was more commonly called in New England] had dispossessed him of it by 
force within these five years." ' 

1 Winthrop's Journal (see page 179). 



1-0 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

Nor was this confidence ill-founded, for La Tour's grants were subse- 
quently confirmed under the hand of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. 
But at the time of this mortgage La Tour was a bankrupt and apparently 
ruined. His enemy had triumphed, and he no longer held in actual pos- 
session an acre of ground or a sheltering roof. 

Charnisay's ships now so haunted the coasts and scoured the inter- 
vening seas, that La Tour could neither relieve his courageous lady and 
faithful friends at the fort, nor himself return to their aid. In February, 
learning from two spies that Lady La Tour had no more than fifty soldiers 
all told, little powder and that mainly of poor quality, while her husband 
was absent in Boston, and the fort indeed to appearance all but defense- 
less, the implacable Charnisay judged that now the hour of triumph drew 
nigh. Accordingly he sailed into the harbor and opened his attack, confi- 
dent of taking Fort La Tour almost without resistance. But he reckoned 
without his host. Lady La Tour took command, inspired her devoted 
soldiers, manned a bastion, and directed the fire with such effect that 
Charnisay was compelled to draw off with twenty killed and thirteen 
wounded. His shattered vessel he warped ashore behind a neighboring 
point to save her from sinking. 

Charnisay was, however, still able to prevent La Tour's return, and in 
the following April appeared before the fort with a yet stronger arma- 
ment. In the meantime Lady La Tour and her men had not been relieved 
nor supplied, and consequently were taken at even greater disadvantage. 
But Charnisay, who now made his approach from the land side, was re- 
pulsed again and again, until he despaired of success except by strategy 
and treachery. Upon the fourth day he succeeded in bribing a Swiss 
sentry, who, on Easter morning, while the garrison were at prayers, allowed 
the enemy to approach without giving the alarm. They were already 
scaling the walls when discovered. Yet brave Lady La Tour rallied her 
forces, and putting herself at their head, the assailants were repulsed with 
such promptness and vigor that Charnisay, who had already lost twelve 
killed and many wounded, was glad to withdraw, and offered honorable 
terms of capitulation. He guaranteed life and liberty to all. In no con- 
dition to endure a siege, despairing of relief and anxious to save the lives 
of her friends, Lady La Tour consented, and opened the gates to her das- 
tardly foe. Then the extent of his perfidy appeared. The character and 
performance of the heroic Lady La Tour made no appeal to the rapacious 
and cruel Charnisay. Every soldier in the fort, French and English alike, 
was hung, save one, whom he spared on the dreadful condition of becom- 
ing the executioner of his comrades. He did not venture to put Lady 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 121 

La Tour to death. Even the corrupt French court would not have tol- 
erated such a procedure against a noble lady whom he was merely com- 
missioned to arrest. But he did worse. He compelled this heroic victim 
of his vindictive hate and perfidy to stand by with a rope about her neck 
and witness the murder of all her faithful defenders. 

Lady La Tour, so heroic and spirited by nature, was not formed to 
endure a helpless captivity under circumstances of such cruelty. The 
strain of the protracted contest, the separation from her husband, the sur- 
render of the fort, with loss of home and hope, proved too much for her 
lofty spirit. She faded away, and, only three weeks after the surrender, 
died of a broken heart, and was laid to rest on the banks of the St. John 
by the same cruel hands which had wrought her sorrow. 

A little child left behind was afterwards sent to France, but no mention 
of it occurs in the La Tour genealogy, and it probably died young. 

The booty taken with the fort is estimated at two thousand pounds, 
and Winthrop rather peevishly blames La Tour for not having removed 
his plate and valuables to Boston, where they might have satisfied his 
creditors, instead of falling into the hands of his enemy. Distressed and 
beggared, La Tour still found refuge and sympathy with his New England 
friends. For, says Winthrop : 

" In the spring he went to Newfoundland, and was there courteously entertained by- 
Sir David Kirk. Returned to Boston again by the same vessel and all the next winter 
was entertained by Mr. Samuel Maverick at Noddle's Island." ' 

La Tour returned to Boston in one of Kirk's ships, and in the following 
January rented the same vessel from Maverick, Sir David's agent. This 
was for a trading expedition, and, undertaken after his bereavement and 
losses, and upon the conditions he accepted, it displays again the indomi- 
table will and spirit of the man. So far from spending all winter as an 
idle guest at Noddle's Island, we find him executing this lease on January 
14, and his contract with the merchants who furnished the trading-stock 
on January 19. He must have sailed about this time, for Winthrop 

1 Winthrop's Hist. N. Eng., II., 291. But in this statement Winthrop is not accurate, 
neither is he consistent with himself; for he says afterward, apparently under date [25 (5) 1645J 
of July 25, 1645, though the entry must have been made later, that : 

" M. La Tour having stayed here all winter and so far in the summer, and having petitioned 
the court for aid against M. D'Aulnay, and finding no hope to obtain help that way, took shipping 
in one of our vessels which went on fishing to Newfoundland hoping by means of Sir David Kirk, 
governor there, and some friends he might procure in England, to obtain aid from thence, intend- 
ing for that end to go thence to England, returned hither before winter." — Winthrop's Hist. N. 
Eng., II., 303. 



[22 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

himself elsewhere states that he arrived at Cape Sable u in the heart of 
winter." 

That, under the circumstances, his Boston friends furnished La Tour 
with this complete outfit, shows their confidence and perhaps their sym- 
pathy ; but these sentiments did not prevent an eye to business, nor 
obstruct their fondness for good bargains. From the results of the voyage 
La Tour, first of all, agreed to pay his friends the full price for their goods 
as per invoice. But secondly : " And in consideration of the Adventure 
w ch the\- run I doe promise to deliver vnto them or their Assignes over & 
aboue the principall aboue expressed three eight parts of all w ch shall 
remaine when the principall is payd." And again, thirdly: " For hyre of 
the afore said vessell " with crew, supplies, and necessary appointments, 
including " foure guns two murderers 6 musketts with powder shott match 
& other necessaries " he must give " the ful one halfe part of all such 
Bever Moose & other furrs & Merchandize as he shall get by way of trade 
w th the Indians in this his voyage " beyond the amount required to pay 
for his goods. That is, after settling for the stock in trade, La Tour 
would have one-eighth of the profits, while the ship took one-half and the 
merchants three-eighths. With a most prosperous voyage this would be a 
laborious if not impossible method of restoring his shattered fortunes. If 
he " turned pirate," as was said, it was upon this discouragement. 

Honest John Winthrop is the sole authority for this story. He de- 
clares : 

" When La Tour came to Cape Sable (which was in the heart of winter), he conspired 
with the master (being a stranger) and his own Frenchmen, being five, to go away with 
the vessel, and so forced out the other five English (himself shooting one of them in the 
face with a pistol) who, through special providence, having wandered up and down 
fifteen days found some Indians who gave them a shallop and victuals, and an Indian 
pilot. So they arrived safe at Boston in the third month [May]. Whereby it appeareth 
(as the Scripture saith) that there is no confidence in an unfaithful or carnal man. 
Though tied with so many strong bonds of courtesy, etc., he turned pirate, etc." 1 

Hannay in his History of Acadia discredits the tale. No doubt these 
five sailors returned and imposed upon the governor with this pitiful yarn, 
which Hannay suggests was more likely concocted to cover their own 
mutinous conduct or desertion. There is much to be said for this view. 
The thing is so inconsistent with all we know of La Tour's character and 
conduct, both before and after, that it becomes well nigh incredible. His 
version of the incident has not come down to us ; but his subsequent 
relations with New England, the distinguished consideration and remark- 

1 Winthrop's History of New England, II., 325. 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 



123 



able favors received from the British government, refute the supposition 
that such a stain could rest upon him. He afterward traded at Boston, 
an exception being made in his favor at a time when all exporting of pro- 
visions to either Dutch or French was interdicted. Living in Acadia 
under English rule, he stood so high as to receive almost unparalleled 
gifts at the hands of the government. As for Winthrop's journal, it 
ceased with the death of its author (March 26, 1649), and hence could not 
contain the correction which otherwise might have been added. 

La Tour appeared at Quebec August 8, 1646, where this governor of 
Acadia, proscribed from his province and outlawed in France, was received 
with acclamations from the people, and all honors from the commandant. 
He continued four years absent from Acadia, two of which at least he 
spent in Canada. Of this period we have but a meagre knowledge, but in 
those stirring times we may be sure such a man could not be idle. In 
1648 he is mentioned as having gone to fight against the Iroquois. He 
continued in the fur trade, and is said to have penetrated to the shores of 
Hudson's bay. 

Charnisay, of course, adorned his own cause in France, where he was 
complimented for his success, in letters commendatory, by the queen regent, 
in the name of the child-king, wherein it was assumed that La Tour wished 
to subvert the French authority and planned to deliver his fort to for- 
eigners. Charnisay's renewed commission recited his many and remark- 
able services, and gave him everything — all authority, and exclusive privi- 
leges of trade from the St. Lawrence to Virginia. He returned, summarily 
and forcibly ejected Nicholas Denys, the only remaining rival holding 
patents within his territory. He now reigned supreme, apparently having 
succeeded in all his intrigues and rapacious schemes. He was embarrassed, 
indeed, with an enormous debt incurred through such costly enterprises, 
but with an immensely rich monopoly, which might presently reimburse 
him fourfold. His career came to a sudden end, for in 1650 he was drowned 
in the river of Port Royal. " There is no further history or tradition con- 
cerning him. If Charnisay had any friends when living, none of them were 
to be found after his death. . . . His influence at the French court, 
which must have been great, rested upon such a slender foundation of merit 
that it did not survive him a single day. He who stood high in the royal 
favor was a few months after his death branded as a false accuser, in an 
official document signed by the king's own hand." * 

Upon Charnisay's death La Tour returned to France, and had little 

1 Hannay's History of Acadia, p. 188. 



1-4 LA TOUR AND ACADIA 

trouble in establishing his own innocence and securing a complete reversal 
of all the former proceedings against him, with a renewal of his commission 
as governor and lieutenant-general in Acadia. Indeed, the charter highly 
commended his fidelity and valor in defending the territorial rights of his 
sovereign, which, as the document recited, he would have continued to do 
had he not been hindered by the false accusations and pretenses of Charles 
de Menou, Sieur d'Aulnay Charnisay. 

La Tour returned to Acadia, and in September, 165 1, took peaceable 
possession once again of his plantation and Fort La Tour at the mouth of 
the St. John. Charnisay's widow, alarmed at the scope of his commission, 
sought to interest the Duke de Vendome. He readily secured letters 
patent from the compliant king, but did nothing under them. Early in 
1653 the bitter and disastrous controversy between these rival French 
houses of Acadia was at once and forever composed by the marriage of 
Lord La Tour to the widow of Charnisay. On February 24 of that 
year the voluminous and explicit marriage contract declared the object of 
the union to be to secure " the peace and tranquillity of the country, and 
concord and union between the two families." 

About the time that La Tour and his new wife were well settled at 
Fort La Tour, which had been bestowed as a marriage portion on Madame 
Charnisay, a new claimant appeared in the field. A certain M. Le Borgne, 
chief creditor of Charnisay, secured a judgment and execution against the 
estate, and now proposed to capture all Acadia for debt. He had already 
seized upon St. Peter's and Port Royal by a mixture of strategy and vio- 
lence, and soon appeared before Fort La Tour with a pretense of bringing 
supplies for sale, but intending to take the place by fraud and force. He 
was hastily recalled to Port Royal by news of the re-occupation of St. 
Peter's by Nicholas Denys under a new commission from the French king, 
who seems to have given away the province or any part of it as often as 
anybody would ask him. 

So Le Borgne, intending to return later, withdrew without revealing his 
treacherous scheme. But the next day an English fleet arrived before the 
fort, under the command of Major Robert Sedgwick of New England. 
Cromwell had sent four ships to Boston with intent there to organize an 
expedition against the Dutch of Manhattan. They arrived early in June, 
1654, and a few days later came news of peace concluded between Eng- 
land and Holland. Our fathers, entering into the scheme with alacrity, 
had already enlisted five hundred men ; and all thinking it a pity to waste 
so fine an armament, they soon saw it to be their duty to turn the fleet 
against their popish neighbors in Acadia, and this in a time of profound 



LA TOUR AND ACADIA 



125 



peace. Under this surprise and compulsion Fort La Tour surrendered, as 
did also Port Royal and Penobscot. Cromwell quite approved of this deft 
sleight-of-hand performance. 

But La Tour was full of resources. He hastened to England and 
pressed his claim under the grant of Sir William Alexander with great suc- 
cess. In connection with Thomas Temple and William Crowne, and for a 
small annual rental of beaver skins, he secured a grant and government of 
all the coasts with one hundred leagues inland from the present Lunenburg 
in Nova Scotia to the river St. George in Maine. La Tour did not wait 
for another turn in fortune's wheel, but sold out his share to Temple and 
Crowne, himself retiring to a comfortable private life still within his 
beloved Acadia, where he enjoyed a decade or more of prosperous tran- 
quillity, dying in 1666 at the age of seventy-two. 




MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB 
By Daniel Van Pelt 

Literary circles of New York have sustained a severe loss in the 
decease of Mrs. Lamb. Many tributes of respect and appreciation have 
already appeared in the contemporary press, and many more may be 
looked for. It is eminently fitting that a leading part in these testimo- 
nials to the worth of the departed should be taken by the periodical which 
owed so much of its success to her signal ability and her indefatigable 
industry, and which had come to be so closely identified with her name. 

The simple story of her life is quickly told. She was born at Plain- 
field, Massachusetts, on August 13, 1829. Her maiden name indicates more 
than one suggestive line of ancestry. Martha Joanna Reade Nash was the 
daughter of Arvin Nash and Lucinda Vinton. Thus, on the mother's 
side a strain of the mercurial Gallic blood would be apt to lend enthusiasm 
to the nature, and warmth and brilliancy to the literary style. Her pater- 
nal grandparents were Jacob Nash and Joanna Reade. Jacob Nash was 
a soldier of the Revolution, and traced his pedigree to the company who 
came over in the Mayflower. Her grandmother's family embraced within 
its English branch one. whose name has become a household word in 
literature — Charles Reade the novelist. The laws of heredity would 
determine at the outset that a person thus descended would develop a 
love for her country and its history, as well as incline to a literary expres- 
sion of that penchant. 

In her early girlhood Mrs. Lamb spent much of her time in Goshen, 
Massachusetts. Her school-days brought her to Northampton and East- 
hampton. People acquainted with her in those days speak of her as bright, 
healthy, and wholesome, energetic to a degree, and with great confidence in 
her ability to accomplish difficult tasks. Her fondness for books made her 
father's library a place of delight to her at a very tender age. In a paper 
read before a historical society some years ago, the writer gives a pleasant 
glimpse of Mrs. Lamb's initiation to her career as historian: " She herself 
tells with charming simplicity of her introduction to history, wondering 
with a child's eagerness if the Scottish Chiefs were true, and rummaging 
until she found an old musty history of Scotland. It was a yellow-paged 
volume, printed in the ancient style which reveled in long s's and other 
eccentricities ; but, with a child's confidence, she was undismayed at the 



MRS. MARTHA J. LAMH 12J 

unattractive appearance of the book, and seating herself on the floor read 
steadily from beginning to end * to find about William Wallace.' After 
this beginning she read all the historical works in her father's library, and 
scandalized Ker family and amused her friends by innocently trying to 
borrow precious volumes from the neighbors." But besides this part of 
her mental equipment, upon which rests her reputation to-day, it is not so 
well known that she had remarkable mathematical talents. Before her 
marriage she was a teacher in a polytechnic institute, and had undertaken 
the revising and editing of some text-books on mathematics for the higher 
classes of such schools. This aptitude, too, enabled her to prepare a pop- 
ular work explaining the Coast Survey to lay readers, a treatise published by 
the Harpers ; while her studies in this connection naturally led her, again, 
to write the excellent paper on " The American Life-Saving Service." 

In 1852, when she had attained the age of twenty-three, she was married 
to Mr. Charles A. Lamb of Ohio, who moved with her to the city of 
Chicago. Here another side of her character found a scope for develop- 
ment. During her residence of eight years in Chicago, she started a 
movement in practical and much-needed benevolence, which resulted in 
the founding of the Home for the Friendless and Half-Orphan Asylum, 
which is still in flourishing condition to-day. In 1863, in the dark days 
of civil war, she acted as secretary of the first Sanitary Fair; and its suc- 
cess was largely ascribed to her enthusiasm in the cause, and her well- 
directed efforts in promoting the enterprise. 

In 1866 Mrs. Lamb came to take up her residence permanently in New 
York. It had now become expedient that she engage in literary work, 
and, like so many others who have such labors in view, she was inevitably 
drawn toward the metropolis. She began immediately to prepare for 
writing the work which has more than anything else established her fame. 
At the same time her industrious pen and versatile mind turned to other 
and lighter fields of literature. In a space of less than two years (1869- 
1870) she put forth no less than eight books for children. In 1873 she 
ventured upon fiction and produced Spicy, a novel which attained some 
note ; and about fifty shorter stories attest that this was a vein which Mrs. 
Lamb could work with remarkable ease. An illustrated volume was pub- 
lished by the Appletons in 1879, °f which the text was written by Mrs. 
Lamb ; the very title — Historic Homes of America — being abundantly sug- 
gestive of the interesting contents as regards its products both of the 
pencil and of the pen. In 1881 and 1882 she was induced to lend her 
powers as a graceful writer to. enhance the Christmas cheer in American 
homes, and there appeared successively The Christmas Owl and The 



128 MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB 

Christmas Basket. In 1883 sne published her Wall Street in History, which 
attracted attention, and her position as an authority on the history of 
the metropolis was so well recognized that she was invited to prepare 
the historical sketch of New York city for the tenth census. A Memo- 
rial of Dr. J. D. Russ, Snow and Sunshine, and about one hundred magazine 
articles on historical and other subjects, indicate not only the industry but 
the versatility of her pen, which seems never to have rested since she 
entered upon her distinctively literary career. 

But in the midst of all these various literary labors, the History of Nezv 
York City was growing under her hands during a period of fifteen years of 
stud\- and investigation. Up to this time no history of the metropolis 
upon such a scale, commensurate with the greatness of its subject, had 
been undertaken. There were a few antiquated treatises ; one by Chief 
Justice Smith, carrying events to the year 1756, continued to a somewhat 
later period by his son, and republished as thus extended in 1830. There 
was William Dunlap the actor's history, useful in its way but not very 
scholarly, and leaving our information suspended somewhere among the 
early years of this century. A number of minor attempts, more or less 
fragmentary, had also been made to record the story of our city. Finally, 
a few years before the war, was issued a book that could at all compare, 
in exhaustive study and attractive style, with Mrs. Lamb's later effort, and 
this, too, was from a woman's hand, Miss Mary L. Booth. But even this 
left free scope for such an undertaking as was contemplated and finally 
executed by the subject of this sketch. With every added year materials 
for a history of our city were accumulating ; the methods of studying 
and writing history were improved, while its requirements were more 
exacting. And, above all, it was after the war especially that our great 
city took ever more gigantic strides in the way of commercial devel- 
opment, material growth, and literary importance. There was a place for 
a new history to be written under such conditions ; it but required suffi- 
cient courage and ability to carry out the work. Neither of these neces- 
sary qualities was lacking in Mrs. Lamb. 

The History of the City of Nezv York was published in two volumes, 
in the year 1881. " It is not so much," said one competent critic, "that 
Mrs. Lamb has written a history of the largest city in the western hemi- 
sphere, but that she has executed her task with such fidelity, accuracy, 
excellence, and signal success." It is true that one who is familiar with 
the ground she covers, as the result of special studies on similar topics, 
will occasionally find little slips in statement, some facts unreported, and 
others not quite correctly reported. But it would be exceedingly unfair 



MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB 120, 

to press such minutice as vitiating the record as a whole. It must not be 
forgotten that she alone and personally covered the whole field, while her 
cavilers may have but fixed their attention upon parts of it. As what 
she wrote was honestly her own composition, in the heat and labor of 
composing some unessential details may have escaped her eye, or may 
have worn a different look from what they possessed upon the unimpas- 
sioned note-book. Another fault may be said to be an inclination to dis- 
cursiveness. We are occasionally carried far away from our city, to scale 
the Heights of Abraham with Wolfe ; to traverse the Jerseys with Wash- 
ington as he retires before Cornwallis ; and we fight one or two battles 
under his magnificent leadership, which were not fought on either Long 
Island or Manhattan Island. But then we almost forget how far we are 
away from our subject in the charm of the style and the vividness of the 
narrative which delight and beguile us. Perhaps not least among the 
merits of this history is that it does not forbid but rather invites the con- 
tinuance of effort in the same direction. Other histories of New York 
city have sprung up in the wake of it, stimulated thereto doubtless by 
having seen how interestingly such a story could be told. And as scholar- 
ship too finds with every advancing decade more materials to be worked 
into readable history and valuable information, it is not surprising that 
the present decade has seen initiated a history of New York city on a 
very much larger scale than even Mrs. Lamb's, but conducted by several 
investigators at the same time. Many tokens of appreciation of a flatter- 
ing nature came to Mrs. Lamb as the result of her achievement. 

At the time of her death she was a member of many learned societies, 
two among which she prized peculiarly — the American Historical Associa- 
tion, of which she was a life member, and the Clarendon Historical Society 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, of which she was made a fellow. 

In 1883, two years after completing her history, Mrs. Lamb purchased 
the Magazine of American History, and assumed the editorial direc- 
tion of it herself. Although it had then been issued a few years, this 
periodical felt at once the stimulus of a new life when Mrs. Lamb assumed 
the editorship. Her name alone gave it prestige, but the nature of the 
contents kept on augmenting its reputation, and ere long it held easily 
the foremost rank amid publications of this kind. No cultured home could 
afford to be without its valuable and unique information, illuminating alike 
topics of a larger and of a minor or more local historical interest. Its 
scope allowed it to give an entree to papers and discussions which the 
popular magazines barred out as too " dry," but which, somehow, took 
color and new interest when placed before the people in these pages. The 

Vol. XXIX.— No. 2.-9 



130 



MRS. MARTHA T- LAMB 



conduct of the magazine has tended to withdraw Mrs. Lamb from literary- 
activity in other directions, so that her life has become identified with its 
life, and at her death it remains a monument to her uninterrupted devotion 
to historical studies even when old age was coming on apace. To within 
a few days of her death her time and thought were given to it. Warned 
to take heed to herself as the inclemency of the weather increased, she 
stiil persisted in her daily visits to the office. She contracted a severe 
cold, resulting in pneumonia. As the old year passed away and the new 
year came in, she was trembling on the brink of the grave; and early on 
the morning of Monday, January 2, 1893, her useful and industrious career 
was terminated by a peaceful death. 



A NORTH CAROLINA MONASTERY 1 

By J. S. Bassett 

Early in the sixth century persecution in Rome drove Benedict of 
Nursia into exile. After some wandering he settled at Monte Casino, 
and drew around him a school composed of a few associates of pious inclina- 
tion, severe habits, and unhesitating devotion to duty. His fame spread 
till he found that his school had grown to large numbers, and had attracted 
students from all Christendom. Out of this school grew the monastery of 
Monte Casino, and out of the monastery developed the order of Bene- 
dictine monks. To estimate the influence of this order would be difficult. 
Speaking broadly, it educated Europe. Whenever a colony of Benedict- 
ines went out among the barbarians, it became a centre from which were 
spread the forces of enlightenment, morality, and improved economic con- 
ditions. In conducting their enterprises their spirits were heroic. Win- 
ter blast, sterile soils, and rude society, did not deter them. To the 
vicissitudes of nature they opposed courage and industry; to the rude- 
ness of men they opposed a calm, persevering, Christ-like spirit. They 
were well suited for the conditions they encountered. They strengthened 
the cause of right, protected the weak, opposed feudal robbery, and in 
short, during the six centuries following the establishing of the order, they 
exerted a generally equalizing influence over the social surface of Europe. 

They fitted so well into the past that we are accustomed to imagine 
that they belonged there. Unless we actually stumble on their long black 
habits we forget that the Benedictines are still active and true to the pur- 
poses of their teacher, are continually sending out parties to found new col- 
leges or new abbeys. The writer realized this not long ago, when he had 
his attention called to the Mary Help abbey, near Belmont, North Carolina. 

Perhaps the conditions of such an attempt long ago would be repro- 
duced no more exactly in any state of the Union than, in North Carolina. 
This is without doubt the most non-Catholic state in America. Gaston 
county, in which Belmont is situated, is perhaps the most non-Catholic 
county in the state. It lies in the district of the Cape Fear and Catawba 
valleys, within which the Scotch colonies settled in the eighteenth century, 
and the inhabitants are mostly Presbyterians. At the time the enterprise 
began there were only eighteen hundred Catholics in the whole state. 

1 A paper read before the Historical Seminary of Johns Hopkins University, December 16, 1892. 



1 32 A NORTH CAROLINA MONASTERY 

Agriculture in the south, conducted for the most part by negro labor, is 
careless and superficial. Society has not entirely emerged from the semi- 
feudal conditions of ante-bellum days. Taken all in all, it seemed that 
here was an experiment, an investigation of which would be of interest 
both to the historian and to the sociologist. Through the kindness of the 
monks, materials were easily attainable, and it was comparatively a simple 
task to write this sketch of the past history and present life of the abbey. 

Since the days of Spanish colonization there have been Benedictine 
foundations in South and Central America; but not till 1842 was there 
one in the United States. In that year Arch-abbot Wimmer of Munich, 
Bavaria, founded St. Vincent's abbey in Westmoreland county, Pennsyl- 
vania. This is the parent of all the Benedictine abbeys now in this 
country. Among the largely Catholic population of the north and the 
west, the order has had great success ; but for a time the south remained 
to them an unfallowed field. 

In the year 1876 Rev. Dr. J. J. O'Connell gave for establishing a colony 
a plantation of five hundred acres, situated near a station on the R. & D. 
R.R., then known as Garibaldi, but since changed to Belmont. 

So far as the natural conditions of the site are concerned, they could 
hardly have been better in the state. The climate is a happy medium 
between the cold winters of the mountains, lying fifty or more miles to the 
west, and the semi-tropical seasons of the Atlantic coasts just below Wil- 
mington. The soil, of red clay mixed with sand, is capable of being made 
very fertile. It produces cotton, tobacco, and all the cereals. Without 
cultivation the farmer may reap enough native hay for his stock. Red 
clover grows to great advantage. All kinds of fruits abound, the section 
being the home of the Catawba grape. The location is very healthful. 
The people are, perhaps, more intelligent than average southern farmers ; 
and as to liquor drinking, they boast that they are the most temperate in 
North Carolina. Briefly, the spot is well suited for intelligent, diversified 
farming, and the people are good neighbors. 

The design of the Benedictines, when they accepted Dr. O'Connell's 
gift, was to erect a college to educate priests for the southern work. 
Accordingly, during the same year, Rev. Dr. Herman Wolfe led out the 
first colony, which found shelter for a while in Dr. O'Connell's house. The 
quiet sons of the Covenanters were surprised at the sight of the black-robed 
figures about their old neighbor's premises. Monks ! They had never 
before seen one. About all they knew of such beings they had gotten 
from the impressive pictures of Fox's Book of Martyrs, and from the milk- 
and-water stuff that is usually doled out to children by Sunday-school 



A NORTH CAROLINA MONASTERY 1 33 

libraries. North Carolina is such a strongly dissenting state, that in 
many rural districts even a surpliced Episcopal clergyman is an object of 
interest. Imagine, then, the feelings of these good people when they found 
themselves face to face with real, living monks. 

The Benedictines, however, settled down to their work at once. With 
seven or eight boys, whom they gathered with much effort, the teachers 
began the routine work of what had been called " Saint Mary's college." 
The lay brothers went to their tasks in kitchen, workshop, and field, and 
wherever the care of the farm took them. The neighbors found them 
affable, self-contained, industrious, and strictly honest in business affairs. 
If there was but little communication, there was respect and no ill-will on 
either side. 

The first work of Dr. Wolfe was erecting a college building. He soon 
had ready a two-story frame house. Four years later a three-story brick 
building, seventy-five by thirty-five feet, was constructed for the college, 
and the monks used the wooden structure for their quarters. 

Nine years passed, and the number of students increased from eight to 
sixteen or twenty. The mother abbey had such demands from the north 
and the west that the work in North Carolina was not pushed very ener- 
getically. Brothers looked on Saint Mary's as almost a place of exile. 
Failure stared the young college in the face. Arch-abbot Wimmer, realiz- 
ing that something must be done to prevent dissolution, applied to Rome 
to have Saint Mary's erected into an independent abbey. The request 
was granted, and the new abbey was called Mary Help. 

After much effort a small band of volunteers was secured, who agreed 
to go south and take the new work in hand. On July 14, 1885, these 
assembled in the chapter house of Saint Vincent's to elect an abbot. 
This election must be held in strict accord with canon law, and the utmost 
secrecy must be observed. The unanimous choice fell on Rev. Leo Haid, 
secretary, chaplain, and professor at Saint Vincent's. A better man for the 
place it would have been hard to find, He is well known in Catholic circles 
as an orator, and his success with Mary Help abbey has been remarkable. 

By the fall opening the sixteen students had increased to forty-five. 
To-day, seven years later, it is over a hundred. Plans were made for a new 
college building to be erected in parts. In 1887 the east wing, seventy-five 
by sixty feet, was completed. It is of brick, three stories high, with a base- 
ment. In 1888 the central building, fifty-four by sixty feet, was put up. 
The west wing, of the same size as the east wing, remains to be built. 
In 1891 they added one hundred and twenty feet to the old college build- 
ing, and now use it for an abbey. At the present time they are building 



154 A NORTH CAROLINA MONASTERY 

an abbey church. It is to be a handsome Gothic structure, one hundred 
and fifteen by fifty-four feet. 

Besides. Mary Help has become a mother abbey. In 1887 Abbot 
Haid erected a high school in Richmond, Virginia. In 1891 he opened 
Saint Leo's military college at Clear Lake, Florida. The buildings of the 
latter are ample, and the institution is said to be in a flourishing condition. 

In 18S8 Abbot Haid was consecrated bishop of Messene and vicar 
apostolic of North Carolina. He refused to resign his abbatial position, 
and by a special arrangement, common in ancient times, but never before 
employed in the United States, he was allow r ed to fulfill his new duties 
and still to retain his office as abbot. 

In casting up the general statistics of the abbey at the end of the 
seventh year of its existence, it is seen that the membership has increased 
from four priests, four sub-deacons, two clerics, and four lay brothers in 
1885, to seventeen priests, two deacons, six clerics, three novices, twenty- 
two lay brothers, and eighteen lay novices and candidates in 1892 ; that 
is to say, a growth from fourteen to sixty-eight. Moreover, two hundred 
and fourteen acres of land have been added to the original farm, thus 
making seven hundred and fourteen acres in one tract. 

The condition of the farm is much better than it was originally. Land 
has been improved by careful and studied cultivation, and blooded stock 
has been gradually introduced. All supplies needed have been raised by 
the monks. In the winter of 1885-86, with four cows and two horses to 
keep, the abbot had to buy hay ; now he has feed in abundance for his 
thirty head of cattle and seven horses. The system of agriculture is the 
most modern, and the farm has become a model for the neighbors. A 
large orchard furnishes fruit for home consumption, with a small amount 
for sale, while the abbey vineyard furnishes wine for table use and for 
sacramental purposes. Incidentally, it may be remarked that land in the 
immediate vicinity has increased in value during the last eight years from 
eight or ten dollars to twenty-five or thirty dollars an acre. 

It is undoubtedly a fact that the abbey is becoming very wealthy. It 
is equally true, I am informed, that it is all through the efforts of the 
monks themselves. They have received no outside aid. While individ- 
ual farmers have become poor, they have become wealthy ; and this while 
educating without charge their own candidates and many other students. 

The cause lies in two facts: (1) The organization of the labor forces 
of the abbey, and (2) the manner of life of the monks themselves. 

Monasticism is the purest type of communism. All property is held 
in common. A monk can neither give nor receive anything without the 






A NORTH CAROLINA MONASTERY I 35 

consent of the abbot. Whatever he produces, goes into the common 
store ; whatever he needs for his simple wants he gets from this store 
through the procurator. The saving is great. The abbot has control of 
all expenditure. He also directs the entire life of the members of the 
order. He assigns each one his work according to what he thinks is his 
most profitable adaptability. The member must submit. If he thinks 
his task is impossible, he may tell his superior so in a spirit of gentleness 
and patience; but if the abbot still thinks that he should do the work, 
then the disciple must yield, and no more objection is allowed. 

Although the abbot is elected as in a perfect democracy, he holds 
power almost as if he were an autocrat. He is largely independent of 
higher authority, and to him every monk is responsible for the correct per- 
formance of his duty. He is head farmer, head teacher — supreme over 
each department. He thinks out the plans of the monastery; he directs 
their execution. Bishop Haid is professor of moral theology in the col- 
lege, and works as the other teachers. He may often, when other duties 
allow, be seen in the fields working with the lay brothers. 

The routine life of the monks, just as it was a dozen or more centuries 
ago, is severe and simple. They arise at 3.45 o'clock, at the summons of 
the abbey bell, spend two hours in prayer and meditation, partake of a 
slight breakfast, and then go about their daily tasks. Study, rest, and rec- 
reation are duly provided for. At 9 o'clock in the evening all retire. The 
religious motive drives away rivalry and discontent. Each one works 
from a sense of religious duty. The abbot says they do not need watch- 
ing ; he always knows they are doing their duty. 

The health of the community is excellent. If we except attendance 
due to accidents from the use of machinery, the physicians' fees do not 
reach ten dollars a year. There are some persons at hard work at the 
advanced age of seventy- five or seventy-eight years. From the monks' 
standpoint the abbey is represented as a delightful place to live in. 

Monasticism as compared with communism has one decided advantage: 
No man is born a monk. It has been the fate of the attempts in the past 
to establish societies on the communistic basis, that as soon as the origi- 
nal members have been replaced by a younger.generation, their own chil- 
dren for the most part, the project has failed. Taking the vows of monastic 
life is a thing of choice, and is backed by the strongest religious motives. 
Monasticism looks to earnest conviction for its continued existence ; com- 
munism must rely on the fortuitous circumstances of birth. 



BAYARD TAYLOR 
By The Editor 

Many interesting' and pleasant memories are associated with the name 
oi one who has a just claim to what Halleck happily called 

" That frailer thing- than leaf or flower, 
A poet's immortality ; " 



— whose brief and brilliant career, "the truly American story of a grand, 
cheerful, active, self-developing, self-sustaining life, remains as an enduring 
inheritance for all coming generations." 

Bayard Taylor, journalist, traveler, poet, critic, novelist, and lecturer, 
was born in Kermett Square, the name of a pleasant and pretty rural vil- 
lage in Chester county, Pennsylvania, Jan- 
uary ii, 1825. He was descended from a 
Quaker family, and breathed from the 
first a moral atmosphere as pure and 
healthful as the mountain air in which 
his infancy was cradled. His entrance 
upon active life was as an apprentice in a 
printing office, where he began to learn 
the trade at the age of seventeen, receiv- 
ing a new impulse to his imperfect studies, 
and in some sense supplying the defects 
of his early education. In GraJiam s 
Magazine for May, 1843, there is a poem 
of his, entitled " Modern Greece," signed 
J. B. Taylor, and another in August, 
1844, called "The Nameless Bird." In 
the following year he ceased to use his 
r / first name of James, and began to call 
himself J. Bayard Taylor, which he had 
seldom done before, and under that arrangement of his patronymic ap- 
peared in the same magazine as the author of " Night on the Deep " and 
" The Poet's Ambition." By this time the promise of his life had been 
recognized by several Philadelphians, who kindly advanced the young 
writer the necessary means to enable him to visit Europe, and he com- 





£U 



^L 



Jci^o/o^ 



BAYARD TAYLOR I 37 

mcnced his adventurous journey with knapsack and pilgrim staff. On 
the eve of departure for the Old World he published a volume entitled 
Ximcna and Other Poems, a brochure almost as rare as George Bancroft's 
poems, or the little volume of Judge Story's called Reason and Other 
Poems, all of which are now lying on my library table. 

Soon after his return to his native land Taylor published the fruits of 
his foreign travel and study in Views Afoot, a volume which has always 
been a favorite with the public, as it was with its author. After a brief 
course of literary activity in Pennsylvania he shook off the dust of rural 
life from his feet, and early in 1848 appeared in New York. Here he 
became attached to the staff of the Tribune — a connection which continued 
for three decades. A year later he made a journey to California, return- 
ing by way of Mexico. Before his departure, in 185 1, on a protracted tour 
in the East, he had made the acquaintance of Longfellow, Whittier, and 
Holmes, and of the New York literati Bryant, Halleck, Willis, Poe, Mor- 
ris, Park Benjamin, and the brothers Duyckinck, and had published two 
additional volumes of poems, also Eldorado; or, Adventures in the Path 
of Empire — a peculiarly popular book. 

A few days after his return from his third tour, Taylor told me that he 
had traveled fifty thousand miles. His letters describing the journey 
appeared from time to time in the Tribune, and later in a series of uniform 
volumes. During all this period Taylor was becoming a proficient in many 
modern languages, of which the German was a favorite as early as his 
twenty-first year; and he had become a most popular lecturer, appearing 
in all the principal cities and towns of the northern, middle, and western 
states. He made a fourth tour in 1856-58, and in 1862-63 was Secretary 
of Legation at St. Petersburg, acting for a time as charge d' affaires. In 
1874 the poet-traveler revisited Egypt, attended the millennial celebration 
in Iceland, and on his return, during the same year, published an interest- 
ing account of his journeys to those distant lands. His latest and most 
ambitious poetical work, entitled Prince Deukalion, appeared but a few 
days before his death. 

Taylor's accurate knowledge of foreign countries was utilized by Amer- 
ican publishers, who employed him to edit at one time a Cyclopcedia of 
Modern Travel, at another an Illustrated Library of Travel in eight vol- 
umes. He edited, with George Ripley, a Handbook of Literature and Fine 
Arts, and was the author of numerous novels and short stories, perhaps 
the best of which is called Can a Life Hide Itself ? The most ambitious 
attempt of Taylor's authorship was his admirable metrical translation of 
Faust, issued in 1870-71. It is not speaking too strongly to pronounce it 



I38 BAYARD TAYLOR 

a marvel of poetic diction, and the best annotated edition of the greatest 
German poem yet written. Had he been spared a few years longer to the 
world, he would have enriched it with a life of Goethe— a task for which 
he was perhaps of all men best fitted. But, alas ! the book is unwritten. 

In his ever-active, busy career as a professional literary man Taylor pro- 
duced, edited, and translated, between the years 1844 and 1878, no less 
than fifty-two volumes, a harvest surpassed by few whose labors have 
covered much longer periods. Added to all this, there was much good 
work of various kinds in the New York Tribune, with which he was so 
lone identified, in contributions to the North American Review and to the 
Atlantic, Harper 's, and Scribners monthlies, and in the numerous lectures 
and addresses delivered during nearly three decades. His last published 
writing, and also, I believe, his latest composition, was the poem tribu- 
tary to Bryant, " Epicedium," which first appeared a few days after Tay- 
lor's death. What could more touchingly herald the tidings of Taylor's 
obsequies in a foreign land than this fifth stanza of his own " Epicedium " 
for the venerable poet who preceded him but so short a time on the last 
journey to that land from whence no returning envoy comes? 

" And last, ye Forms, with shrouded face, 

Hiding the features of your woe, 
That on the fresh sod of his buriai-place 

Your myrtle, oak, and laurel throw — 

Who are ye ? — whence your silent sorrow ? 
Strange is your aspect, alien your attire : 

Shall we, who knew him, borrow 
Your unknown speech for Grief's august desire ? 

Lo ! one, with lifted brow 
Says : ' Nay, he knew and loved me : I am Spain ! ' 

Another : ' I am Germany, 

Drawn sadly nearer now 
By songs of his and mine that make one strain, 
Though parted by the world-dividing sea ! ' 

And from the hills of Greece there blew 
A wind that shook the olives of Peru, 

Till all the world that knew, 
Or, knowing not, shall yet awake to know 
The sweet humanity that fused his song, 

The haughty challenge unto Wrong, 
And for the trampled Truth his fearless blow, 

Acknowledged his exalted mood 
Of faith achieved in song-born solitude, 

And give him high acclaim, 
With those who followed Good, and found it Fame ! " 



BAYARD TAYLOR 1 39 

Notwithstanding the enormous amount of his intellectual labor, it was 
all well done, and in the highest degree of perfection of which he was 
capable. I spoke to him once of his literary tasks, and remarked that it 
was often so urgent and hastily executed that I supposed he grew careless 
and indifferent about its quality ; but he answered in strangely strong terms, 
"No; in all this various work that you allude to, I am always as much in 
earnest to do my best as if salvation for all time depended upon it." 

" This is not the place," remarks the Tribune, " tor a critical estimate of his writings, 
but there is one conspicuous quality in them which shone so brightly also in his personal 
character that we cannot pass it over here in silence. That quality is honesty. It is seen 
in the frank simplicity of his style, the thoroughness of his workmanship, the clearness of 
his opinions, the fidelity with which he held through life to his chosen work, sparing no 
pains to produce the very best of which he was capable, however small the subject or 
trivial the reward. Nobody could read one of his books without feeling the influence of 
this virtue. Nobody could know him without perceiving that this high literary merit was 
a reflex of an earnest and simple nature. If there is a long remembrance for honest men, 
there is no less a long life for honest books. It is a golden lesson for authors and jour- 
nalists, that in this instance literary honesty and personal uprightness have secured a 
brilliant success in life, and an enduring reputation." 

The American government has during the present century appointed 
many men of letters to represent the republic as ambassadors and consuls, 
who have shown that an accomplished man of letters may also be a skillful 
diplomat and thorough man of business — may, in fact, be the " Perfect 
Ambassador " of the old Spanish treatise. Beginning in 1810 with Barlow, 
the United States has since been represented abroad by Wheaton, Ban- 
croft, Irving, Hawthorne, Motley, Marsh, Theodore S. Fay, Bigelow, 
Boker, Lowell, Howells, Bret Harte, and John Hay ; but it may be 
questioned whether any one of these were better fitted to represent our 
country at the post to which he was accredited than was Bayard Taylor 
when appointed by President Hayes to the court of Berlin — an appointment 
which met with the unanimous approval of the press and people. The 
poet departed for his new field of labor in April, 1878, and ere the close of 
the year came the startling and unlooked-for intelligence of his death, on 
Thursday afternoon, December 19. His funeral services were celebrated 
in Berlin on the Sunday following, Dr. Joseph P. Thompson, formerly of 
New York, and Berthold Auerbach, the German poet, making appropriate 
and impressive addresses in the presence of an immense concourse of people. 

Many meetings in honor of the poet's memory were held in New York 
and elsewhere. At one of these gatherings, which occurred in Tremont 
temple, Boston, on the evening of January 15, 1879, a rare combination was 



[40 HA YARD TAYLOR 

witnessed, which no one who had the good fortune to be present will ever 
forget — namely, the following poem, written for the occasion by Henry W. 
Longfellow, and read by Oliver Wendell Holmes, who prefaced it with 

these well-chosen words : 

" I can hardly ask your attention to the lines which -Mr. Longfellow has written and 
done me the honor of asking me to read, without a few words of introduction. The poem 
should have flowed from his own lips, in those winning accents, too rarely heard in any 
assembly, and never forgotten by those who have listened to them. But its tenderness 
and sweetness are such that no imperfection of utterance can quite spoil its harmonies. 
There are tones in the contralto of our beloved poet's melodious song that were born with 
it, and must die with it when its music is silenced. A tribute from such a singer would 
honor the obsequies of the proudest sovereign, would add freshness to the laurels of the might- 
iest conqueror; but he who this evening has this tribute laid upon his head wore no crown 
save that which the sisterhood of the Muses wove for him. His victories were all peaceful 
ones, and there was no heartache after any one of them. His life was a journey through 
many lands of men, through realms of knowledge. He left his humble door in boyhood, 
poor, untrained, unknown, unheralded, unattended. He found himself onceat least — as I 
well remember his telling me — hungry and well-nigh penniless in the streets of a European 
city, feasting his eyes at a baker's window and tightening his girdle in place of a repast. 

"Once more he left his native land, now in the strength of manhood, known and hon- 
ored throughout the world of letters, the sovereignty of the nation investing him with its 
mantle of dignity, the laws of civilization surrounding him with the halo of their inviolable 
sanctity ; the boy who went forth to view the world afoot on equal footing with the poten- 
tates and princes who by right of birth or by right of intellect swayed the destinies of 
great empires. He returns to us no more as we remember him ; but his career, his 
example, the truly American story of a grand, cheerful, active, self-developing, self-sus- 
taining life, remains as an enduring inheritance for all coming generations." 

" Dead he lay among his books, 
The peace of God was in his looks. 
As the statues in the gloom 
Watch o'er Maximilian's tomb, 
So these volumes, from their shelves. 
Watch him, silent as themselves. 
Ah ! his hand will nevermore 
Turn their storied pages o'er! 
Nevermore his lips repeat 
Songs of theirs, however sweet ! 
Let the lifeless body rest, 
He is gone who was its guest. 
Gone, as travelers haste to leave 
An inn, nor tarry until eve. 
Traveler, in what realms afar ; 
In what planet, in what star; 
In what vast aerial space, 
Shines the light upon thy face ? 



BAYARD TAYLOR 141 

In what gardens of delight 
Rest thy weary feet to-night ? 
Poet ! thou whose latest verse 
Was a garland on thy hearse— 
Thou hast sung with organ tone, 
In Deukalion 's life thine own. 
On the ruins of the past 
Blooms the perfect flower at last. 
Friend ! but yesterday the bells 
Rang for thee their loud farewells ; 
And to-day they toll for thee, 
Lying dead beyond the sea : 
Lying dead among thy books, 
The peace of God in all thy looks." 

Memory recalls to me that I was a schoolboy on College Hill, Pough- 
keepsie, when Taylor first lectured in that town, and when I first saw him 
at a supper-party under my father's hospitable roof. He possessed what 
old Fuller quaintly called a " handsome man-case," and was, I think, the 
tallest of American poets, standing over six feet. Later in life he came to 
resemble a Teuton in look and bearing, and was greatly changed from my 
early recollections, when he possessed a slight figure and something of the 
Grecian type in head and face, as represented in an early portrait of him, 
seated on the roof of a house in Damascus, painted by Thomas Hicks. 
There comes back to me the remembrance of many delightful meetings 
with Bayard Taylor during a period of more than a quarter of a century. 
One of the earliest occurred in a western city. He appointed a rendez- 
vous, and, escaping from his lecture committee, he came to the trysting- 
place, bringing Maurice Strakosch, and introducing him as a friend and the 
composer of music to one of his (Taylor's) earliest poems. How many 
hours we sat and smoked and sang and told stories and talked music and 
art and poetry over our good Rhenish wine, I will not venture to say. I 
was then fresh from my first visit to Europe, and was brimful of Mario, 
Grisi, and Lablache, of famous pictures and of literary celebrities, and so 
found great delight in the conversation of my companions and seniors. 
Some years later we had another joyous evening, dining together in com- 
pany with Halleck. Taylor told us, referring to the short berths in the 
sleeping-cars, that his legs were too long for a lecturer, and that he should 
stop that business as soon as " Cedarcroft " was finished and paid for. If 
my memory serves me, he said that it was entirely built with the proceeds 
of his lecturing. Taylor related a little incident of railway travel in Ger- 
many. During his conversation with a fellow-passenger it soon became 



14- BAYARD TAYLOR 

evident that they were both great travelers. At length, on inquiring 
each other's names, the fact was developed that each was well known to 
the other by reputation. They had some junketing together, and after- 
wards became warm friends, and, I believe, correspondents. Taylor's com- 
panion was Ferdinand von Hockselter, the well-known German traveler 
and geologist, who died in Vienna in July, 1884, and whose writings have 
made his name as well known throughout the scientific world as that of 
Bayard Taylor is in the field of belles-lettres. This is the incident that 
gave rise to the story of a similar meeting with Humboldt, of whom it was 
untruthfully and maliciously asserted that he said, " Bayard Taylor has 
traveled more and seen less than any man I ever met!" 

The last time Mr. Taylor was in my house was in May, 1877, when he 
came to meet the divers dignitaries who honored the unveiling of the statue 
of Fitz-Greene Halleck in the Central Park, Bryant and Boker and Curtis 
being among the other authors present, while the late President Hayes 
and his cabinet, with the general of the army and the vice-admiral of the 
navy, assembled to do especial grace to the memory of that poet. And 
the last time that I met him was at the Goethe Club reception given at Del- 
monico's, on the eve of his departure for Germany. The same society that 
gave him such a brilliant send-off held a meeting in honor of his memory. 
Said one of the speakers : " The circles of our felicities make short arches ! 
Who shall question the wise axiom of Sir Thomas Browne, the stout old 
knight of Norwich, when he thinks upon the bright sunshine of the meet- 
ing of this club but a few short months ago, and the sombre shadows which 
hang over us here to-night? Then, with song and dance and wine, we 
wished ' God-speed ' to the prosperous poet on his way to an honorable 
post in a distant land ; this evening we meet together again to mourn over 
his untimely death — the important literary undertaking of his life, as he 
deemed it, and of which he had so long dreamed as likely to forever link 
his name with that of Germany's greatest poet — the life of Goethe, his 
magnum opus, unfinished, if indeed begun. Full of honors if not of years, 
he passed to his rest ; and he is properly entitled to a place among the 
Dii minores of modern poetry! " It may be added that a few months later 
his mortal remains were brought back from Berlin, and on Saturday, March 
15, 1879, were buried with suitable honors in Longwood Cemetery in his 
native county. 

" Such graves as his are pilgrim shrines, 
Shrines to no code or creed confined — 
The Delphian vales, the Palestines, 
The Meccas of the mind." 



BAYARD TAYLOR 



143 



The aged parents of the poet survived him, and lived to celebrate the 
sixty-sixth anniversary of their marriage, which took place in the year 
1 81 8. Joseph Taylor, his venerable father, who was born at Kennett 
Square in 1795, and had always resided there, died June 23, 1885, an d two 
days later was buried by the side of his sons Bayard and Frederick — the 
latter the Benjamin of the flock, who fell on the field of Gettysburg. His 
mother, Rebecca, lived to the age of ninety-three, dying at Kennett Square, 
February 18, 1891. 

Among the many portraits of Mr. Taylor is an interesting and admira- 
ble photograph taken in 1869 by Brady at the time of the unveiling of the 
bust of Alexander von Humboldt in the Central Park. Around a table, 
on which stands a model of the bust, are seated Mr. Bryant, Mr. Bancroft, 
and Mr. Taylor, while leaning on the back of Mr. Bancroft's chair stands 
George H. Boker. The lapse of a few years made striking changes in the 
appearance of all these authors. Mr. Bryant wore his hair much shorter 
then than was usual during his later years. The upper lip was shaven, 
and the whole expression was less venerable, while more practical and 
severe. Mr. Bancroft looked like a rather thin and well-preserved English- 
man, with white side-whiskers and smoothly shaven chin and lips. Boker 
and Taylor were both without gray hairs, and the former especially had 
the look of an alert, active, handsome man of thirty-five or forty at the 
most. Mr. Taylor shows in the picture at his very best — strong, earnest, 
and in the full prime of manly vigor. 

From Taylor's letters and notes and manuscript poems, of which I have 
in my garner a goodly sheaf, including the original of his admirable address 
delivered at the unveiling of the Halleck monument at Guilford on the 
seventy-ninth anniversary of the poet's birth, I take a few extracts. The 
earliest is a boyish epistle addressed to the poet Halleck, dated West 
Chester, Pa., August 16, 1842. He writes: 

"Wishing to make a collection of the autographs of distinguished American authors, 
I have taken the liberty of requesting yours, trusting that my admiration of your poems 
may serve as an excuse for my boldness. I have obtained the autographs of Irving, Whit- 
tier, and some others, and hope to be able to obtain yours. By sending it with the bearer 
you will confer a lasting favor on yours truly, J. Bayard Taylor." 

Writing to a friend from Switzerland in 1856, the poet says: 

"Sitting by the blue rushing waters of the arrowy Rhone, with a vile Swiss cigar in 
my mouth, I think of you and of that precious box whose contents have long since van- 
ished into thin air. I smoked some of them in Stratford, and before Anne Hathaway 's 
cottage. I gave a few to Thackeray, to puff off the first chapters of his new novel ; one 



144 BAYARD TAYLOR 

of them made a fast friend of a Gascon coachman in the Bois de Boulogne; I flung- the 
stump of another into the Rhine at the feet of the Loreley ; and the last were consumed in 
my own beechen arbors in Germany, beside my fountain and my laughing fauns. The 
memory of those blue clouds brings tears into my eyes and sorrow into my soul." 

In a letter dated Cedarcroft, near Kennett Square, Pa., November 5, 
1 $60, Mr. Taylor writes: 

" I have a new book of poems coming out in a month or so — v The Poet's Journal ' — 
some two hundred pages of new material. I have been spending the summer in this 
Arcadian retreat ; " and adds, "Yours, about to vote for Lincoln." 

The most laconic note I ever received or saw was an acceptance from 
Taylor of an invitation to meet a few friends at dinner in November, i860. 
It consisted of the single word " Coming," written under a neatly executed 
pen-and-ink drawing of the dial of a clock, with the hands pointing to the 
appointed hour of seven. To this, as I remember, was nothing more 
added but " Bayard Taylor." A beautiful woman wanted it, and I weakly 
parted with the interesting artistic souvenir of my friend. 

Writing from Gotha in June, 1861, the poet says : 

" \Ye are all in good health and spirits, and greatly cheered by the good news from 
home. Nothing reconciles me to the absence at such a time, but the knowledge that 
everything is going on for the best, and that the Republic is more firmly established than 
ever. There was great rejoicing here all winter among the royalists at the prospect of 
our dissolution ; but now they don't say much, while the liberals rejoice. I am proud to 
be an American at this time." 



Eight years later, writing from his Arcadian retreat near Kennett 
Square, the poet says : 

" I was in New York on Friday, and just as I was leaving the city your invitation 
reached me through Mr. Putnam. The time is short, and other engagements already 
undertaken still further curtail it ; but I would like to render whatever honor I may to 
Halleck's memory, and do not feel justified in declining the invitation — at least before 
learning precisely what will be expected of me. I will say, then, that I could make an 
address of from twenty to thirty minutes in length, if that will suffice : that I should like 
to know in advance whether it is the corner-stone of the monument that is to be laid, or 
the monument itself to be dedicated. This you do not state. Having, as you know, been 
out of the country, 1 am ignorant of what has already been done in the matter. Also 
tell me, is not this the first instance of a monument being erected to an American poet ? 
If you can give me a sketch in advance of the nature of the commemoration, and the com- 
mittee will be satisfied with an address of half an hour in length, I will do my best to 
share in honoring the poet's memory." 



BAYARD TAYLOR 145 

In a letter dated June 18, 1869, after thanking me for a book which I 
had sent him, he says : 

" I have been so busy with my ' Faust' here in the quiet of the country, that I have 
fallen behind the pace of contemporary literature, and have not before had an opportu- 
nity of reading the very entertaining volume. ... I prefer to make a short address, 
not only because the time is brief, but because I think long-winded orations — however 
excellent the theme — have become an American vice. I can say everything needful in 
half an hour, and an audience cannot keep freshly attentive and receptive longer than 
that. ... I think I shall go to New York on the evening of the 7th and thence to 
Guilford on the morning of the 8th, so that we can probably go in company, if that is also 
your plan." 

Writing from his country-seat May 10, 1870, Mr. Taylor remarks : 

" I was absent at Cornell University when your letter arrived, and now reply at the 
earliest leisure. I am quite willing to contribute to the proposed statue [of Halleck, in 
the Central Park, New York], just as soon as I shall possess a small sum which is not 
appropriated in advance of my receiving it. Since I am not independent of my copy- 
rights, and all American books have such an unsatisfactory sale, except the kind which I 
should not write at any price, that I must consider my living household first and the dead 
afterwards. I do not possess a dollar that was not earned by my own personal labor; 
and you will therefore kindly allow me to wait a few months, until I ascertain how much 
I may conscientiously spare." 



In May, 1872, he incidentally mentions: 

"I have never met either Bulwer or Carlyle. Tennyson I know — perhaps I should 
say have known ; but something has occurred since I last saw him which makes my 
relations towards him very delicate. It is a purely private matter, but of such a nature 
that when I go to England this year I shall not visit Tennyson unless I first receive an 
intimation that he will be glad to see me." 



I find also two pleasant little scraps which show how, in spite of jour- 
nalistic labors at home and preparations for his honored duties abroad, he 
lectured to the last, how occupied he was with social and other engage- 
ments, and how — it gives me pleasure to remember — our friendly inter- 
course was maintained to the end : 

" Many thanks for your kind invitation," Taylor writes in November, 1877, "but as 
I am giving a course of Lowell Institute lectures in Boston on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, and must be in Portland next Thursday, I must count the dinner among my lost 
pleasures." 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 2.— 10 



I46 BAYARD TAYLOR 

In the following March (he went to his German mission in April) he 
writes from Kennett Square: 













TU,. h^y ^U^r~ &*4<*-^ ^LoZ^^^6 





o^l ^^Ay 



Having written to Taylor during the siege of Vicksburg that one of his 
compositions was a great favorite in our camp, and was often declaimed 
and sung by the men of my regiment, he expressed his pleasure, and sent 
me a copy of his spirited lyric, which presents a striking contrast to the 
grave and high strain of his later poetical work. Taylor's " Song of the 
Camp " is a fitting companion for Hoffman's " Monterey " and Halleck's 
" Bozzaris," which are also contained in my manuscript collection. 

Cowper used to say that he never knew a poet that was not thriftless. 
Certainly this is not true of Taylor, nor of any of his literary brothers 
and contemporaries (nor, so far as I am aware, of any prominent Ameri- 
can poet) except Poe. It is thought that the many-sided man injured 
himself by late hours and overwork, believing that his strong consti- 
tution was incapable of being injured by either, or by both combined. 
Certain it is that his writings are a monument of unflinching toil and 
industry, and many of them full of the " best thoughts in the best Ian- 



BAYARD TAYLOR 1 4; 

guage." No man knew better than Bayard Taylor that " nothing would 
come to him in his sleep," to borrow the words of Goethe ; and it is possi- 
ble that he frequently deprived himself of necessary rest. From year to 
year he toiled and sang unceasingly, overcoming all obstacles and receiv- 
ing no honors or rewards to which downright hard work did not fully 
entitle him. 

" He could do more, I think," says his friend Hay, " in a short space of time than any 
other man I ever knew. He would, if required, write a whole page of The Tribune in a 
single day. His review of Dr. Schliemann's first book, written from advanced sheets, was 
remarkably full, and gave such a good idea of the work that it was almost unnecessary 
to read the book itself. He had a peculiar gift at condensing matter and still retaining 
every point which the author made. Perhaps his greatest feat in this line was achieved 
upon Victor Hugo's poems. They arrived in New York on a certain morning, and the 
next morning he published nearly a page review of the work, with several columns of 
metrical translation, done so finely that all the original vigor and spirit was retained." 

There was nothing of the genus irritabile vatum about Taylor, or what 
an English writer has described in still more forcible words, 

"The jealous, waspish, wrong-head, rhyming race." 

On the contrary, he was a simple-hearted, generous, and genial gentleman, 
with troops of friends at home and abroad. The grasp of his strong hand 
was warm and true, with a gentle manner and sweet smile which was very 
winning. Five years after his death his name and his fame were fre- 
quently and appreciatively mentioned to me in England, in all of whose 
great libraries I found some of his writings, and always his Faust. 
Throughout Germany I met with many of his admirers, and not a few of 
his works both in the originals and in translations. The old librarian of 
the valuable Weimar collection, who knew Goethe and whose father was 
intimate with Schiller, brought out many volumes once the property of 
those famous men, and then showed me a copy of Taylor's Faust, pre- 
sented by the translator to his friend the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 
accompanied by many kindly words of commendation of the good work of 
the American poet, whom he knew personally, and whose untimely death 
he deeply lamented. 

In Berlin I heard many words of kindness spoken of Taylor by both 
high and low, and learned many incidents of his too brief official career 
there. The aged emperor, who was at Waterloo, warmly thanked him 
for making his presentation address in German instead of the conventional 
French (or, as it sometimes happens with our ambassadors, in poor Eng- 
lish). Bismarck received the poet in the garden of his palace on the 
Wilhelmstrasse, and walked with him under the grand old oaks and elms 



[48 BAYARD TAYLOR 

and lindens, talking on literary topics, and showing a surprising intimacy 
with the new minister's own productions. No less delighted was Taylor 
on meeting Disraeli during the congress which brought so many celebrities 
to Berlin. Taking him warmly by the hand, the illustrious Englishman 
said, " Taylor, Bayard Taylor — how glad I am to see the man I have so 
long known." 

Of opinions froiri the living I will not speak, but simply allude to two 
venerable writers who thought very highly of Bayard Taylor's literary at- 
tainments — my old friends Captain Trelawney, the biographer of Byron and 
Shelley, and the poet Richard Henry Home, the contemporary of Keats, 
Southey, and Sir Walter Scott, and the author of the well-known line, 

" Tis always morning somewhere in the world," 

inscribed on the sun-dial at the head of the famous Brighton Pier, and so 
made familiar to many thousands who never read his writings. 
Says a London literary journal : 

" Aside from his official relations, Bayard Taylor was accredited in a peculiar degree 
to the German people. In this sense he was a worthy successor of Mr. Bancroft. If the 
historian belonged rather to the scholars and professors, Mr. Taylor had long been 
adopted into the fraternity of poets and wits and purely literary people of Germany, and 
they welcomed him hither in his new character as one of themselves. The minister's 
knowledge of the language was exact and flexible. He had not learned it like a philolo- 
gist, and perhaps never took a German grammar in his hands ; but he had a literary 
acquaintance, learned through the study of all the masters, and a practical familiarity 
acquired through years of life in the country, and the most intimate intercourse with the 
best people. He spoke German fluently on the platform without preparation, and suc- 
cessfully wooed the German muse with his pen. And he had such a cornplete conscious- 
ness of his power over the language, that he never needed to display it, but would cheer- 
fully submit to be bored by those ambitious Teutons who essayed their mysterious English 
in his presence." 

In September, 1884, there appeared from the loving pen of his widow 
an admirable memoir of Bayard Taylor, in which the progressive story of 
his busy literary life is exceedingly well and wisely told. But it does not 
leave the impression of a happy half-century of existence — rather the 
reverse. The reason, as shown in the biography, 1 is twofold — his lofty 
ambition as a poet, which was not gratified by the consciousness of ade- 
quate recognition, and the necessity of keeping the pot boiling, as he once 
said to the writer, by incessant literary drudgery with his pen. " What 

1 Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor, edited by Marie Hansen Taylor and Horace E. Scudder. 

2 vols.. i2mo. Boston, 1884. 



BAYARD TAYLOR 1 49 

we all need," he wrote — and the words in their application to himself are 

full of pathos — " is not to live without work, but to be free from worry." 

Writing in 1873 from Gotha, to a friend who'had congratulated him on 

his success in life, the poet replied, in the saddest letter that he ever wrote : 

" You exaggerate what you consider my successes. . . . From 1854 to 1862 or there- 
abouts, I had' a good deal of popularity of a cheap ephemeral sort. It began to decline 
at the time when I began to see the better and truer work in store for me, and I let it go, 
feeling that I must begin anew and acquire a second reputation of a different kind. For 
the last five years I have been engaged in this struggle, which is not yet over. ... I 
am giving the best blood of my life to my labors, seeing them gradually recognized by 
the few and the best, it is true, but they are still unknown to the public, and my new 
claims are fiercely resisted by the majority of the newspaper writers in the United 
States. . . . Lars' is the first poem of mine ever published in England, and I hoped 
for some impartial recognition there. Well, the sale is just one hundred and eight copies ! 
My translation of ' Faust' is at last accepted in England, Germany, and America as much 
the best. It cost me years of the severest labor, and has not yet returned me five hundred 
dollars. The ' Masque of the Gods ' has not paid expenses. The sale of my former volumes 
of travel has fallen almost to nothing. . . . For two years past I have had no income 
of any sort from property or copyright, and am living partly on my capital and partly 
mechanical labor of the mind. ... I am weary, indeed, completely fagged out, and 
to read what you say of my success sounds almost like irony." 

When it was announced to Taylor that he was to be sent as minister to 
Germany he rejoiced exceedingly in the appointment for many reasons, 
but chiefly because it was made in acknowledgment, not of political ser- 
vices, but of his literary attainments and position. 

" It is something so amazing," he wrote to the poet Paul H. Hayne, " that I am more 
bewildered and embarrassed than proud of my honors. If you knew how many years I 
have steadily worked, devoted to a high ideal, which no one seemed to recognize, and 
sneered at by cheap critics as a mere interloper in literature, you would understand how 
incredible this change seems to me. The great comfort is this : I was right in my 
instinct. The world does appreciate earnest endeavor, in the end. I have always had 
faith, and I have learned to overlook opposition, disparagement, misconception of my best 
work, believing that the day of justification would come. But what now comes to me 
seems too much. I can only accept it as a balance against me, to be met by still better 
work in the future." 

In that last line rings the true metal of Bayard Taylor, who believed 
in the words of the inspiring Goethe, " Wir heissen ench hoffen," and that, 
as brave old Sam Johnson said, " Useful diligence will at last prevail." 



OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 

NO. I. THE ASTOR LIBRARY, NEW YORK 
By Frederick Saunders, Chief Librarian 

Sir Thomas Bodley — who, toward the close of his life, founded the 
great library which bears his name — once remarked concerning the 
renowned city of colleges, that it had everything but an adequate library. 
With some modifications, this observation might have been considered 
applicable to this metropolis — the city of Mr. Astor's adoption — when he 
founded the library that bears his name. 

John Jacob Astor was born at Waldorf, near Heidelberg, Germany, in 
the year 1763. When only sixteen, he left his father's farm, setting out, 
on foot, for the Rhine ; and when resting under a tree, he is said to have 
made these three resolves — " to be honest, industrious, and never gam- 
ble " ; and it is added that he adhered to them throughout his long life. 
He went to his elder brother, at London, and engaged with him in busi- 
ness some three years, after which he came to New York. This was in 
1783 ; subsequently, he embarked in the fur trade, which he prosecuted 
with such energy and success that in ten years his establishment at the 
mouth of the Columbia river, known as Astoria, had its agencies in Eng- 
land, Germany, France, and indeed in all parts of the civilized world. At 
the beginning of the present century, he shrewdly invested in the real 
estate of the then young city of New York to such an extent that his 
property continued to augment so largely as to constitute him the most 
opulent merchant in the United States, if not in America. 

Although the Astor library may not claim precedence over other public 
libraries of New York city in the order of time, yet in respect of its dis- 
tinctive character as a cosmopolitan library of reference for scholars, its 
claim to priority will not be disputed. As to the origin of the institution, 
it may suffice to cite the words of its first librarian, Dr. Joseph G. Cogs- 
well, which are the following: " For the existence of this library, the 
community are indebted to the generosity of the late John Jacob Astor. 
It was a kind impulse of his own heart which prompted him to do this 
noble act. He wished, as he said, by some permanent and valuable 
memorial to testify his grateful feelings toward the city in which he had 
so long lived and prospered. When he consulted with his friends as to 



OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 



I5r 



the object to which his intended liberality should be applied, the plan of 
founding a public library was most approved, and his decision was promptly 
taken in favor of it. Nor was it owing to any misgiving or wavering in 
opinion that the accomplishment of the purpose was not effected in his 
lifetime." In a subsequent letter, Dr. Cogswell wrote, under date of July 
20, 1838, the following: " Early in January, Mr. Astor consulted me about 
an appropriation of some three or four hundred thousand dollars, which he 
intended to leave for public purposes, and I urged him to give it for a 
library, which I finally brought him to agree to do; and I have been at 




THE ASTOR LIBRARY. 



work ever since settling all the points which have arisen in the progress 
of the affair." 1 Washington Irving and Fitz-Greene Halleck cordially 
indorsed the proposition of the establishment of a public library ; and yet 
the matter was kept in abeyance until March, 1842, when Dr. Cogswell 
received the appointment of librarian, and measures were put into opera- 
tion for the erection of the library building. Meanwhile, Dr. Cogswell 
commenced the (to him) congenial service of book-hunting at home and 
abroad — an office for which his eminent bibliographical and critical scholar- 

1 Cogswell's Life and Letters. 



K2 OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 

ship so signally qualified him. The board of trustees therefore author- 
ized him to visit the literal')' centres of the old world, for the purpose of 
obtaining the rare foundation works in the several departments of learning 
adapted to the higher order of study in all branches of art, science, and 
literature. It so happened that he was singularly opportune in his earlier 
visits to the great book-marts of Europe. In its several capitals — London, 
Paris, Leipzig, Rome, Stockholm, and elsewhere — his purchases were a 
great success ; and at the auction sale of the celebrated library of the 
Duke of Buckingham he secured many very rare and choice works of art 
and of renown. It having been the original design to form a library that 
should be adequate to meet the demands of advanced students, the selec- 
tion of its books has been uniformly governed by a recognition of that fact. 
In a republic of such free political institutions as ours, intellectual 
culture is a necessity, since it affords a guaranty of our national greatness, 
if not, indeed, of our national existence. The leading capitals of the old 
world have long since proved the vast importance of such beneficent insti- 
tutions ; and it may justly be deemed a matter of gratulation and national 
honor that the metropolitan city of the new world should thus emulate 
their example. Yet, not in New York only is this the case ; the like 
liberal endowments have since become conspicuous in the principal cities 
of the United States. Thus, our public libraries may be said to unite with 
our colleges and schools, harmoniously combining their aid for the uni- 
versal elevation of the people — the one supplementing the other. As 
pioneer in this important work, the Astor library may thus prove to 
America what the library of the British Museum has so long been to Great 
Britain — " The Scholars' Court of Appeals." Differing from the popular 
circulating libraries, the Astor is a consulting or reference library, its books 
being freely accessible to all visitors. It is a literary laboratory, where are 
engendered those mental forces that propel the industrial achievements of 
the age ; where may be seen many an earnest worker who, 

with calm, inquiring looks, 

Has culled the ore of wisdom from his books — 

Cleared it, sublimed it, till it flowed refined 

From his alembic crucible of mind. 

Thus public libraries present many claims upon our grateful regard, 
since they not only educate and elevate society, but also conserve and per- 
petuate the intellectual treasures of past ages. It has been well said that 
" moral and intellectual light is all-pervading: it cannot be diffused among 
one class of society without its influence being felt by the whole com- 
munity." 



OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 1 53 

But to resume the sketch of the library. On the death of Mr. Astor, 
in March, 1848, and by virtue of his will, the munificent sum at that time, 
of four hundred thousand dollars, for the founding of a public library in 
New York, was conveyed to a board of trustees, selected by the testator. 
An act of incorporation was granted by the state legislature on the follow- 
ing January, and active operations were commenced for the carrying out 
of the requisitions of the founder. On January 9, 1854, the Astor library 
building, with its eighty thousand volumes, comprising an assemblage of 
costly works of art, and the accepted authorities in the several depart- 
ments of human lore, was formally opened to public inspection. The 
novelty of its grand display of the great national art-productions of Europe 
— such as the stately volumes of the Musee Francais and Raphael's Vati- 
can — together with the prestige of the founder, naturally gave fclat to the 
occasion. The exhibition was continued several successive days, and after- 
ward the institution was rendered available for students. 

During the early years of its history, the library was honored by the 
visits of many distinguished personages, among them His Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales, with his suite, to whom a private reception was 
tendered by the Astor family and Dr. Cogswell, with his aids. Afterward 
came another notable visitor, Prince Napoleon, who was said to bear such 
close resemblance to the great emperor. Then, some years later, came the 
Japanese commissioners, who, when shown some of the portraits, in books, 
of their historic men, greatly marveled. After their visit the Chinese 
ambassadors came in great state, arrayed in their courtly costumes ; their 
deportment so indicative of culture and refinement that it occasioned gen- 
eral remark. The Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro, was the next distin- 
guished visitor ; he seemed much interested in the library and in popular 
education. 

Among the host of literary characters who have at various times visited 
the institution, it must suffice simply to mention the names of the more 
distinguished : Washington Irving (who was a frequent visitor), George 
Bancroft, Edward Everett, Fitz-Greene Halleck, S. F. B. Morse, G. P. R. 
James, Thackeray, Dickens, Longfellow, Emerson, Saxe, Willis, Holmes, 
Motley, Hawthorne, Cobden, Sparks, Gould, Greeley, and Dean Stanley. 
Lovers of learning, and men eminent in the various departments of art, 
science, and literature, have always been cordial in their commendation of 
the library. From a great number of such testimonials, one only is cited, 
as indicative of the others. Charles Sumner wrote on one occasion to his 
friend Theodore Parker: " I range daily in the alcoves of the Astor: more 
charming than the gardens of Boccaccio, and each hour a Decameron." 



154 OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 

The Astor library soon became widely known abroad, as an evidence of 
which, numerous donations of important works have been made from time 
to time by the governments of Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, 
Spain, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Australia, China, and Japan ; as well as by 
the Czar of Russia, the King of Italy, the Duke of Northumberland, and 
other distinguished personages. 

The year 1859 was memorable in the annals of the library, on account 
of the lamented death of Washington Irving, its first and honored president. 
In this sad event the institution, in common with the world of letters, 
suffered severe loss. Among the numerous loving tributes to his memory, 
Tuckerman has voiced for us one of the best : " No one ever lived a more 
beautiful life ; no one ever left less to regret in life ; no one ever carried 
with him to the grave a more universal affection, respect, and sorrow." ! 
In September, 1859, William B. Astor, eldest son of the founder of the 
library, presented to the trustees the second library building, with the 
ground upon which it stands. This second hall, of the same dimensions 
and style as the first, afforded the required facilities for the increasing 
accessions to the library. Upon the decease of Mr. Irving, William B. 
Astor was elected president of the board of trustees, which office he filled 
till his death. During his life he extended to the institution his fostering 
care, liberally augmenting its financial resources, — having by special gifts 
and bequests enriched its treasury to the extent of five hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. The library lost a generous patron in his death. 

In the year 1864 Dr. Cogswell completed his first catalogue of the 
library, which then comprised about one hundred thousand volumes. This 
herculean and self-imposed work — which, however, to him was a labor of 
love — he achieved while superintending the daily administration of the 
library. A lasting debt of gratitude is due to this devoted service from 
students who consult the library ; since without the assistance of such a 
key to unlock its treasures, they would prove, to a great extent, unavail- 
able. The board of trustees readily recognized this fact, and acknowledged 
the doctor's essential service by their recorded vote of thanks. Not long 
after the completion of this catalogue, forming four large octavo volumes, 
and a supplementary volume, bringing the record down to the year 1866, 
and including a subject-index, Dr. Cogswell tendered his resignation as 
superintendent, and soon after resigned his membership in the board of 
trustees, his impaired health demanding this action. 

1 It has been claimed that it was honor enough to be known as "the friend of Sir Philip Sid- 
ney " ; a like honor may be accorded to the writer of the present sketch, in respect to the illustrious 
author Washington Irving. 



OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 1 55 

Few men of letters could have evinced more of the suaviter in modo 
amid the varied conditions incident to the arduous duties of his profession 
than Dr. Cogswell, and none could have surpassed him in his unremitting 
labors in the formation and the interests of the institution he served so 
long and so well. After his retirement from his official connection with 
the library*, the board elected as superintendent Francis Schroeder, ex- 
minister to Sweden, who resigned in 1870; E. R. Straznicky then became 
the incumbent until 1875, when the trustees installed one of their number, 
James Carson Brevoort, who continued in office until 1878, when the 
present incumbent, Robbins Little, was installed. In the year 1877 Alex- 
ander Hamilton was elected president of the trustees, and this office he 
held until his death. The gentlemen who now compose the board of 
trustees are the mayor of the city of New York, ex officio; Hamilton Fish ; 
Dr. Thomas M. Markoe, president; Professor Henry Drisler, secretary ; 
John Lambert Cadwalader, Right Rev. Henry Codman Potter, Stephen 
Van Rensselaer Cruger ; Robbins Little, superintendent ; Stephen Henry 
Olin ; Edward King, treasurer ; and Charles Howland Russell. 

In October, 1881, the late John Jacob Astor, the grandson of the 
founder, erected a third building adjoining the other two, of corresponding 
style and dimensions, which, with the ground, he presented to the trustees. 
The entire structure now has a frontage of about two hundred feet, with a 
depth of one hundred feet. It is built of brown-stone and brick, and is in 
the Byzantine order of architecture. The main floor of the library, which 
is twenty feet above the street level, is reached by marble steps from the 
vestibule, or main entrance. This entrance hall is richly frescoed and 
paneled ; around it are twenty-four classic busts of heroes and poets in 
Italian marble, by a Florentine artist, from antiques. These busts, with 
the colored marble pedestals upon which they are placed, were presented 
to the library by Mrs. Franklin Delano, a sister of the late John J. Astor. 

At the delivery desk, at which readers apply for books, are the printed 
slips upon which the title of the book desired is written, together with the 
name and address of the applicant. In close proximity are the two printed 
catalogues, which now form eight large volumes. These bring the record 
of the collections down to the close of 1880, and are supplemented by the 
card catalogue, which includes all accessions after that date. The second 
printed catalogue, which connects with Dr. Cogswell's, costing about forty 
thousand dollars, was the gift of the late John J. Astor, whose combined 
gifts and bequests exceeded eight hundred thousand dollars. In the cen- 
tral hall, westward, are glass show-cases of rare manuscripts and brilliant 
missals : one manuscript in golden letters on purple vellum is over twelve 



156 OUR LEADING LIBRARIES 

hundred years old, being A.D. 870 ; also rare specimens of early typography, 
and many choice literary relics — in all estimated to be worth about one 
hundred thousand dollars. The central as well as the south and north 
halls, which are connected by arched passages, are uniformly walled around 
with alcoves devoted to some specific classification of subject. The same 
arrangement is continued in the galleries of the three halls. The north 
hall is devoted to histories of all nations, and the south hall to all branches 
of science and art. The middle or central hall, at the west end, is devoted 
to the patents of all nations — the British patents alone forming some five 
thousand volumes. The entire capacity of the library, thus enlarged, 
would now afford space for half a million of volumes, which is about 
double the extent of its accumulations, exclusive of about twelve thousand 
pamphlets. The total number of volumes on its shelves on January 1, 
1893, was two hundred and forty-five thousand three hundred and forty- 
nine. The library may be said to be especially rich in some departments, 
such as the fine arts, architecture, archaeology, Orientalia, history, the clas- 
sics, dramatic literature, scientific serials, mathematics, political economy, 
and bibliography. It has also a very extensive collection of the transac- 
tions of the scientific and literary societies of Europe and America. 

It would be impossible, within the restricted limits of this sketch, to 
present even an epitome of the numerous noteworthy productions that 
grace the alcoves of the library. With its advancing growth will inevitably 
come the evidences of its ever-increasing utility and appreciation. Like 
our Colossus of Liberty, with uplifted torch guiding the toilers of the seas 
to the shelter of our hospitable shores, so this monumental library, as an 
intellectual lighthouse, attracts literary toilers to its ever-accessible treas- 
ury of mental wealth. In the halls of the library are marble busts of its 
founder ; of Washington Irving, its first president ; and of Dr. Cogswell, its 
first superintendent ; also life-size portraits of William B. Astor, Alexander 
Hamilton, the late president ; Fitz-Greene Halleck ; and Daniel Lord, its 
first treasurer. Subsequent to the death of the late John Jacob Astor, the 
library became enriched by the gift of his rare collection of paintings — 
costing originally seventy-five thousand dollars-— presented by his son, 
William Waldorf Astor. These beautiful art-productions, by eminent 
foreign artists, are freely accessible to visitors on Wednesdays, during 
library hours, from nine A.M. until five P.M., except during the three winter 
months, when the hours are from nine A.M. until four P.M. The adminis- 
tration of the library is under the direction of the board of trustees, the 
several departments of its routine service being assigned to the superin- 
tendent and four librarians, with their numerous assistants. 



JOHN ARCHDALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 

By Stephen B. Weeks 

Joljn Archdale was appointed governor-general of Carolina, August 31, 
1694. 1 Of his early history we know nothing. He was the son of 
Thomas Archdale of Loaks, in Chipping Wycomb, Bucks county, Eng- 
land. In 1664 he came to New England as the agent of his brother-in- 
law, Governor Gorges of Maine. 

The name Archdale first appears in the list of proprietors of Carolina 
on July 13, 1681. 2 This was Thomas Archdale as future entries show, 3 
and not John Archdale as Dr. Hawks states. 4 Dr. Hawks says, further, 
that in 1684 John Archdale purchased the share of the late Sir William 
Berkeley, " who did not die until 1682." He is again in error ; the share 
of William Berkeley passed, after his death in 1677, 5 into the hands of 
his widow. She married Colonel Philip Ludwell, who was himself ap- 
pointed governor of "that part of our province of Carolina that lies north 
and east of Cape Fear," December 5, 1689, 6 and governor of Carolina, 
November 2, 1691. 7 On December 14, 1683, the proprietors " approved 
of the bargain made by Sir Peter Colleton with Col. Philip Ludwell in 
behalf of the Lords Proprietors for my Lady Berkeley's right to the pro- 
prietorship that was Sir William Berkeley's for ^300." This purchase 
was made by Colleton for the Duke of Albemarle, Earl Craven, Lord 
Carteret, and himself, and this proprietorship was afterwards " conveyed 
in trust to Thomas Amy, Esq're, for the above-named four Lords 
Proprietors." 8 From the materials before me I conclude that the 
share which came into the possession of Thomas Archdale in 168 1 was 
that of Sir John Berkeley, who died in 1678, for the shares of Craven, 
Shaftesbury, Colleton, Albemarle, and Carteret were still in the original 
families ; Sothel had purchased the share of Earl Clarendon, 9 Amy pur- 
chased that of William Berkeley, and only that of Sir John Berkeley could 
have then been on the market. 10 

1 Colonial Records of North Carolina, i. 389. 2 Ibid. , i. 338. * Ibid., 360, 361, 363 sea. 

4 Hawks, ii. 49. 5 He was buried July 13, 1677. 6 Colonial Records, i. 360. 

7 Colonial Records, i. 373. 8 Ibid., i. 347. 9 Ibid., i. 339. 

10 Ibid. , i. 345, May 25, 1681, a letter was sent to the governor and council of Ashley river, in 
which it is said Mr. Archdale had bought " Lady Berkeley's share." (South Carolina Hist. Soc. 
Colls., i. 106). 



i;S JOHN ARCHDALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 

Archdale had become a Friend, convinced and separated from his 
father's house, as he tells us, by the preaching of George Fox. 1 But this 
conversion does not seem to have been of very serious consequence as far 
as the management of their share of Carolina is concerned. His name 
appears in all the proceedings of the proprietors as the representative of 
his father, and we know, from instructions sent to Governor Sothel, that 
an Archdale, doubtless John, was in Albemarle on December 14, 1683: 
" And that he [Sothel] do forthwith with the advice of Mr. Archdale 
choose four of the discreetest honest men of the county &c." 2 Again, in 
February, 1685, the proprietors write Sothel, and insist that he "with the 
advice of Mr. Archdale " 3 fill certain blanks with names of men who were 
to serve as lords proprietors' deputies. From the letter quoted above, 
we know that he was in North Carolina in March, 1686. 4 It is probable, 
then, that he came out to Carolina in a year or two after his father became 
a proprietor to look after their common interests, and while there his 
co-religionists, the Quakers, were not allowed to feel the need of any help 
he was able to give them. His presence did much, no doubt, to give them 
prestige in the colony, to protect them from persecution should such be 
attempted, and to increase their numbers. During the temporary absence 
of Sothel in 1685 and 1686, Archdale acted as governor of the colony, 
whether by the special appointment of that infamous dignitary, or because 
of his position as a virtual proprietor, or as the commissioned deputy 
of his father, we do not know. That Archdale purposed settling a part of 
his family in North Carolina is probable; we know that his daughter Ann 
married Emmanuel Lowe, a Quaker of some prominence in the colony. 5 

In 1687-88 Archdale was a commissioner for Governor Gorges in Maine. 
When made regularly governor of the whole of Carolina, he was not a 
proprietor, for his name is not on the list of " the true and absolute Lords 
and Proprietors," and we learn from a communication to the commissioners 
of customs, dated November 10, 1696, that he was administering the share 
of the proprietorship for his own son, who was a minor. 6 It seems prob- 
able that Thomas Archdale, dying in the meantime, had willed his share 
of Carolina to his grandson, and that John Archdale, although administer- 
ing it, was not himself a proprietor. He came into this dignity a few years 
later, probably by the death of the son. 

1 Letter to Fox in Hawks's History of North Carolina, ii. 378. 

2 Colonial Records, i. 346. 3 Ibid., i. 350. 
* Not January, as Dr. Hawks states, ii. 499. 

6 Wheeler (i, 32) says this marriage took place in July, 1688 ; Dr. Hawks says in 1668 (ii.499). 
6 Colonial Records, i. 467, 545. 



JOHN ARCHDALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 159 

Archdale was appointed governor of Carolina with the express hope 
that he would be able to heal the disturbances in South Carolina. This 
trouble had arisen through the popular ferment about the tenure of lands, 
the payment of quit-rents, the naturalization of Huguenots, and the recent 
annulment by the proprietors of the laws of Ludwell's parliament relating 
to juries and the election of representatives. 1 At last, Governor Smith 
wrote in despair to the proprietors that " it was impossible to settle the 
country, except a proprietor himself was sent over with full power to 
heal their grievances." 2 Lord Ashley, grandson of Shaftesbury, was first 
chosen for this duty, but he declined, and the proprietors chose Archdale 
in his place, with almost unlimited powers. He could sell, let, or escheat 
lands, appoint deputy governors in both provinces, make and alter laws. 
He sailed for America in January, 1695, and reached Virginia in June. 3 
He visited North Carolina at once, and found Thomas Harvey acting as 
deputy governor. He had been fulfilling this office since September 24, 
1694, 4 at least, and was now established in his office by Archdale, who 
then passed on to South Carolina, took up his residence in Charleston, and 
assumed the government, August 17, 1695. 5 His administration of South 
Carolina was, as it had been formerly in North Carolina, wise, prudent, and 
moderate. He found a keen spirit of hostility to the French refugees, 
and thought best to summon his first assembly from the English inhabi- 
tants only. The difficulties were settled to the satisfaction of all except 
the French. The price of lands and the form of conveyance were fixed 
bylaw. Three years' rent was remitted to those who held lands by grant, 
and four to those who held by survey, without grant. Arrears of quit- 
rents were to be paid in money or commodities, as was most convenient. 

Archdale held a middle position between the extremes of the church 
party, and at the same time had a care for his co-religionists. He enforced 
a military law, but exempted them from its provisions. He established a 
special board for deciding contests between white men and Indians, and 
in this way won the friendship of the latter. The hostility to the French 
began to abate by degrees, and in 1696 they obtained the privilege of 
becoming citizens. Under this beneficent rule the colony regained a tem- 

1 Rivers, History of South Carolina, 171. 2 Description of Carolina, 101. 

3 South Carolina Hist. Soc. Colls., i. 138, 139. 

4 Archdale succeeded Thomas Smith as governor in South Carolina. Ludwell had been made 
governor-general, November 2, 1691, but he seems to have been acting as governor of North 
Carolina as late as May 1, 1694 {Col. Rec, i. 391). I have been unable to conclude from the 
records whether he continued to act as the executive in North Carolina after this, or appointed a 
deputy ; if the latter, who was it ? Alexander Sellington, as is commonly said ? 

5 Desaiption of Carolina. 



l6o JOHN ARCHDALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 

penary repose. It was increasing in wealth, and toward the close of 1696, 
after having held sway for a little .over a year, Archdale set out for Eng- 
land, appointing Joseph Blake deputy governor of South Carolina. He 
again visited North Carolina, probably traveled through the province with 
Dickinson, the Quaker missionary, was present at a Palatine's court held 
there, December 9, 1696, and again confirmed the rule of Thomas Harvey. 1 

It is likely that Archdale never returned to America. In 1698 he was 
elected to parliament from Chipping Wycomb, but his conscientious 
scruples in regard to taking the prescribed oaths prevented him from tak- 
ing his seat. He was a proprietor, probably by the death of his son, at 
the time his Description of Carolina was written, which a reference to the 
religious troubles under Johnson fixes at a date later than 1704. His 
share of Carolina was transferred to his son-in-law, John Dawson, Decem- 
ber 2, 1708, 2 and from this time little is seen of Archdale in the annals of 
the province of Carolina. 3 

In 1707 Archdale published in London A New Description of that 
Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina; with a Brief Account of its 
Discovery and Settling, and tlie Government thereof to this time. With 
several Remarkable Passages of Divine Providence during my time* This 
brochure deals almost exclusively with South Carolina affairs and does not 
expressly state that he had ever visited North Carolina. It is hardly a 
description at all ; it is rather a memoir, rambling, discursive, defensive, 
recounting his personal experience and work as governor in Carolina. 
But in it he makes a strong plea for liberality and religious freedom. 
" Cannot dissenters kill wolves and bears, &c, as well as churchmen ; as 
also fell trees and clear ground for plantations, and be as capable of de- 
fending the same, generally, as well as the other?" 

Archdale deeded to his grandson, Nevil Lowe, a tract of land lying in 
Pasquotank county, North Carolina, on February 2, 1712 [1713]. This 
deed was acknowledged October 19, 171 5, which indicates that he was 

1 Col. Rec, i. 405, 546 ; South Carolina Hist. Soc. Colls., i. 212. 

'-' South Carolina Hist. Soc. Colls., i. 177. 

3 The usual statement that Archdale introduced the culture of rice into South Carolina by 
distributing a bag of the seed brought by a sea captain from Madagascar is an error. Rivers 
quotes an act of assembly for September 26, 1691, by which a reward was conferred on Jacob 
Peter Guerard for the invention of a " pendulum engine " for husking rice, which was superior to 
any machine previously used in the colony. 

* Quarto, pp. 40. Reprinted in Charleston, 1822, and included in Carroll's Historical Collec- 
tions of South Carolina, ii. 85, 120 (New York, 1836). Doyle, in his English in America, p. 437, 
calls it "confused and rambling," and such it certainly is, but Grahame touches it more gener- 
ously on its human side, and says it is full of good sense, benevolence, and piety. Cf. also 
Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. v., chap. v. 



JOHN ARCHDALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS l6l 

then still living, and, possibly, in North Carolina. This is the last notice 
we have of the governor. This grandson was old enough to take part 
in the " Cary Rebellion," 1 707-171 1. He was one of the leaders in the 
movement, and was arrested by Governor Spotswood. He seems to have 
been a man of attainments and culture, for we find that a commission was 
issued him "as Secretary of North Carolina, January 31, 171 1, and this at 
the very time when the aristocratic or church party was again coming 
into power, under the leadership of Governor Hyde. 1 He died before 
June 17, 1717. His father, Emmanuel Lowe, was a leader in the " Cary 
Rebellion." In fact, this uprising seems to have been a sort of family 
affair, for Cary was also a son-in-law of Archdale, having married his 
daughter, probably in South Carolina. 2 Emmanuel Lowe died June 11, 
1727, and his wife on June 3, 173 1. The descent from this couple seems 
to be, as far as I can restore it from the Quaker records, as follows : Their 
daughter, Anne, married Thomas Pendleton. They had a child, named 
Anna Letitia ; she was born October 24, 1733, and died April 20, 1791. 
In September, 1750, she and Demsey Conner declared their purpose of 
marriage. They had one son, at least ; his name was also Demsey, and he 
was at school in Hillsborough, N. C, in 1774. His mother married, for her 
second husband, John Lancaster, of Pasquotank, who had his seat at New 
Abbey, near Nixonton. He was a prominent man in the section, sided 
with the British, returned to England, leaving his family in North Caro- 
lina, broke a blood-vessel when he heard of the treaty of peace, and so 
expired. He was a man of so much influence that the general assembly 
in 1782 thought it proper to confiscate his property. The wife of the 
second Demsey Conner (died, 1790) was named Ann, and to them were 
born three children : George Archdale Lowe Conner, who died November 
10, 1807; John Lancaster Conner, who was at the University of North 
Carolina in 1805-06, and died young, probably prior to 18 10. There was 
one daughter, Frances Clark Pollock Conner, who first married (1808) 

1 South Carolina Hist. Soc. Colls., i. 160, 182. The fact of his being appointed to such an 
important office would indicate that he had attained a more mature age than twenty-two, which 
would not have been the case had his parents been married in 1688, as Wheeler states. It is 
refreshing to find a Quaker and a rebel occupying such a responsible position after all the claims 
set up, then and now, by the church party. We may also add that on November 30, 1710, the 
proprietors agreed to appoint Emmanuel Lowe himself, the arch rebel, to the secretaryship, and 
this under Hyde. Ibid., i. 181. 

2 South Carolina Hist. Soc. Colls., i. 142. There can be no doubt that this is the same man. 
Archdale appointed Thomas Cary, his son-in-law, receiver-general, or treasurer. Williamson 
{History of North Carolina, i. 170) says this had been the business of the rebel. This relation- 
ship was not known to me when I published my Religious Development in the Province of North 
Carolina. Colonel Cary died prior to 1720. 

Vol. XXIX.- No. 2.-11 



1 62 JOHN ARCH DALE, AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 

Joseph Blount (1785-1822), and, secondly (1834), William Hill, secretary 
of state for North Carolina. The sons died without issue. Mrs. Hill had 
one son by her first husband, who was called for his father. He died 
unmarried, and, so far as the writer knows, the line of John Archdale is 
extinct. 1 

The administration of Archdale in North Carolina was short, but it 
seems to have been, on the whole, a successful one. The colony had been 
torn by political dissensions, and plundered by ignorant proprietors and 
villainous governors; but from the coming of Archdale until the struggle 
for a church establishment in 1 701, North Carolina was quiet and pros- 
perous. 

There is little in North Carolina to-day to recall the name of the Quaker 
governor. A precinct of Bath county was called Archdale in the early 
years of the eighteenth century, but the name has long since given place 
to that of Beaufort. One of the halls of Guilford college, a Quaker insti- 
tution, and a small manufacturing village in the Quaker settlement in Ran- 
dolph county, are all that to-day recall the name and the virtues of the 
peace-loving Friend. 

1 Perhaps the earliest picture of student life at the University of North Carolina in existence 
is to be found in letters written from that institution in 1805 by John L. Conner, which are now in 
possession of the writer. 



A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 

Account of monies furnished by Lewis Pintard to the following Ai 
can officers, prisoners of war, on Long Island, viz. : 



James Abbott 

Abraham Allen 

William Allison 

James Anderson 

Richard Andrews 

William Andrews 

John Wm. Annis 

Edward Antill 

Thomas Armstrong . . . 
Thomas Armstrong . . . 

Richard Bacon 

Andrew Barns 

Henry Bedinger 

William Bell 

Mathew Bennet 

Russell Bissel 

John Blackleach 

Gabriel Blakeney 

George Blewer 

Theodore Bliss 

James Bradford 

Robert Bradford 

Joshua Brainerd 

Henry Brewster 

Thomas Brickell 

Joseph Britton 

Robert Brown 

James Bruyn 

Jonathan Bryan, Esq. . 

Edward Bulkley 

Moses Butler 

Nehemiah Carpenter . . 

Ebenezer Carson 

Asher Carter 

Robert Chesley 

Aaron Chew 

Charles Clark 

John Clark 

Henry Clayton 

George Combs 

John Connelly 

Jesse Cook 

Thomas Cook 

Peter Coonrad 

Jacob Covenhoven .... 



msign. 



Colonel . . . 
Lieutenant 



Lieut. -Colonel . 

Captain 

Lieutenant 
Servant to Col. 

Lieutenant 



Ensign. . . . 
Lieutenant 



Captain 

D. C. Musician. 

Ensign 

Lieutenant 



Volunteer . 
Lieutenant 



Lieut. -Colonel 
Inhabitant . . . 

Captain 

Lieutenant . . . 
Quartermaster 
Lieutenant . . . 



Captain . . . 
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Captain . . . 



Connecticut 
New Jersey 
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North Carolina 
Massachusetts . 
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Ely's 

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Crane's Artillery. 
Militia Artillery , 

Hazen's , 

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E win's Battalion, 



Gloster Militia. . . 

Rawlings's 

Clotz's 

Baxter's 

Enos's 

Bradley's 

Watt's 

4th 

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Cook's, 



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Nansimond county . 

Guest's 

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S. B. Webb's 

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2d 

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8th 

Swoope's 

Drake's Militia 



Bradley's 

Forman's 

5th Northumberland 
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£"3 

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A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 



OFFICERS. 



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Thomas Coverly 

Joseph Cox 

John Cozens 

John Craig 

Joseph Crane 

Isaac Crane 

John Crawford 

William Crawford 

Charles M. Croxall 

John Cndner 

Samuel Culver 

Samuel Culverson 

John Cunningham 

Nathaniel Darby 

William Darke 

Robert Darlington 

Hezekiah Davis 

Benjamin Davis 

Rezin Davis 

Peter Decker 

Samuel Dodge 

Andrew Dover 

Ephraim Douglass 

Lebbeus Drew 

Baron D'Uertrizt 

John Duguid 

Nathaniel Edwards 

Samuel Eldred 

William Ellis 

John Ely 

John Erwin 

Abner Everit 

Moore Fauntleroy 

Ephraim Fenno 

William Ferguson 

Reuben Field 

John Finley 

Samuel Finley 

Samuel Fisher 

Peregrine Fitzhugh 

Nathaniel Fitz Randolph 

Robert Foster 

John Furman 

Nathaniel Gait 

Mark Garret 

William George 

Gasper Geyer 

Samuel Gilbert 

Adam Gilchrist 

George Gilchrist 

Aquilla Giles 

Erasmus Gill 

Oliver Glean 

I lenry Godwin 

Nathan Goodale 

Richard Grace 



Ensign . . . 
Lieutenant 
Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 
Captain . . . 
Adjutant . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign. . . . 
Captain . . . 
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Ensign. . . . 
Major 
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Quartermaster 
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Virginia .... 
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Captain 

Cornet 

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Forage Master. 

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As. Com. Forage 

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Pennsvb 



Maryland 
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Massachusetts 
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Connecticut 

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Massachusetts 



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Lieutenant . . 



Massachusetts 
'Maryland . . . . 



9th 

6th 

Gloster, 1st 

Baxter's 

Volunteer Company 

Field's 

Watt's 

5th..... 

Hartley's 

Drake's Militia . . . 
Hooker's Regiment. 
Montgomery's 
2d Lan. Militia . . . . 

gth 

8th 

Watt's 

Montgomery's 

Swoope's 

Rawlings's 

5th Battalion 

Dubois's 

5th 

8th 

Shepherd's 

Armand's 

3d • 

Bradley's 

1st . . .' 

Ellis's Regiment. . . 

2d 

Baxter's 



Light Dragoons, 4th 
Lamb's Artillery . . . 

Proctor's 

8th 

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Rawlings's 

Murray's Militia . . . 
3d Light Dragoons. 

Militia 

15th 

Dubois's 

Navy 



Rawlings's 



Prescot's 



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4th Light Dragoon: 



Dubois's . 
Putnam's 
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Carried forward. 



AMOUNT. 




^4-803 


15 


1 


112 


14 


9 


121 


2 


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18 


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96 


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139 


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122 


4 


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115 


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154 


2 


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13 




112 


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125 


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189 


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4 


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130 


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127 


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141 


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£10,805 


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8 



A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 



l6 5 



Brought forward 



Thomas Granbery . . . 

Jesse Grant 

John Green . .• 

Francis Grice 

Jacob Groul 

Peter Harkenburgh. . , 

Nathan Hale 

Edward Hall 

Elihu Hall 

Benjamin Halstead. . . 
Henry Hambright . . . 
Henry Hardman. 
John Harper ........ 

John Haviland 

Nicholas Haussegger. 

John Hays 

Edward Heston 

Robert Higgins 

Philip Hill 

Rignal Hilliary 

Thomas Hobby. 

Robert Hodgson. 

John Holiday 

Jonathan Holmes 

Samuel Holmes 

Israel Honeywell 

Elisha Hopkins 

James Humphrey. . . . 

Ephraim Hunter 

John Hunter 

John Hutchin 

John V. Hyatt 

Charles Jackson 

Pattin Jackson 

Daniel Jamison 

Thomas Janney 

John Johnson 

James Jones 

Levin Joynes 

James Irvine 

Isaac Theeler , 

John Ther 

John Thilty 

Hugh Thing , 

James Thronkhytt. . . , 

N. Laurence 

Asa Lay , 

Andrew Lee 

Abraham Legget. . . . 

John Levacher 

Rufus Lincoln 

Samuel Lindsay 
James M. C. Lingan . 
Theophilus Little 

Thomas Little 

Bateman Lloyd 



Volunteer . 
Lieutenant 
Ensign. . . . 
Captain . . . 
Surgeon . . . 
Ensign. . . . 
Colonel . . . 
Lieutenant 



Captain 



Major 

Lieutenant . 
Colonel .... 
Captain .... 



Lieutenant . . . 

Ensign 

Lieut. -Colonel 

Major 

Lieutenant . . . 



Captain 



Adjutant . . 
Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 



A. D. Q. Gen. 

Lieutenant . . , 



Adjutant .... 
Lieutenant . . 

Major 

Brig.-General 
Lieutenant . . 



Cornet. . . . 
Lieutenant 
Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign .... 
Lieutenant . 



Connecticut . 
Pennsylvania 



New Hampshire 
Maryland 



New York. . . 
Pennsylvania 
Maryland . . . 
Pennsylvania 
New Jersey . 



Virginia 
Pennsylvania 
Virginia . . . 
Maryland . . . 



Connecticut .... 

Delaware 

Pennsylvania . . . 
New Jersey . . . 
New Hampshire 

New York 

Connecticut .... 

New York 

Pennsylvania . . . 

New York 

New Jersey .... 
Delaware 



New York . . 
Pennsylvania 



Virginia 



New York. . . 
Pennsylvania . 



Pennsylvania . . 

New York 

North Carolina 
Connecticut . . . 



New York .... 
Maryland .... 

Massachusetts 
Pennsylvania . 
Maryland .... 
New Jersey. . . 



Webb's 

Buck's Co. Militia 

Navy 

Lutz's 

Baxter's 

2d 

Late Forman's. . . 



1st 

Allison's 

Clotz's 

Griffith's 

Humphrys's. . . 
Jaque's Militia. 



9th. 



8th 

2d 

1st 

Bradley's 

5th 

Watt's 

Martin's 

Knolton's 
Drake's . . . . 
S. B. Webb's . 
McClaughry's. 

Watt's 

McClaughry's. 
Shreeve's 
Hall's 



Dubois's , 

Baxter's , 

5th 

Baxter's 

8th Chester County, 
gth 



Drake's Militia . 
8th Cumberland. 

Baylor's 

McCallister's . . . 

Drake's 

2d Battalion 

Meigs' 

Hazen's , 

Dubois's 

2d 

Bradford's .... 
Montgomery's . . 

Rawlings's 

Holmes's 

Hendrickson's. . 
Martin's 



£10,805 

26 

131 
112 

125 
31 
3i 
63 

84 

135 
116 

3i 

42 

148 

26 

103 

112 

43 
112 
182 
115 
165 

43 
150 
150 

44 

26 

174 

115 
150 
119 
112 
112 

26 
116 

3i 
152 
150 
112 
117 
223 

26 
112 
no 

3i 

26 

36 

91 

144 

60 

126 

112 

157 

150 

52 

113 

112 



18 8 



13 3 

2 4 

11 7 
10 

19 6 



16 5 

12 3 

10 6 

11 10 

T9 8 

16 1 

13 

10 8 
11 

12 7 
9 2 

n n 

17 1 
n 2 

2 
9 
5 



Carried forward. £16,349 o 9 



1 66 



A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 



Brought forward. 

Samuel Logan 

Thomas H. Lucket. 

Henry Lvler . 

Robert Magaw , 

Luke Marbury 

Daniel Marlin , 

Joseph Martin. 

Thomas Martin , 

William Martin 

John Massey 

George Mathews 

Monsr. de Mauleon 
Alexander McArthur . . . 
Alexander McCashey. . . 

James McClaughry 

John McClaughry 

John McDonald 

Samuel McClellan 

Samuel McFarland 

Samuel McHatton . . . 

Michael McKnight 

John Meals 

John Mercer 

Thomas Millard 

James Moor 

James Morris 

Joseph Morrisson 

Ebenezer Mott 

Jacob Moyen 

Jacob Mumme 

Henry Murfit 

Francis Murray 

God fry Myer 

Sands Niles 

Christopher Omdorff . . . 

Thomas Parker 

Abraham Parsons 

Robert Patton 

James Paul 

Henry Pawling 

Thomas Payne 

Joseph Payne 

Nathaniel Pendleton . . . 

Solomon Pendleton 

Tobias Polhemus 

David Poor 

David Potter 

John Poulson 

William Preston 

Nathaniel Ramsey 

Robert Randolph 

Thomas Reid 

Isaac Requaw 

Thomas Reynolds 

Nathaniel Reynolds 
Abijah Richardson 



Major 
Lieutenant 

Colonel . . . 



Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 



Colonel 



Lieutenant . . . 
D. Com. For . 
Lieut. -Colonel 

Ensign 

Captain 

Lieutenant . . . 



Ensign. 
Captain 



Lieutenant 



Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign. 



Lieutenant 
Major . . . 
Lieutenant 
Ensign. . . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign. . . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign. . . . 
Lieutenant 



New York , 
Maryland . 



Pennsylvania . . 

New York ... . 
Pennsylvania . . 

Virginia 

Pennsylvania . . 

Maryland 

Virginia 



New York. 



New York 



Pennsylvania 



Colonel 

Captain 

Lieutenant 
Lieut. -Colonel . 
Lieutenant 

Ensign 

Adjutant 

Lieut. -Colonel . 
Lieutenant . . . 
Surgeon's Mate. 



New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

N. Jersey Militia. 

Virginia 

New Jersey 

Philadelphia. 

Delaware 

Connecticut 
Pennsylvania 

New York 

Pennsylvania 



Connecticut . 
Maryland . . . 
Virginia 
New Jersey . 
Pennsylvania 
New Jersey . 
New York . . 
Virginia .... 



Dubois's . . . 
Rawlings's . 

3d 

6th 

nth Militia 
Graham's . 
Baxter's. . . . 

9th 

Proctor's . . . 
26th Militia 
9th 



Dubois's 



New York . , . 
New Jersey . . 
Massachusetts 
New Jersey . . 

Virginia 

Pennsylvania . 
Maryland 



Pennsylvania . 
New York . . . 
New Jersey . . 
New York . . . 
Massachusetts 



2d Militia 

Dubois's 

Swoope's.- 

Montgomery's 
1st Gloster County 

Watt's 

3d Regiment 

Spotsylv. Militia. . 

Ogden's 

Militia 

Hall's . 

Bradley's 

McCallister's 

Dubois's 

Swoope's 

Baxter's 

5th Militia 

13th. 

Baxter's 

Ely's 



9th 

2d Militia . . . 
Swoope's. . . . 
2d Regiment 
Dubois's . . . 
gth 



Rawlings's 

Dubois's 

1st Monmouth 

Hutchison's , 

2d Cumberland Mil 

9th 

Knox's Artillery. . . 

3d 

3d Light Dragoons. 

McAllester's 

Drake's Militia . . . 



Drake's Militia 
Greaton's 



£16,349 o 9 

132 4 2 
150 13 
116 2 

123 6 10 
128 9 10 

5i 4 5 
150 15 
112 14 

106 6 

112 12 
164 6 

29 8 

120 n 10 

107 14 
131 12 1 

115 12 3 
31 10 

31 10 
107 7 3 
150 10 8 

34 15 
26 9 

113 11 
9 11 

112 14 

112 12 
150 15 

124 9 
31 10 

150 15 

133 18 
100 3 
150 15 

113 4 
174 10 
118 12 
112 9 
157 12 

79 o 

116 13 10 
112 12 3 
112 12 3 
150 12 10 

121 18 5 
127 10 

147 17 TO 

98 IO 

112 12 

112 14 

316 18 

[5 



163 
31 IO 

86 12 



26 
26 
68 



Carried forward. 



£22,465 



A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 



6 7 



Brought forward 

Josiah Riddick 

John Riley 

William Robertson. . . . 

John Robins 

Andrew Robinson 

William Rogers 

Thomas Rowse 

John Rudolph 

Samuel Rutherford. . . 

Robert Sample 

John Scarborough 

James Semmes 

Lemuel Sherman 

Isaac Shimer 

Zacharias Shugart 

Joseph Shurtleff , 

G. Selleck Silliman. . . . 

William Silliman 

Edward Smith 

Jonathan Smith 

James Smith 

John Smock , 

Charles Snead 

Smith Snead , 

Silas Snow , 

Jacob Sommer 

William Standley 

Roger Stayner 

Lord Stirling , 

Charles Stockley 

John Stotsbury 

Abraham Stout , 

Aaron Stratton , 

John Swan , 

Cornelius Swartwout . . . 

Henry Swartwout 

Michael Swoope 

Thomas Tanner 

Severn Teackle 

James Teller 

John Thatcher 

Tnomas Thomas 

William Thompson . . . 

Andrew Thompson 

Thomas Thweatt 

Edward Tillard 

Oliver Towles 

Charles Turnbull 

Leonard Van Bueren . . . 

Jacob Van Tassel 

G. H. Van Wagennen., 

Robert Walker 

Benjamin Wallace 

Bernard Ward 

Joseph Ward 

Thomas Warman 



Volunteer . 
Lieutenant 
Adjutant . . 
Ensign . . . 
Lieutenant 



Ensign 

Lieutenant . . . 

Ensign 

Captain 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . . 
Master of Galley 
Lieutenant . . 



A.D.Q.M. Gen, 
Brig. -General. . 

Major 

Lieutenant 

Ensign 

Lieutenant 
Lieut. -Colonel . 
Lieutenant 

Captain 

Lieutenant 

Ensign 

Lieutenant 

Captain 

Major-General . 

Ensign 

Captain 

Lieutenant . . . 



Captain . . . 
Lieutenant 
Ensign 
Colonel . . . 
Lieutenant 

Captain . . . 



Colonel 

Brig .-General 

Ensign 

Captain 

Major 



Lieutenant . . 



Lieutenant . . . 
D. Com. Pris. 
Lieutenant . . . 
Captain 



Com. of Musters 
Lieutenant .... 



Virginia . . . 
Connecticut 
Virginia . . . 



Pennsylvania 
Virginia .... 
Maryland . . . 
Pennsylvania 



Virginia .... 
Maryland . . . 
Washington . 
Pennsylvania 



Connecticut 
Virginia . . . 



Pennsylvania 
New Jersey . 
Virginia 



Delaware 

Philadelphia Co. 



Nansimond county 

S. B. Webb's 

9th 



Swoope's 

4th 

Price's . . . 

5th 

Clotz's. . . 

ioth 

gth 

ist 



Baxter's. . 
Swoope's. 



Silliman's . 
Rawlings's 

8th 

Proctor's. . 
ist Militia 
9th 



4th Militia 

Militia 

5th 

2d 



Virginia 

Pennsylvania . 
New Jersey . . 
Massachusetts 



'gth. 
nth 
2d . 



New York 



Pennsylvania 
Connecticut . 
Virginia 
New York . . 
Connecticut . 
New York . . 



New Jersey . 
Virginia . . . 
Maryland . . . 
Virginia . . . 
Pennsylvania 
New York . . 



Massachusetts 
Pennsylvania . 



Virginia 



3d Light Dragoons. 
Lamb's Artillery. . . 
Dubois's 



Bradley's 

9th 

Drake's 

Swift's 

West. Ches. Militia. 



ioth Regiment 
6th 



Proctor's 



Hammond's Milit 



Brewer's 

Montgomery's 
Atlee's 



Rawlings's 



£22,465 

26 

134 
112 
112 
192 
101 
116 
150 
3i 
103 
112 

IOI 

33 

147 

150 

100 

89 

26 

154 
112 

47 

44 

112 

112 

43 

43 

150 

112 

20 

112 

79 
112 
150 
170 
116 
113 

5i 
150 
112 

26 

115 

46 

119 

84 

78 

182 

116 

139 

V 

35 

9 

112 

3i 
155 

89 
152 



5 
18 9 

9 10 
14 8 

9 1 
13 11 
2 

15 
10 

19 
12 
n 
16 
3 



7 

9 

9 
12 
12 3 

5 
14 7 

5 
9 10 

13 



13 10 
6 8 



12 n 

17 4 

17 10 

10 9 

6 5 

8 2 

2 

3 4 

4 4 
16 

12 5 
10 

1 5 

2 10 

10 3 



Carried forward £27,962 12 5 



1 68 



A VALUABLE REVOLUTIONARY DOCUMENT 



OFFICERS. 


RANK. 


STATE. 


CORPS. 


AMOUNT. 


B rou gh t f orw a rd . 








^27,962 12 5 

I05 O 4 
3D 15 

303 7 5 

112 14 7 

113 4 4 

79 11 1 
134 18 9 
113 6 9 

91 6 7 
148 5 10 

80 18 10 
115 17 2 

83 7 2 
133 11 10 
112 12 4 

43 5 9 
150 15 4 
150 15 4 


David Waterbury 


Brig.-General . . 






Mason Wattles 

Samuel B Webb 


Lieutenant .... 
Colonel 


Massachusetts . . . 


5th Battalion 


John Weidman 


Ensign 






Ebenezer West 


Adjutant 

Lieutenant .... 

Captain 


Connecticut 

Pennsylvania .... 

New York 

New Jersey 

New York ...... 


Ely's 


Joel Westcoat 


3d 


Samuel Whiting 

James Whitlock 

Daniel Williams 


Lamb's Artillery. . . 
Scudder's 


Graham's 


John Willis 


Lieutenant .... 

Major 

Lieutenant .... 

Major 

Lieutenant .... 


Virginia 

Connecticut 

Maryland 

Virginia 

Pennsylvania .... 


2d Regiment 

Webb's 


James Winchester 

Era^tus W T olcott 


Tarlton Woodson 


Hazen's. 




9th 


George Wright 

Thomas Wynn 

William Young 


Montgomery's 

McCallester's 



Total ;£ 30,072 6 10 




AN AUTOGRAPH MANUSCRIPT OF AMERICUS VESPUCIUS 



By Walter Sibbald Wilson 

There has just been found at the Riccardiana Library, in Florence, a 
manuscript volume of Americus Vespucius, which has hitherto escaped 
the notice of those who have interested themselves in the life of the great 
Florentine navigator. It is entitled Vespucci Amerigo, Dettati da mettere 
in latino, and is a small volume, five and two-thirds by four and one-fifth 



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inches, containing one hundred and eighty-eight leaves. It is executed 
in the beautiful round handwriting of the fifteenth century, and is bound 
in parchment. The title is not contemporaneous with the manuscript, 
but was given to it by Lami. Vespucius was born in Florence on March 
9, 145 1 ; at the age of twenty-seven he visited Paris with a distant rela- 



i ;o 



AN AUTOGRAPH MANUSCRIPT OF AMERICUS VESPUCIUS 



tive, returning to his native city in 1480. Ten years later he set out for 
Spain, and it was during the years just previous to this departure that he 
is supposed to have written the manuscript volume under consideration. 
The book contains a series of exercises in grammar, but of a peculiar char- 
acter. Yespucius had experienced a strong desire to master the Latin 
language thoroughly, and with this object in view he wrote sentences in 
Italian, to which he could apply a given grammatical rule, and afterwards 
translated them into Latin. On each right-hand page there is a subject 

which fills it entirely, 



^ 









and which is the devel- 
opment of a single 
main idea ; and at the 
top, on the margin of 
the leaf, are found cer- 
tain rules indicated, 
the application of 
which is necessary to 
translate the subject 
into Latin. But in- 
stead of writing " fool- 
ish and puerile propo- 
sitions similar to those 
a /v'f« : £- found m many 01 our 
1 •. ' 7"f«7. modern grammars, 
such as, ' the cat ot my 
uncle'sbrotheris much 
pleased with the dog 
of my cousin's aunt,' 
he wrote, in Italian, 
sentences having in 
general a deep purport, 
and this purport was 
suggested to him by the atmosphere of Florence in which he lived, and 
then ruled by Lorenzo the Magnificent. This opinion seems to me con- 
firmed by reading the whole manuscript." 1 

In the accompanying photographs are shown ; first, the reverse side of 
the first leaf (page 2 of the book), with the Italian composition written 
in a firm, exquisite hand; and on the second leaf (page 3 of the book) 
is shown the Latin translation of the opposite page. The range of subjects 

1 G. Uzielli, in Toscanelli for January, 1893. 




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<£w>#' 



v^ 



7 



9**&*j'i,P ( 



-^.\ u i>ul 







AN AUTOGRAPH MANUSCRIPT OF AM ERIC US VESPUCIUS 171 

covered is wide; they are of a philosophical character, and give evidence 
of a thoughtful mind. In one, Vespucius, who did not believe that 
theology could explain natural phenomena, such as meteoric displays, and 
showers of blood, etc., addresses the following ironical inquiry to the 
believers : " Oh ! priest, from whom counsel has been so often sought in 
the times when it has thundered, or the lightnings have flashed, when the 
thunderbolt has fallen, or when the hail has destroyed, when it has rained 
or snowed in an extraordinary manner, as if the nations truly believed thee 
to be the god Apollo, who, as the poets imagine, possesses a knowledge of 
future things as well as things present and past ! what advice would'st 
thou give to this people if it rained stones, or blood, or flesh, as one reads 
in the old chronicles?" 1 

In another " exercise " he lays down the fundamental problem of the 
science of the emotions; and in a third he enunciates a precept of hy- 
giene and of morality. Leaf 188, also shown in the photograph, and 
which is the last in the book, contains at the top the following decla- 
ration: " Amerigo de Ser Anastagio Vespucci wrote this little book." 
Under these words there are some scrawls and several lines of writing, 
in part from the hand of Vespucius, in part made by other persons, as 
may be seen in the photograph herewith. There can be read two Greek 
words, with their pronunciation : " akolitos," " exorkist " ; the Latin words 
(< non prohibitus," " abjuro juramento expello"; some names repeated 
several times, such as Antonius, Simone. Upon examination it appears 
that although Vespucius had written all the Italian composition in his 
book of exercises, he had only translated six pages into Latin. This 
may readily be accounted for from the fact that, at that period, it was 
unsafe for any one to write his opinions in too free and open a manner. 
Lorenzo the Magnificent was in power, and he was an unscrupulous ruler. 
" Possessed of high ability, great in the policy of trifling expedients, but 
extravagant to excess, the slave of his passions and incapable in business 
matters, Lorenzo did not hesitate to use the public treasure for his own 
needs, and to lay hands on the dowers deposited in the banks of the 
Republic, and which belonged to the young daughters of Florence." This 
little manuscript volume will prove a valuable addition to the literature in 
existence referring to Americus Vespucius. 

1 Toscanelli for January, 1893. 



THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 

By Allan Grant 

On a bitter cold afternoon at the close of the year 1892, the anniver- 
sary of St. John the Evangelist's Day, December 27, the corner-stone of 
the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine was laid with solemn and 
appropriate ceremonies. The site of this cathedral, destined when com- 




CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE. 

pleted to rival the grandest ecclesiastical edifices of Europe, extends from 
One Hundred and Tenth to One Hundred and Thirteenth streets, and from 
Morningside to Tenth avenues, New York. It is at present occupied by 
the buildings of the Leake and Watts Orphan Asylum. A point just east 
of the asylum, and overlooking the broad valley below, was selected for 






THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 1 73 

laying the corner-stone, a polished block of Quincy granite, four feet four 
inches square by two feet four and a half inches deep. Owing to the 
season of the year a temporary wooden structure of cruciform shape, cov- 
ered by a canvas roof, steam heated, and capable of seating comfortably a 
thousand persons, had been provided. 

In the centre of the building was seen the stone, around which a plat- 
form with a lectern in one corner had been erected, and at each angle was 
displayed the American flag. The floors of the whole building, as well as 
of the platform, were carpeted. Necessarily only a limited number (eleven 
hundred) of admission tickets were sent out, and to the holders of these 
were assigned seats in the nave. The chancel was set apart for the clergy, 
the left transept for the various church societies, and the right transept 
for the choir and the students of the General Theological Seminary. The 
clergy, students, and choristers assembled in the asylum, and at three 
o'clock the procession entered, led by the marshal carrying a silver mace. 
He was followed by the musicians, and behind them came seventy mem- 
bers of the Church Choral Society, and the students of the General Theo- 
logical Seminary, all of whom took seats in the south transept. The 
trustees of Columbia College and of St. Luke's Hospital were next in 
order, and sat in the north transept. The clergy came next, walking two 
by two, and separating at the corner-stone to meet and sit together in the 
chancel. The line extended from the tent to the asylum, and numbered 
about two hundred and fifty persons in all. Following the clergy were the 
architect and the builder. The trustees of the cathedral, wearing purple 
sashes, were next in order, and were seated on the left side of the plat- 
form. Then came the bishops. As the clergy entered the building they 
read with Bishop Potter, responsively, the processional psalms, " Lord, 
who shall dwell in Thy tabernacle ? " and " I was glad when they said 
unto me." When the clergy had taken their places in the chancel the 
sight was most impressive. The white robes, the colored stoles and hoods 
of many hues, contrasted with the darkly dressed congregation, made a 
pleasing picture. The bishops sat in the midst of the chancel. 

The services were conducted by Bishop Potter and Drs. Dix and Hunt- 
ington, Chief Justice Fuller taking part in the programme. Bishop Doane 
delivered the address. The following articles were deposited beneath the 
stone : 

The Holy Bible. 

The Book of Common Prayer, according to the Standard of 1892. 

The Hymnal of the Church. 

Journals of the convention of the diocese of New York, 1882-92. 



1 74 THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 

Journals oi the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States, 1889-92. 

General James Grant Wilson's Centennial History of the Diocese of New York, 1886. 

Spirit of Missions, December, 1892. 

Church papers — The Churchman, Standard, and Living Church. 

Daily newspapers of December 27, 1892. 

The Church Almanac, Whittaker s Almanac, Living Church Quarterly , and Tri- 
bune Almanac, 1893. 

Catalogue of the General Theological Seminary, 1892-93. 

Catalogue of St. Stephen's College, 1892-93. 

Form of the office of the cathedral corner-stone laying. 

Names of the trustees of the cathedral. 

Charges and addresses delivered by the Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter on "Law and Loy- 
alty in the Church " before the one hundred and third convention of the diocese of New 
York; on "The Offices of Wardens and Vestrymen;" and on "The Relation of the 
Clergy to the Faith and Order of the Church," at the one hundredth anniversary of the 
consecration of the bishops for the Church in America by English bishops in Lambeth ; at 
the dedication of All Saints' cathedral, Albany ; at the one hundredth anniversary of the 
inauguration of George Washington as President of the United States, in St. Paul's chapel, 
April 29, 1889. 

Letters of Bishop Potter to the people and clergy of the diocese concerning the cathe- 
dral, 1887. 

Badge and rules of prayer and service of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew. 

Fragments of brick from the first church in America, bearing inscription on silver 
plate: "From the ruins of the First Christian City of the New World, where the first 
church was erected by Christopher Columbus, 1493. — Isabella, Hispaniola." 

Medal of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. 

List of the officers of the governments of the United States, the state and the city of 
New York. 

Coins of the United States. 

Lists of objects deposited in corner-stone. 

The illustration accompanying this article is the one selected by the 
trustees from among several designs which were submitted to them. Some 
modifications of the original have already been decided upon, and others 
may possibly be adopted hereafter. It is estimated that the total cost of 
the cathedral will be about ten millions of dollars, and it is hoped that it 
may be completed within a very few years of the close of the present cen- 
tury. Several persons have subscribed one hundred thousand dollars each, 
and one generous person, whose name is withheld, has given half a million 
of dollars. 



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THE DEATH OF EX-PRESIDENT HAYES 

A special meeting of the cabinet was held in Washington, D. C, on Wednesday, 
January 18, at which the following executive order was drafted and adopted : 

To the People of the United States : 

The death of Rutherford B. Hayes, who was President of the United States 
from March 4, 1877, to March 4, i88t, at his home in Fremont, Ohio, at eleven p.m. 
yesterday, is an event the announcement of which will be received with very gen- 
eral and very sincere sorrow. His public service extended over many years and 
over a wide range of official duty. He was a patriotic citizen, a lover of the flag 
and of our free institutions, an industrious and conscientious civil officer, a soldier 
of dauntless courage, a loyal comrade and friend, a sympathetic and helpful neigh- 
bor, and the honored head of a happy Christian home. He had steadily grown in 
the public esteem, and the impartial historian will not fail to recognize the con- 
scientiousness, the manliness, and the courage that so strongly characterized his 
whole public career. 

As an expression of the public sorrow, it is ordered that the executive mansion 
and the several executive departments at Washington be draped in mourning and 
the flags thereon placed at half-staff for a period of thirty days, and that on the 
day of the funeral all public business in the departments be suspended, and that 
suitable military and naval honors, under the orders of the secretaries of war and 
of the navy, be rendered on that day. 

Benjamin Harrison. 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, January 18, 1893. 

By the President, 

J. W. Foster, Secretary of State, 

On the day following, Governor McKinley, of Ohio, the ex-president's native 
state, issued the following proclamation : 

To the People of Ohio : 

It is my sorrowful duty to announce to the people of the state the death of one 
of its most honored citizens, Rutherford B. Hayes, which occurred on the night of 
the 17th inst., at his home, Fremont, Ohio. It is fitting that the people of Ohio, 
whom he served so long and faithfully, should take special note of the going out 



i ;6 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



of this great life, and make manifest the affectionate regard in which he was held 
by them. 

His private life was conspicuous for its purity, gentleness, and benevolence. 
His public services were long and singularly distinguished. In his youth he had an 
important official position in the chief city of the state. He was among the first 
of Ohio's sons to offer his services to the cause of the Union in the late war. In 
battle he was brave ; and wounds he received in defending his country's flag were 
silent but eloquent testimonials to his gallantry and patriotism and sacrifice. From 
major of the Twenty-third Ohio Infantry he reached the high rank of a major 
general of volunteers, commanding a division ; beloved by his comrades and 

respected by all. While in the field he 
was elected to the national house of 
representatives, but his sense of duty im- 
pelled him to decline to serve in congress 
while the country was imperiled. Sub- 
sequently he performed honorable ser- 
vice in that body. For two successive 
terms he was elected Governor of Ohio, 
and after a period of retirement he was 
again chosen the chief executive of the 
state. Then the nation called him to 
the presidency, and he performed the, 
duties of that high office with dignity, 
faithfulness, and ability. 

From the completion of his term as 
President of the United States until his 
death he was an exemplification of the 
noblest qualities of American citizenship 
in its private capacity ; modest and un- 
assuming, and yet public-spirited, ever 
striving for the well-being of the people, 
the relief of distress, the reformation of 
abuses, and the practical education of the masses of his countrymen. We are made 
better by such a life. Its serious contemplation will be helpful to all. We add to 
our own honor by doing honor to the memory of Rutherford B. Hayes. 

I, therefore, as Governor of the State of Ohio, recommend that flags on all 
public buildings and schoolhouses be put at half-mast from now until after the 
funeral of Rutherford B. Hayes, and that, upon the first opportunity after the 
funeral, the people assemble at their respective places of divine worship and hold 
memorial services. And, as a mark of respect, I do order that on the day of the 
funeral, the 20th inst., the executive office be closed. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and caused to be 




HISTORY IN BRIEF 



177 



affixed the great seal of the state at Columbus, this the 19th day of January, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth. 

William McKinley, Jr. 
By the Governor, 

Samuel M. Taylor, Secretary of State. 

The funeral of General Hayes, at Fremont, Ohio, took place on Thursday, 
January 19, and was attended by many distinguished persons, including Grover 
Cleveland, the only ex-President of the United States now living. President 
Harrison, who was prevented from being present in person, was represented by 
several members of his cabinet. 



ONE OF WASHINGTON'S SWEETHEARTS 

On the occasion of one of the numerous journeys which General Washington 
took to the North in February and March, 1756, he visited among other places 
Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. It is 
stated, too, that in New York he was im- 
pressed by the charms of a young lady, Miss 
Mary Philipse. A few particulars in connec- 
tion with this pleasing incident may be of 
interest. Mary Philipse was the niece and 
heiress of Mr. Adolphus Philipse. The 
founder of the family and of the family's 
wealth was Frederick Philipse, owner of a 
vast tract of country which embraced Tarry- 
town and reached down to the Harlem. 
Upon a tax list of New York city for the year 
1674 he is rated as worth eighty thousand 
florins (thirty-two thousand dollars), by far 
the richest man in town ; only two men ap- 
proached him in wealth, and these were rated 
each at fifty thousand florins (twenty thou- 
sand dollars). Frederick Philipse and his son 
Adolphus, after him, were in the governor's 
council, and intensely loyal to the king. The 
wealth of the family had not grown less by 
the year 1756. Mary Philipse was heiress to 
a vast amount. Her sister, likewise an heir- 
ess, had married Beverly Robinson, the son of John Robinson, who was Speaker of 
the House of Burgesses of Virginia, and as such had so eloquently complimented 

Vol. XXIX. -No. 2.— 12 




17$ HISTORY IN BRIEF 

Washington when he took his seat there. Beverly had been a schoolmate of Wash- 
ington's, and it was but natural that the latter should be his guest on this visit to 
New York. And, equally as a matter of course, Washington at this house met 
Mary Philipse. Irving says of this meeting : 

" That he was an open admirer of Miss Philipse is an historical fact ; that he 
sought her hand, but was refused, is traditional, and not very probable. His 
military rank, his early laurels, and distinguished presence were all calculated to 
win favor in female eyes ; but his sojourn in New York was brief, he may have 
been diffident in urging his suit with a lady accustomed to the homage of society, 
and surrounded by admirers. The most probable version of the story is that he 
was called away by his public duties before he had made sufficient approaches in 
his siege of the lady's heart to warrant a summons to surrender." 

Whatever the truth of this courtship is, it is certain that Washington did not 
marry her. Y r et, by the strange concatenation of events in that stirring age, twenty 
years later he occupied her house on Harlem Heights as his headquarters. After 
he had gone back to Virginia a letter reached him from a friend, giving him warn- 
ing that another was seeking the rich and beautiful prize. Captain Roger Morris, 
a fellow aid-de-camp in the Braddock campaign, was likely to win her hand. But 
Washington left the field clear for him. Hence Mary Philipse became Mary 
Morris. And when the Revolution came she clung to the traditions of her family, 
and remained a loyalist. Besides her wealth and beauty she was credited with 
possessing a strong mind and imperious will ; so much so that it was freely hinted 
at that time that if Washington had married her he would never have been the 
leader of the patriots. Captain Morris may have needed no petticoat persuasion 
to keep him from joining the rebels. At any rate, the wife and husband both fled to 
England, and their estates on Manhattan were confiscated. They owned a beauti- 
ful mansion overlooking the Harlem river and the country far beyond it. Later 
it came into the hands of Madame Jumel, who was married to Aaron Burr shortly 
before the latter's death in 1830 ; and it still stands to-day, known as the Jumel 
Mansion, as a lonely relic of former days, on One-hundred-and-sixty-first street 
near St. Nicholas avenue. It was occupied by Washington as headquarters 
after the battle of Long Island, and before his retreat from Manhattan island, 
or in the early autumn months of 1776. It may be that his thoughts reverted with 
fond regret to the beautiful mistress of the mansion in the happy days of youth. 



TRUTH ABOUT SECESSION 

'* Secession " has not a pleasant sound to our ears. It has cost us too much 
blood and treasure. However, if there be any good ground for distributing the 
blame of this bad thing, do not let us be so unfair and so unhistoric as to concen- 
trate it upon one section, and confine it to the men of one period or generation. 
The author of a recent book puts the matter tersely and strongly thus : 

" The truth is, it is nonsense to reproach any one section with being especially 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 1 79 

disloyal to the Union. At one time or another almost every state has shown 
strong particularistic leanings ; Connecticut and Pennsylvania, for example, quite 
as much as Virginia or Kentucky. Fortunately the outbursts were never simulta- 
neous in a majority. It is as impossible to question the fact that at one period or 
another of the past many of the states in each section have been very shaky in 
their allegiance, as to doubt that they are now all heartily loyal. The secession 
movement of i860 was pushed to extremities, instead of being merely planned and 
threatened ; and the revolt was peculiarly abhorrent because of the intention to 
make slavery the ' corner-stone ' of the new nation ; but at least it was free from 
the meanness of being made in the midst of a doubtful struggle with a foreign foe." 
This last clause is aimed at the decided separatist sentiments and activities pre- 
vailing in the New England states during the war of 181 2. It seems almost 
incredible (but the facts are there, and they are unmanageable things) that " half a 
century before the ' stars and bars ' waved over Lee's last intrenchments, perfervid 
New England patriots were fond of flaunting ' the flag with five stripes,' and drink- 
ing to the health of the — fortunately still-born — new nation." It would seem the 
part of wisdom then for the pot to lay aside its habit of predicating blackness of 
the kettle. We have all erred on this unhappy " secesh " question, and now we have 
all learned to be wiser, after having had some punishment for our error. Union 
after Liberty will no longer do. It must be Liberty and Union, Liberty with 
Union, Liberty through Union. But we must cease prosing about this matter ; the 
point is, not to forget the farther past in the overwhelming importance of the more 
recent past ; or let us forget both together ! 



A STRANGE STORY 

When Gouverneur Morris, our Minister at Paris during the Reign of Terror, 
was in France, he formed intimate friendships with many members of the royal 
family, even before he was accredited as the representative of our government. 
Among those who admired him and cherished his society was the Duchess of 
Orleans, the wife of the wretched Philippe Egalite, and mother of Louis Philippe, 
who reigned as king after the downfall of Charles X. At one of these frequent 
and sudden turns of fortune which were constantly bringing one or another group 
of " patriots " to the guillotine, General Dumouriez found it the better part of valor 
to seek refuge in flight. He had lost a battle, and the French red republicans had 
no alternative for their generals but "victory or death," in a somewhat new appli- 
cation of that brave motto. In his train fled Louis Philippe, and by that means 
escaped, probably, the fate of his father. But while he saved his life, he did not 
save much of worldly goods with it. In this extremity a friend of the duchess called 
upon Morris for aid. Remembering the mother's kindness and friendship, Morris 
responded at once and generously. He gave the young duke money wherewith to 
go to America, and directed his bankers at New York to give him unlimited 



180 HISTORY IN BRIEF 

credit. When, later, " he came to his own," this generosity on the part of the 
American commoner was conveniently forgotten. " He was not a bad man," says 
rheodore Roosevelt, on whose authority we tell this story, " but he was a very 
petty and contemptible one ; had he been born in a different station of life he 
would have been just the individual to take a prominent part in local temperance 
meetings, while he sanded the sugar he sold in his corner grocery." Morris, dis- 
gusted at the man's ignominious ingratitude, jogged his memory a little ; where- 
upon the noble king, remembering that " noblesse oblige" quietly forwarded the 
bare original sum, without a centime of interest, and, what is worse, without a 
word of thanks. This aroused the American to still greater indignation. He now 
engaged a lawyer, through whom he coolly notified the royal niggard that " if 
the affair was to be treated on a merely business basis, it should then be treated 
m a strictly business way, and the interest for the twenty years that had gone by 
should be forwarded also." This carried the figure to seventy thousand francs, 
which was not fully refunded till after Morris's death, a few years after this episode. 
The account of this incident was obtained by Mr. Roosevelt from manuscripts 
in the possession of the Hon. John Jay, and has not before been presented to the 
public. 



UNITED STATES HISTORICAL EXHIBIT AT MADRID 

In his report to the Secretary of State, Mr. William G. Curtis, attache of the 
United States Commission to the Madrid Historical Exposition, speaks as follows : 
''The building in which the exposition is held is a magnificent structure of stone, simple in its 
architecture, but imposing in its dimensions. It stands on one of the principal avenues of the 
modern portion of Madrid, and is intended for the permanent home of the National Library, which 
now occupies an ancient monastery, but will be removed to its new quarters at the close of the 
exposition. The upper story of the great quadrangle is entirely occupied by the Spanish section, 
while the rooms upon the lower floor are assigned to Portugal, Italy, Germany, Norway and Sweden, 
Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Santo Domingo, 
the United States, and one or two other nations. The exhibits from these countries, with the 
exception of the United States, are devoted almost exclusively to historical relics and archaeological 
collections illustrating the condition of the native races which occupied the American continent at the 
time of the discovery. The United States exhibit occupies six large rooms at the left of the entrance 
on Calle de Serrano, and it is the most extensive of any nation except Spain. The principal room 
and a smaller one adjoining are occupied by a splendid exhibition selected with great care from 
the treasures of the Smithsonian Institute and the National Museum at Washington. The next 
room is occupied by an exhibit from the museum of the University of Pennsylvania, and in the 
adjacent apartment is a collection of objects illustrating the history and condition of the Pueblo 
Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, furnished by the generosity of Mrs. Hemingway of Boston. 
In two large rooms at the right of the entrance is a collection of the portraits of Columbus, with 
large photographic views of places in America visited by him on his several voyages, and scenes 
identified with his career, and photographs and medals of all the monuments that have been 
erected in his honor. This collection was furnished by the Bureau of the American Republic at 
Washington. 



HISTORY IN BRIEF l8l 

" But the most important and attractive portion of the exhibition is the Spanish section, in 
which is displayed a marvelous collection of relics of what may be termed the Golden Age of 
Spain, the portraits of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V. and Philip II., contemporary with and 
immediately following the discoveries of Columbus. The palaces, the museums, the libraries, the 
churches, the monasteries, the armories, and the art galleries of Spain have been stripped of their 
choicest treasures relating to this period of Spanish prosperity and magnificence, and the collection 
is here displayed in chronological order, arrayed and installed with rare taste and ingenuity. The 
ancient families of the kingdom, whose magnificent collections of art and historical subjects are seldom 
shown to the public, have loaned them for the exposition and have made the display complete. Several 
important private collections have also been brought from France, and his Holiness the Pope has 
contributed many articles of rare interest and variety from the museum and library at the Vatican. 
Although many of the objects have been on public exhibition in the several cities of Spain, it is 
the first time that an attempt has been made to bring them together, and there is no country so 
rich in historical treasures. It is gratifying to know that the greater part of the exhibits of this 
exposition will be transferred to Chicago next spring, and will furnish one of the most attractive 
features of the World's Columbian Exposition." 



AN AUTOGRAPH LETTER FROM GLADSTONE 

Upon the next page we give a fac-simile of a letter written by Mr, W. E, Glad- 
stone to Douglas Campbell, the author of The Puritan in Holland, England, and 
America. The text of the letter, omitting the address, is as follows : 

" Hawarden Castle, Chester, October 17, '92. 

My dear Sir, — It happened that I opened your work and read the deeply interesting Preface 
before I had seen your letter, and ascertained to whom I owed the gift. Allow me now to offer 
you the special thanks it so well deserves. 

The English race (I am a pure Scotchman) are a great fact in the world, and I believe will so 
continue ; but no race stands in greater need of discipline in every form, and, among other forms, 
that which is administered by criticism vigorously directed to canvassing their character and claims. 
Under such discipline I believe they are capable of a great elevation and of high performances, 
and I thank you partly in anticipation, partly from the experience already had, for taking this work 
in hand, while I am aware that it is one collateral and incidental to your main purpose. 

Puritanism, again, is a great fact in history, exhibiting so many remarkable and noble traits. 
It may, perhaps, be liable to the suspicion of a want of durability. During the last century it 
seems to have undergone in various quarters much disintegration ; and it is difficult to connect it 
historically with the divorce law of Connecticut. But I am wandering into forbidden ground, which 
my qualifications do not entitle me to tread, and I will close with expressing my sense of the value 
and importance of a work like yours, and of the benefit which we in particular ought to derive from 
it. I remain, dear sir, your most faithful and obedient, 

W. E. Gladstone." 

The significance of this letter becomes apparent when we bear in mind the 
great age of the writer ; far beyond his fourscore, his mind is as clear and as eager 
for new presentations of truth as when in the vigor of his days. We must also 
regard his position as prime minister of a great empire ; the pressure of political 
problems of peculiar difficulty and delicacy. Great must be his interest in the 
historical questions brought to view by the volumes under discussion if, amid 



Jo t^wfe****** , LtUr Uv t^yc<^ 
Jta^Aj uX GTstxittA^ Overset *r/ t/ttettr 

Crlii^ot, fnn^%*d Iluijfr-^ UfitAyc^ to u^C^ 



all this pressure, 
he can sit down 
and write this let- 
ter with his own 
hand, and even di- 
rect the envelope 
himself. Added 
to this is the fact 
of his boldness in 
thanking the 
author for his vig- 
orous criticism of 
the English race, 
and of their claim 
to be the civilizers 
of the modern 
world. The book 
is a republican 
one, hostile to 
monarchies and 
aristocracies, op- 
posed to the com- 
bination of Church 
and State, to the 
land system of 
England, to its 
system of educa- 
tion, and, in short, 
to the whole theory 
of the organization 
of its government. 
That the prime 
minister of Eng- 
land should write 
thanking the au- 
thor for producing 
such a book, add- 
ing that it is just 
the thing needed 
by the English peo- 
ple, is a matter of 
great significance. 



FAC-SIM1LE OF CLADSTONE LETT 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

EDITORIAL NOTES 



183 



Paul Du Chaillu has just completed an histor- 
ical novel, the scene of which is laid in Scandi- 
navia in the third century. It will appear dur- 
ing the present publishing season. 

The new volume of the Hakluyt Society con- 
tains a reprint of two old MSS. : The risit of 
Master 'J "ho mas Dallam to the Sultan in 1599, 
and the Story of a Sojourn at Constantinople 
by Dr. John Covel, Chaplain to the Embassy, 
1670-1677. 

A book on Maryland, Early Maryland, Civil, 
Social, and Ecclesiastical, by the Rev. Dr. Gam- 
brail, of Baltimore, is announced as in press by 
Thomas Whittaker. The same publisher is 
bringing out J. F. Rowbotham's Private Life of 
the Great Composers. 

An Edinburgh con-espondent, under date of 
January 10, writes to the editor that the Scottish 
History Society have sent to each of their sub- 
scribers Clerk of Penicuick's Memoirs ; also, 
that Blacktuood's Magazine has changed its 
shape, having adopted a larger page and wider 
margin. 

Our Philadelphia correspondent is informed 
that Mr. Gladstone took office as premier in 
April, 1880, and held office till June, 1885 ; Lord 
Salisbury, from June, 1885, till January, 1886 ; 
Mr. Gladstone, from January till July, 1886; 
Lord Salisbury, from July, 1886, till his recent 
resignation. 

His troops of friends at home and abroad will 
regret to hear that the Hon. John Jay, ex-presi- 
dent of the American Historical Association, has 
been confined to his house for several weeks. 
Mr. Jay has never fully recovered from the acci- 
dent that he met with some two years since at a 
street crossing. 

All communications connected with the edi- 
torial department of the Magazine of Ameri- 
can History should be addressed to 98 Bible 
House, New York City. Articles on historical 
subjects, not available, will be returned by the 
editor, if accompanied by the requisite stamps 
to cover postage. 

The second of the series of facsimiles of val- 
uable manuscripts, to appear in the March issue, 
will be an unpublished letter written by Gen- 
eral Grant to President Lincoln, just previous 
to the surrender of General Lee. Others of 
equal historical interest and value will follow in 
every future number of the Magazine. 

The series of monographs on the most im- 
portant libraries of the United States, accom- 
panied by illustrations, will appear regularly 
during the present year ; those on the Congres- 
sional Library of Washington and the Public 



Library of Boston, following Mr. Saunders's 
sketch of the Astor Library in the present 
number. 

A correspondent writes from the University of 
the South to the editor, under date of January 
2ist : " It may interest you to know that a com- 
plete edition of Timrod's poems,. with a thorough 
sketch of his life, is contemplated by Professor 
C. H. Ross, of Alabama. If from your stores 
of literary information you can aid him, he will, 
I am sure, appreciate it." 

The chairman of the committee having in 
charge the noble statue of Columbus, by Sunol, 
to be erected in the Central Park in April, 1893, 
has just been informed from Madrid that the 
Spanish government will send the statue to New 
York in one of the ships of war that have been 
ordered to attend the great naval review in New 
York harbor in April next. 

Dr. James C. Willing, president of the Co- 
lumbia University of Washington, D. C, has 
just published an exhaustive and valuable mon- 
ograph on the subject of the Behring Sea arbi- 
tration, which we can cordially commend to 
historical students and others interested in the 
subject of his brochure, which is one of the 
series of Columbian University studies. 

The third volume of the Memorial History of 
the City of New York will be issued about the 
fourth of February. It brings the history of the 
metropolis down to the close of the year 1892. 
The fourth and concluding volume, containing 
exhaustive monographs on commerce, churches, 
hospitals, libraries, music, theatres, New York 
authors, and many other subjects, will appear 
in April or May. 

Mr. George Augustus Sala, with his wonderful 
store of odd facts, tells us that hundreds of years 
ago the old-world printers used to chain copies 
of their books outside their offices, and reward 
peripatetic scholars who might detect errors with 
prizes graduated according to the seriousness of 
the slip — a cup of wine for a broken letter ; a 
cup of wine and a plate of meat for a wrong font 
or a turned letter, and so on in proportion. 

Dr. Sir John W. Dawson, in his Geography 
of Canada, remarks that while many Indian 
names have been preserved they have undergone 
a change in pronunciation. In general, the 
Indian names are descriptive of the locality. 
Thus, Quebec means "a strait" or "an ob- 
struction." Toronto " a tree in the water," 
Winnipeg "muddy water," Saskatchewan 
"rapid current." Niagara, we may add, was 
originally Oniagahra, " thunder of the waters." 

The miseries of the long-distance ride between 
Berlin and Vienna are not yet at an end, for 



1 84 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



deaths are still being announced of the exhausted 
horses. One enthusiastic officer is making a 
collection of the shoes worn by the competing 
animals. Meanwhile the Italians are bent upon 
a similar ride from Rome to Vienna, but the 
course presents so many difficulties that the or- 
ganizing committee cannot complete the arrange- 
ments, for which fact all lovers of animals must 
feel gratified. 

There is still preserved an interesting me- 
mento of the friendship which for many years 
existed between Carlyle and Robert Browning. 
This relic is a copy of the original edition of 
Bells and Pomegranates (now a considerable 
rarity), given by the poet to the historian, and 
having upon the wrapper of part viii. (containing 
" Luria *' and ''The Soul's Tragedy'") the fol- 
lowing autograph inscription : " Thomas Car- 
lyle, Esq.. with R. B.'s affectionate respect and 
regard." This treasured volume was purchased 
by its present owner shortly after Carlyle s death 
in 1SS1. 

At one of the last conversations held with the 
venerable historian George Bancroft, he ex- 
pressed to the writer the wish that the govern- 
ment might become the possessor of his library, 
and particularly of his large collection of MSS. , 
including the Samuel Adams papers. By a 
letter to the editor, dated Washington, January 
23d, it is learned that the government will prob- 
ably pass a bill during the present session for 
the purpose of purchasing Mr. Bancroft's man- 
uscripts, and that they will be added to the 
valuable collection in the library of the State 
Department. 

The recent gift of Miss Julia S. Bryant, of 
nearly one thousand selected volumes from the 
library of her father, William Cullen Bryant, to 
the trustees of the Tilden library, has been ac- 
cepted "with gratitude" by the trustees, and 
will be sent forthwith to Mr. Tilden's home in 
Gramercy park, New York. Stephen A. Walker, 
one of the trustees, says: "We have no per- 
manent headquarters as yet, but are not entirely 
homeless, as we are occupying Mr. Tilden's 
house, where we have our offices. We have 
ample room there for all the gifts that anybody 
will be kind enough to make to the library." 

The printed volume of Liber r, Suffolk Deeds, 
used in the preparation of the article on ' ' La Tour 
and Acadia," was kindly furnished to the writer 
by the Historical Society of Dedham, Mass. It 
contains some of the most curious of old colonial 
records. At a very early date it was ordered by 
the Massachusetts General Court, " To record 
all men's houses and lands, being certified 
under the hands of men of every towne." The 
printed volume was published by the city of 
Boston, and Mr. William Blake Trask, an em- 
inent antiquary, thoroughly conversant with 



colonial history, was selected for the difficult 
task of making an accurate copy for the printer. 

The sudden and lamented death of Mrs. 
Lamb, so long associated with the Magazine of 
American History as editor, has made a change 
in the conduct of the journal inevitable. The 
just tribute due this remarkable woman will be 
found elsewhere in these pages. The Magazine 
has now passed into other hands, but into hands 
which, it is believed, will hold the mission of the 
journal in the same reverent estimation. We 
request the cordial support, and will gladly wel- 
come suggestion and criticism, from every friend 
of the Magazine, with a view to making it the 
most perfect vehicle which can be devised in the 
great field which it occupies. The publisher's 
prospectus will be found on another page. 

A valuable collection of manuscripts of Rich- 
ard Wagner, made by a certain Herr Oesterlein, 
of Vienna, was lately in danger of being sold to 
the United States, to the detriment of German 
research concerning the maestro in question. 
This peril has (says the Berlin correspondent of 
the Standard) now been averted by a certain 
Dr. Gotze, who has, in the name of the German 
Wagner Society, bought the whole collection as 
it stood on the 1st of June last for eighty-five 
thousand marks, ten thousand being paid down 
as a deposit at once. The remainder has to be 
paid by the 1st of April, 1895, and five thousand 
marks more if the society pleases to buy the 
additions which may be made in the meantime. 

The question has been raised in the news- 
papers throughout the country whether " cousin " 
was used in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies for nephew or niece. Professor Roife, of 
Harvard, the Shakespearean commentator, says 
" that Shakespeare applies it so at least nine 
times to a nephew, seven times to a niece, twice 
to an uncle, once to a brother-in-law, and four 
times to a grandchild. He also uses it eight 
times as a title given by princes to other princes 
and noblemen. In ' Much Ado,' i. 2, 25, where 
Leonato says : ' Cousins, you know what you 
have to do,' it is used loosely for relatives in 
general ; and in Luke i. 36, 58, it is evidently 
equivalent to kinswoman. A good example of 
its application to a niece is in ' As You Like 
It,' i. 3, 44, where Rosalind says to Duke 
Erederick : ' Me, uncle?' and he replies : ' You, 
cousin.' " 

A Chicago correspondent, under date of Jan- 
uary 23d, writes to inquire if the statement is 
true, which has been made by some of our con- 
temporaries, that " there are no direct descend- 
ants of Napoleon, Wellington, Washington, and 
Walter Scott." This is certainly not true in 
regard to the hero of Waterloo, or the illustrious 
Scottish poet and novelist, whose dearly loved 
Abbotsford is now owned and occupied by his 



QUERIES — REPLIES 



I8 5 



great-granddaughter, the Hon. Mrs. Maxwell 
Scott, daughter of James Hope, who married 
Miss Lockhart ; while a grandson of the " Iron 
Duke" is the present possessor of the title and 
estates, having, in 1884, succeeded his childless 
uncle, the second Duke of Wellington. Another 
grandson, the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, brother of 
the present duke and youngest son of Lord 
Charles Wellesley, is major of one of the three 
battalions of the Grenadier Guards. 

The following letter on the subject of the 
present discussion concerning the relations of 
authors and publishers will perhaps be of in- 
terest to historians and other literary workers. 
It is addressed to the editor, and dated January 
9, 1893 : " Thinking it just possible that the in- 
closed conclusive article [a newspaper extract] 
may not meet your eye, I inclose it. Since 
' Mr. Cody ' is not known as an author, it seems 
very much as if he has written this article in the 
pay of some publishing house. At any rate, he 
seems rather hasty in his conclusions, when he 
decides that nothing whatever can be done by 
authors to obtain their proper rights. The man 
who insists that all publishers are honorable and 
honest is just as silly as he who should insist 
that all merchants, politicians, lawyers, and me- 
chanics are honest and honorable. Every day's 
printed records of the world's occurrences prove 
that this is not true. There is no law by which 
only especially honest men may become publish- 
ers ; men enter that business, as they enter 



others, simply to make money. We all know 
that, as a rule, they do make money, while, as a 
rule, authors and writers are poor. The fact is 
patent that publishers really have a better chance 
to cheat without being detected than do any other 
class of business men. Every man and woman 
who has ever fought this world for a living 
knows that the average man will get the best of 
a bargain whenever he can ; and since we know 
that the publisher can, every time, manage the 
bargain to suit himself, we must suppose him 
far more honorable than the ordinary man, if he 
fail to take advantage of his opportunities. It 
is all very well for the optimist — who, I notice, 
is generally some fortunate and sheltered indi- 
vidual who has been protected from hard knocks 
— to preach about the excellence of human 
nature, the prevalence of honesty, the high 
standard of the century, and so on ; at the 
same time, we all know we would not put un- 
counted diamonds into any broker's hands to 
sell ; we would not place unreckoned rouleaux 
of gold coin in the possession of any bank offi- 
cial ; we would not allow any tradesman or 
dealer to take from our purse what he chose to 
say was his due. Yet we do precisely this with 
the publisher of our books. We never know 
what he takes ; we only know what he leaves. 
It seems amazing to me that writers have for so 
many years submitted to such treatment, and I 
hope fervently that they will not be discouraged 
from all effort against it by the clamor of the 
newspapers. " 



QUERIES 



Can any of your readers give me the date of 
the oldest dwelling-house (if preserved) erected 
within the limits of the state of New York ? 
Was it built of stone, brick, or wood ? And by 
whom and where ? I claim that the Sayre 



house of Southampton. L. I., is the oldest. — It 
is still standing in a fair state of preservation, 
and was built in 1648. 

C. H. Gardiner. 
Bridge Hampton, N. Y. 



REPLIES 



To the Editor, Magazine of American His- 
tory : The statement that Tom Thumb killed 
Poor Haydon has a great deal more truth than 
poetry in it. In 1846, Haydon, who had been 
for some time in embarrassed circumstances 
financially, exhibited two pictures, the last 
painted by him, in the Egyptian Hall, London. 
They were the " Banishment of Aristides," and 
" Nero Playing the Lyre during the Burning of 
Rome." In the same hall, in another room, 
Tom Thumb was being exhibited, and to the in- 
tense irritation of Haydon, the celebrated dwarf 
drew immense crowds, while Haydon's pic- 
tures did not draw at all, the artist closing his 
exhibition with a loss of over five hundred 
dollars. It is one of the most pitiful things 
extant to-day, to read his diary just before his 
suicide. April 13, 1846, he says : " They rush 



by thousands to see Tom Thumb. They push, 
they fight, they scream, they faint, they cry help 
and murder ! and oh ! and ah ! They see my 
bills, my boards, my caravans, and don't read 
them. Their eyes are open, but their sense is 
shut. It is an insanity, a rabies, a madness, a 
furor, a dream. I would not have believed it 
of the English people." 

Again on April 21, he says: " Tom Thumb 
had twelve thousand people last week, B. R. 
Haydon one hundred and thirty-three and a 
half (the half a little girl). Exquisite taste of 
the English people ! " In just about two months 
after this entry (June 22, 1846), with the pathetic 
quotation from King Lear, " Stretch me no 
longer on this rough world," the end came, both 
of the diary and his life. David Fitzgerald. 

Washington City. 






^1 ';ll'\L/'I ; A U 1*V*^ ^VlL-vn 1 




NEW YORK GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHI- 
CAL SOCIETY — The society held its annual 
meeting. Friday evening, January 13th, at Berke- 
ley Lyceum. 23 West Fourty- fourth street. Gen- 
eral fames Grant Wilson, president, was in the 
chair. Dr. William T. White, James J. Goodwin, 
Edmund Abdy Hurry, and Samuel Burhans, 
jr.. were elected trustees. An interesting paper 
was read by J. Collins Pumpelly ; subject : 
"Some Huguenot Families of New Jersey." 
This valuable paper and a fine steel portrait of 
Elias Boudinot, the eminent New Jersey Hugue- 
110:, will appear in the April number of the 
society's Record. At the annual election held on 
Wednesday, January 18th, General Wilson was 
reelected president ; Dr. Samuel S. Purple, 
first vice-president ; James J. Goodwin, second 
vice-president ; William P. Ketcham, treasurer ; 
Thomas G. Evans, secretary ; and Garrit H. 
Van Wagenen, librarian. 



THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL society met 
in regular session at St. Paul, January 9th. Mr. 
Langford. from the committee on publication, 
reported that Vol. VII. of the society's collec- 
tions had just been issued from the press, and 
distributed copies. This volume is entitled The 
Mississippi River and its Source, and is written 
by Professor J. V. Brower, who was commis- 
sioned in 1889 by the society to make an ex- 
haustive survey of the basin of Lake Itasca, and 
report the exact facts regarding the true source 
of the river. The work is ably written, and 
shows conscientious labor. It is illustrated- by 
numerous maps, many of them copies of the 
oldest ones known relating to the Northwest, 
and over fifty engravings of scenery on and 
around Lake Itasca. The report is very severe 
on Captain Glazier, who, several years ago, 
claimed to have found the true source of the 
Mississippi in another lake than Itasca, and pro- 
cured it^ naming for himself. Judge Flandrau, 
from a special committee, reported a draft of a 
memorial to the legislature asking an appropria- 
tion from the state for one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for the purpose of building a 
fire-proof building for the society. The memo- 
rial was approved and a committee appointed to 
prc-s its passage. 

Historical society of quebec — The an- 
nual meeting of the Literary and Historical 
Society of Quebec was held on January nth, in 
the library of the society. Cyrille Tessier, Esq., 
the president, submitted the annual report of 



the society for the past year, in which he re- 
ferred with pleasure to the extension of the 
society's sphere of usefulness, and mentioning 
that twenty-eight new members had joined. 
He spoke of the precious relic on view in the 
society's rooms — namely : the original wooden 
model of the steamship Royal William; and 
told how Mr, Archibald Campbell, in order to 
indicate the honor of Quebec in having built 
and sent to sea the first ocean steamship, gath- 
ered all the information possible relating to the 
matter and had it published in the society's pro- 
ceedings, and that the Royal Naval Exhibition 
of Chelsea, England, had awarded a diploma 
therefor. The librarian reported the addition 
of three hundred and fifty-seven volumes dur- 
ing the year, among the donations being a valu- 
able collection of the works of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Society, presented by the Dean of 
Quebec. The treasurer's report was read, and 
an election of officers for the ensuing year was 
held, Mr. Tessier being reelected president. 



New york historical society — The an- 
nual meeting* was held on Tuesday evening, 
January 3d. The reports of the treasurer, libra- 
rian, and executive committee were read. The 
society has no debts, no mortgage on its build- 
ing or collections. The committee recommended 
that the sum of $350,000 be procured to erect 
a building on one half of the site purchased by 
the society on Central Park West. The receipts 
of the society were $13,212.04 and the expen- 
ditures $9,915.33 ; the invested funds amounted 
to $84,215.37. During the year there have been 
added to the library 3,988 volumes of books, 
2,541 pamphlets, 43 volumes and 502 numbers 
of rare newspapers, and 93 volumes of cuttings ; 
3 volumes of, and 73 separate maps ; n volumes 
and 47 separate engravings, 6 photographs, 131 
broadsides ; 50 volumes of, and 79 separate 
manuscripts ; also a collection of several thou- 
sand manuscripts preserved by the De Peyster 
and Watts families and presented by General 
J. Watts de Peyster. To the museum 376 
articles were presented in 1892. The gallery of 
art was increased by the following portraits : 
Benjamin Franklin, painted in 1784, by Joseph 
S. Duplessis ; Hon. John A. King, president of 
the society, painted by Robert Hinckley ; 
Maximilian and Carlotta, as emperor and em- 
press of Mexico ; Zachary Taylor, as colonel of 
infantry ; Rear-admiral Samuel L. Breese, 
painted by Daniel Huntington ; and Myron 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



187 



Ilolley ; also a medallion in marble of Dr. 
Fordyce Barker, by Verhagen. 

The following board of officers were elected 
for the ensuing year : president, John A. King ; 
fust vice-president, John A. Weekes ; second 
vice-president, John S. Kennedy ; foreign cor- 
responding secretary, John Bigelow ; domestic 
corresponding secretary, Edward F. de Lan- 
cey ; recording secretary, Andrew Warner ; 
treasurer, Robert Schell ; librarian, William 
Kelby. 



The association of American authors held 
its first meeting of the year at the Bible House, 
New York, on January 4, at four P.M. The 
meeting of the executive committee took place 
half an hour earlier. 

General Grant Wilson presided in the absence 
of Colonel T. W. Higginson, and Mr. E. H. 
Shannon filled the position of secretary tempo- 
rarily, Mr. Charles Burr Todd, the secretary, 
being absent in Europe, in part in the interest 
of the association. A brief and pleasant review 
of the late meeting in Boston, and the courtesy 
tendered by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, was fol- 
lowed by the consideration of the mooted 
"stamp" plan — by which it is purposed to 
secure to authors definite returns of the actual 
sale of their productions — as well as to obtain 
the cooperation of the publishers, in this or any 
other equally desirable plan. New instances of 
injustice at the hands of unscrupulous publishers 
were recited by several of the authors present. 
The discussion of the subject was both animated 
and practical. General Wilson instanced the 
indifference or opposition of some publishers, 
who know that such a system would result in 
the cutting off of many of their perquisites — 
and he spoke of the difficulty of bringing the 
publishers to agree upon any universal rule. 
They complain of the trouble, especially in the 
case of a large sale, of affixing the needed 
stamps. Dr. Flagg, who in leaving for a brief 
southern trip spoke of the necessity of agitating 
the matter through the press, volunteered to 
write a' series of brief articles on the subject, 
and others coincided in the suggestion, espe- 
cially in reference to city journals. Dr. Coan, 
of the New York Bureau of Revision, gave a 
very succinct statement of some of his literary 
clients and their tribulations. The general out- 
come of the discussion seemed to be that the 
objections of publishers were hardly valid — the 
curtailing of their perquisites being the great 
objection. The initiative of one reputable pub- 
lisher in adopting our views would be an incen- 
tive to others to follow. 

The proposition to substitute a die (to be a 
part of the binding) for the stamp met with an 
objection in the case of unsold copies. Gail 
Hamilton's " Battle of the Books " was men- 



tioned as a brilliant and effective protest against 
the publisher's injustice in many instances. 

It was suggested that the association be organ- 
ized into committees for examining questions 
and conferring with publishers in our large cities 
— one or two such committees in each city — as 
well as to search for the legal standing as to 
authors' rights. On motion of Mr. W. C. Hud- 
son, the chairman was authorized to appoint a 
committee to examine into the above subjects, 
and with the idea of forming an opinion among 
the publishers favorable to the stamp plan. It 
was suggested that this action would commit 
the association to the stamp plan. The matter 
was left with the chairman to take such action 
as he deemed proper. It had been hoped that 
a proof of the contract for authors would have 
been submitted at this meeting, but it was 
missent, and will be shown at the next meeting, 
to take place in the Managers' hall of the Bible 
House, on Wednesday, February 8, at four P.M. 

General Wilson appointed the committees as 
follows : on legal rights, Messrs. Mathews, 
Hudson, and De Lancey ; on stamp plan, 
Messrs. Coan, Rodenbough, and Shannon. A 
large number of new members were elected, 
representing seven different states. 



Massachusetts historical society— A 
stated meeting of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society was held January 12, the president, 
Dr. George E. Ellis, in the chair. After the 
reading of the record and of the list of donors 
to the library, the president said : "In the 
routine of preliminary business at the opening of 
our last meeting the usual call was made for the 
report of the cabinet keeper. Dr. F. E. Oliver. 
There was no response. Unknown to us his 
honored and useful life had just at that hour 
come to a sudden close from a brief illness. 
We lose in him a highly esteemed associate, 
faithful, earnest, and helpful in his service 
to this society, endeared to many of us by 
his affability and courtesy, his personal dig- 
nity, his refinement, and accomplishments. 
For thirteen of the sixteen years of his member- 
ship here he has had the charge of our precious 
cabinet, an office which engaged his zeal and 
intelligent interest in identifying and disposing 
the rich relics and gatherings of a century : por- 
traits, gems, coins, weapons, trophies, and mis- 
cellaneous historical memorials. A recent vote 
of the society had recognized its high apprecia- 
tion of his services. His donations to us began 
before his election to membership. 

"After that we owe to him the gift of the 
missing portion of the manuscript of Hubbard's 
History and of Increase Mather's family Bible. 
He was the medium of procuring for this coun- 
try copies of the publication in England of the 
Diary and Letters of Governor Hutchinson after 



1 88 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



he had left in sorrow his home and country. 
Dr. Oliver printed for private circulation the 
es of the Two Chief Justices Lynde, father 
and son, of Massachusetts, and the Diary of 
William Pynchon, of Salem, during the war of 
the Revolution. His annual reports to us as 
cabinet keeper contain matter of interest. He 
came of a family identified with this colony from 
its settlement. If I am not in error, that family 
in all its generations here shows a peculiarity in 
that its many members have followed educated 
and professional rather than mercantile occupa- 
tions ; at one-period of storm in sympathy with 
the mother country, Dr. Oliver was greatly 
cherished and esteemed in his domestic, social, 
professional, and religious fellowships." The 
president then presented from J. C Rogers, of 
this city, an original letter from Rev. Dr. Bent- 
ley, of Salem, written in 1804, in acknowledg- 
ment of his appointment as chaplain of the 
United States house of representatives. Robert 
C. Winthrop, jr., read an unpublished letter 
from Mrs. John Adams to James Bowdoin, 
written the day before the battle of Bunker Hill 
and communicating news from the continental 
congress ; also a letter to Bowdoin from Thomas 



dishing, written a few days later and giving an 
interesting description of George Washington ; 
also a letter to Bowdoin from John Hancock, 
complaining of the overseers of Harvard college. 
These three letters, with numerous others of the 
same period, have recently come to light in a 
long-forgotten chest which had been supposed 
to contain only probate accounts and land titles. 
Mr. Winthrop stated his intention of placing 
the greater portion of this new material at the 
service of the society. 

W. P. Upham said that he had recently found 
in the state archives a copy in shorthand of the 
instructions given to Captain Daniel Henchman 
in May, 1676, when placed in command of the 
forces raised against the Indians. These in- 
structions he had deciphered with considerable 
difficulty, and they will be printed for the first 
time in the proceedings of the society. 

Justin Winsor read an elaborate and very in- 
teresting paper on the voyages and explorations 
of North America between the voyage of Colum- 
bus in 1493 and the voyage of Cartier in 1534, 
with a full exposition of the gradual modifica- 
tion of the theories which led to them. 



OBITUARY, JANUARY, 1893 



Brooks, Phillips, Bishop of Massachusetts, 
and among the most eminent preachers of the 
Episcopal Church, died in Boston, 23d January, 
aged fifty-eight years. 

Butler, General Benjamin F., lawyer and 
soldier, died in Washington, D. C, nth Janu- 
ary, aged seventy-five years. 

Hayes, General Rutherford B., ex-Presi- 
dent of the United States, died at Fremont, 
Ohio, 17th January, aged seventy-one years. 



Kemble, Mrs. Frances Anne, actress and 
author, died in London, England, 16th January, 
aged eighty-two years. 

Lamar, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus, Jus- 
tice of the U. S. Supreme Court, died at Macon, 
Ga., 23d January, aged sixty-eight years. 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J., editor Magazine of 
American History, died in New York City, 
2d January, aged sixty-three years. 



We are not always able to agree with Mr. 
Froude as an historian ; but as a writer of mod- 
ern English he has few equals, and a tale told as 
he can tell it ought to be read, if only to let 
younger readers more clearly understand the 
capabilities of their mother tongue. — Athenaum. 

An interesting feature of the January number 
of The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review 
is a paean in Persian and Arabic, entitled "Ave 
Kaisar-i-Hind !" followed by an Urdu prize 
translation of the National Anthem. Persian 
and Arabic invocations take the form of chrono- 
grams ; that is, the numerical value of all the 
letters both in the Persian and in the Arabic 
verses make up the date 1893. January 1, 
1893, is the seventeenth anniversary of the 
Queen's assumption of the imperial title Kaisar- 
i-Hind. The letters representing the date in 



Persian make up the words which are trans- 
lated : "May the festival-day of the Kaisar-i- 
Hind ever be blessed ! By the name of Victoria 
may it ever be blessed !" The words of the 
Arabic chronogram are rendered in English — 
"Victoria, helped by God, is the Kaisar of 
fndia, may her good fortune ever continue ! " 
The National Anthem will not seem to English 
ears to be improved as retranslated from the 
Urdu prize translation. Here is the first stanza : 

May Kaisar remain lasting, 

May keep upon us standing (enduring) 

God, the Kaisar, 
Keep always victorious 
Happy and pleasanter 
A sovereign ruler upon us, 

God ! the Kaisar. 



MISCELLANEA 



189 



MISCELLANEA 



Nothing Carlyle wrote is quite worthless ; 
because he had the high ideal of artistic duty. 
He spared no labor to get at the facts of his 
case ; he was equally diligent in arrangement 
and expression ; for no profit would he stoop to 
hackwork. Like every one else, he was unequal ; 
but he wisely left all manner of fragments un- 
published and uncollected. Would that others 
had followed so brave an example ! — National 
Observer. 

Among her contemporaries, Mary Stuart, 
even if a murderess, is conspicuous for her 
charm, her courage, her loyalty to her faith and 
her friends. She was no sour, bloodthirsty 
fanatic, no pedant, no hypocrite ; and if she 
was guilty (with many of her lords) of knowing 
that Darnley was to be killed, she still remains 
the most human, the most winning of those as- 
tonishingly unscrupulous gangs, the Scotch and 
English politicians of the age. — Andrew Lang. 

M. Pasteur is a reminder that France still 
possesses the best guarantee of greatness in a 
nation, the capacity to produce great men. 
He is the representative of both a long and 
crowded line of intellectual ancestors and a 
pretty numerous family of contemporaries wor- 
thy of himself. M. Pasteur belongs to an age 
which has produced a Charcot, a Berthelot, and 
a Lesseps, as well as Renans, Hugos, Taines, 
Gounods, Meissoniers, Thiers, MacMahons. 
— Speaker. 

The severe Puritan Sunday has gone far 
towards undermining the healthy observance of 
Sunday. The teetotal superstition has done 
as much to injure the cause of temperance as 
the love of morbid excitement itself. The exr 
travagant language used against harmless and 
useful amusements has done at least as much to 
inspire scorn for the cry against gambling in 
consequence of its overstraining of the truth, 
as the delight in sudden windfalls of luck itself. 
— Spectator. 

Under the caption " Briton " are included 
English, Scotch, Welsh, and Irish. Looking 
at each division of the same folk separately, in 
their own country they rank, in point of earn- 
ings and standard of life — first, the Scotch ; 
secondlv, the English ; thirdly, the Welsh ; 
fourthly, the Irish. In America the order is 
changed ; the Scotchman retains the supremacy, 
but next comes the Irishman, then the Welsh- 
man, and finally the Englishman. — Contempo- 
rary Review. 

The most accurate criticism, perhaps, in the 
concrete kind that can be pronounced on Mr. 
Whittier is that he was in reality just the kind 
of poet that hasty and uncatholic judges have 
often pronounced Mr. Longfellow to be. When 



Longfellow was at his least good and Whittier 
at his best, they walked pretty closely side by 
side; but Whittier never reached the upper 
slopes of Parnassus, on which Longfellow, if he 
could not climb its summits, often trod. — Satur- 
day Re%new. 

The character of Columbus is not easily 
gauged ; he seems to have been a man of many 
moods, and there is abundant evidence that he 
possessed an ardent and impetuous nature. Im- 
aginative and sensitive, he could' be by turns 
magnanimous and cruel ; and if there was, per- 
haps, more to admire than to censure in his per- 
sonal character, his attitude towards others was 
sometimes not merely high-handed, but vindic- 
tive. He had, in short, the faults of his quality 
and his age; but no one can seriously question 
his claim to rank amongst the world's heroic 
men of action. — Speaker. 

The history of philosophy is the true philoso- 
phy in its evolution — that is Hegel's theory at 
once of philosophy and of the history of philoso- 
phy. It is often supposed that the principle of 
evolution first appeared in its application by 
Darwin to the facts of biology, and that its ex- 
tension to the domain of mind was an after- 
thought. As a matter of fact, the far more 
pregnant application to history, and art, and 
philosophy, and religion, had been systemati- 
cally carried out by Hegel long before Darwin ; 
and not even Hegel can claim the credit of its 
invention. — Spectator. 

The National History Company, of this city, 
has just acquired the Magazine of American 
History, formerly edited by Mrs. Martha J. 
Lamb, who died suddenly on the morning of 
January 2. This company already publishes 
The National Magazine, formerly The Maga- 
zine of Western History. Beginning with the 
February issue, these two historical journals will 
be combined, and the name of the older Maga- 
zine of American History, now in its twenty- 
ninth volume, will be retained for the new peri- 
odical. The magazine will be at once enlarged 
and the price reduced to four dollars a year. 

General James Grant Wilson will edit the 
new periodical. General Wilson is well known 
as an editor, and especially in the historical 
field. He has been a frequent contributor to 
leading English and American periodicals, and 
is the author of several well-known historical 
and biographical works. He is editor of the 
series of American Commanders, now being 
issued by Appletons. Since 1885 he has been 
president of the New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Society, is a member of the Amer- 
ican Historical Association, and an honorary 
member of other American and foreign histori- 
cal societies. — New York Tribune. 



THE MEMORIAL HISTORY OF THE 
CITY OF NEW YORK FROM ITS 
FIRST SETTLEMENT TO THE YEAR 
1892. Edited by James Grant Wilson. 
With maps and illustrations. Yols. L, II., III. 
Royal Svo, pp. 654. New York History 
Company. 1S91-93. 

The appearance of the third volume of this 
exhaustive history of the city of New York will 
cause a renewed interest in a work which was 
stamped as the standard story of the great me- 
tropolis when its first volume was given to the 
public nearly two years ago. The promises then 
made have been faithfully kept ; the system of 
co-operative contributions by well-known writers 
has been continued, and the perfection of the 
mechanical part of the work has not deviated in 
the slightest degree from the original design. 
The second volume met with as flattering a re- 
ception as was accorded the first, and a single 
glance sufficed to show that no deterioration 
either in literary worth or artistic excellence had 
been permitted. Steel portraits, vignettes, auto- 
graphs, views of historic buildings and places, 
fac-similes of rare papers, and interesting maps 
were introduced with profusion. It was univer- 
sally admitted that the undertaking was in com- 
petent hands, and it received the highest enco- 
miums from the press. In the present (the third) 
volume, the same earnest research and industry 
on the part of the writers contributing the 
several chapters are again evinced, the same 
editorial care and painstaking supervision are 
again apparent, and upon perusing its contents 
the possessors of the initial volumes will experi- 
ence the satisfaction of owning a great work 
"excellently well done." 

Inasmuch as this new volume brings the rela- 
tion of events up to the close of 1892, it is appro- 
priate, within the limits at our disposal, to notice 
very briefly the ground covered by the whole 
work. The first volume of the Memorial History 
begins with a thorough discussion of the explora- 
tions along the coast of North America previous 
to and including Henry Hudson's voyage. The 
stories of the voyages of the Northmen, of the 
brother.-, Zeno, of Sebastian Cabot, of Ayllon, 
and of the Spaniards Verrazano and Gomez, 
from whose time (1525) the situation of the bay 
of New York was known, are told in a most 
entertaining manner. The tale of the founding 
of the great commercial emporium of the west is 
unfolded, from the days of the Indian dwellers 



on Manne-hata down through the several admin- 
istrations of the colonial governors. In succes- 
sive chapters are described the acts and times of 
the Dutch governors, Peter Minuit, Walter Van 
T wilier, William Kieft, and Peter Stuyvesant 
(1647-64), the last of the New Netherlands rep- 
resentatives. These are followed by accounts 
of the administrations of the English governors, 
Richard Nicolls, Francis Lovelace, Sir Edmund 
Andros, and Thomas Dongan, and also of 
Jacob Leisler, to the time of Benjamin Fletcher 
(1692-98) and the rise of piracy in New York. 
The volume closes with two chapters devoted 
respectively to a resume of the constitutional 
and legal history of New York in the seven- 
teenth century, and to the state of the art of 
printing during the same epoch. In volume 
second a similar assignment of periods is made, 
and the chapters embrace " The Earl of Bello- 
mont and the Suppression of Piracy," " The 
Administration of Lord Cornbury," " Lord Love- 
lace and the Second Canadian Campaign," 
" Robert Hunter and the Settlement of the 
Palatines," "The Administration of William 
Burnet," " The City under Governor John Mont- 
gomerie," "William Cosby and the Freedom of 
the Press," " George Clinton and his Contest 
with the Assembly," "Sir Danvers Osborn and 
Sir Charles Hardy," " The Part of New York in 
the Stamp Act Troubles," "The Second Non- 
importation Agreement," " Life in New York at 
the Close of the Colonial Period," and " New 
York during the Revolution (1775-83)" ; closing 
with a review of the constitutional and legal 
history of New York in the eighteenth century. 
We cannot fail, however, in opening the 
present volume, to entertain at once a livelier 
curiosity in its pages, for the easily understood 
reason that it deals mainly with events which 
have happened within the recollection of many 
persons now living, with a period concerning 
which most of us can lay claim to some personal 
knowledge. And it therefore appeals more for- 
cibly to the reader's interest than do those 
volumes — entertaining as they may be — which 
rehearse the social and political life and times of 
a hundred and fifty or two hundred years ago. 
Familiar names and faces greet us from the 
outset, a lavish display of illustrations is again 
apparent, and the eye rests contentedly on ad- 
mirable paper and printing, while the mind ab- 
sorbs the literary treasures presented. Six fine 
steel engravings enrich this volume, in conform- 
ity to the preceding ones, the subjects selected 
being portraits of Alexander Hamilton, Robert 



RECENT HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 



I 9 I 



R. Livingston, Mrs. John Jay, DeWitt Clinton, 
John Jacoh Astor, and John Adams I )ix ; the 
autographs of the mayors are continued up to 
1893, making the series complete for more than 
two hundred and fifty years ! The introductory 
chapter is devoted to " New York City under 
American Control (1783-89)," and is followed 
by " New York as the Federal Capital." A 
chapter succeeds these, one which will be ea- 
gerly read, on " Society in New York in the 
Early Days of the Republic," and the fourth 
chapter witnesses the close of the eighteenth 
century. The editor writes about the opening 
of the nineteenth century, and the following 
period, 1807-12, is given to the " Beginning of 
Steam Navigation." The exciting days of the 
"Second War with Great Britain," and the 
" Return of Peace, and the Completion of the 
Erie Canal," are next treated of ; these are suc- 
ceeded by a description of the " Beginning of 
New York's Commercial Greatness," and " Ten 
Years of Municipal Vigor" (1837-47), when the 
city had firmly asserted her claim to be more 
than a mere ordinary town, and had begun her 
giant strides toward the high position she has 
held, for over half a century, as the western me- 
tropolis. A detailed relation of the " Telegraphs 
and Railroads and their Impulses to Commerce " 
is followed by an interesting chapter on the 
" Premonitions of the Civil War"; then " New 
York in the War for the Union " will prove 
most instructive, and will revive recollections of 
the early days of the war. The next period 
(1865-78) is on the "Recovery from War; 
Speculation and Reaction, and the Tweed Ring. " 
The concluding chapter (1878-92) rounds out 
fittingly a volume of unusual interest. The 
customary review of the New York laws up to 
the present day finishes the third volume. 

The fourth volume, which will be issued in 
the spring, will be made up of monographs on 
special subjects, such as the authors of New 
York, commerce, churches, museums, clubs, 
theatres, hospitals and other charities, music, 
newspapers, currency, public and private libra- 
ries, Staten Island and other suburbs, slavery 
in New York, statues and monuments, the mili- 
tary, seats of learning — all illustrated ; and, in 
addition, it will contain a complete index to the 
four volumes. w. s. w. 



THE COLONIAL ERA. By George Park 
Fisher, D.D., LL.D. With maps. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 1892. 
This neat and readable little volume, though 
almost intended for elementary purposes only, 
is from the hand of a master in the art of his- 
torical writing. But it is presumably a pretty 
generally accepted maxim that a master of his 
art — or rather, in this case, a head full of infor- 
mation on a subject — will be most successful in 



condensing his information when it is called for 
in brief form. 

We do not know what has excited our admira- 
tion most as we perused this admirable com- 
pendium of our colonial history— the brevity of 
the statement, or the fulness of the information 
furnished in spite of that brevity. In a few 
sentences, sometimes in a paragraph, we are 
given a survey of the events of several years. 
from which are by no means excluded the 
proper observations which shall keep within our 
view the political significance of the events. 
Yet in this swift glance even minute occurrences 
will find some mention. It is like the momen- 
tary flash of the lightning at night, which none 
the less in its instant of time gives us the trees, 
farm-houses, barns, fences, hills of the land- 
scape. Thus in the recital of the Plymouth 
settlement we do not fail to see the doughty 
Samoset come in with his " Welcome" — " the 
Englishmen " of the usual tradition being duly 
omitted as not warranted by history. And in 
the account of New Netherland, Domine Mi- 
chaelius is seen in his proper place, nor are the 
preceding " consolers of the sick " forgotten. 

Dr. Fisher reduces the somewhat chaotic 
character of our colonial history to intelligent 
order and logical sequence by the sensible 
division of his topic. He treats the separate 
colonies individually, of course, but stops with 
each at 1688, and then begins over again with 
each until 1756, the beginning of the " French 
and Indian War," the struggle that first unified 
them. He says, in explanation of his principle 
of division : "The English revolution of 1688 
is so important a landmark that it appeared to 
me advisable to break the narrative into two 
parts. By this arrangement the attention is not 
kept fastened on each colony by itself through 
the entire course of the history, while the others 
are in the main left out of sight. It also seemed 
a little more conducive to unity of impression to 
take up the several colonies in a different order 
in the second part, from that adopted in the 
first." We find that Professor Fiske has also 
recognized the importance of the English revo- 
lution of 168S as a turning point in our colonial 
history, for his Beginnings of Neto England 
takes us up to that epoch, concluding with the 
pregnant remark : "In the events we have here 
passed in review, it may be seen so plainly that 
he who runs may read, how the spirit of 1776 
was foreshadowed in 1689." 

It is announced that this useful little volume 
is the first of a series of four, which are to be 
distinct in authorship, and each complete in 
itself, but yet are designed to afford a brief and 
connected history of the United States from the 
discovery of America to the present time. We 
shall look for the forthcoming of the other vol-" 
umes, if this furnishes a specimen of the ex- 
cellence that is to distinguish them all. 



19- 



RECENT HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 



I'lll-; GREAT COMMANDER SERIES: 
GENERAL TAYLOR. By Major-Gen- 
eral Oliver Otis Howard, U.S.A. i2mo. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1S92. 

The above volume represents the second in- 
stallment of this attractive series of brief biog- 
raphies, the preceding issue having been devoted 
to the life of Admiral Farragut, written by Cap- 
tain A. T. Mahan, U.S.N. This series of the 
lives of our great commanders is likely to at- 
tract the instant attention of the reading public. 
The period covered extends from Washington 
to Sheridan, and the aim of the editor has been 
to furnish a valuable and impartial source of 
reference to the student of our military and 
naval history. A high order of excellence has 
been sought for and obtained in producing these 
biographies ; each life has been intrusted to a 
specially competent writer, and will be brief and 
comprehensive. The following volumes are in 
preparation : General Washington, by General 
Bradley T. Johnson ; General Greene, by Cap- 
tain Francis V. Greene ; General Sherman, by 
General Manning F. Force ; General Grant, by 
General James Grant Wilson ; General Scott, 
by General Marcus J. Wright ; Admiral Porter, 
by James Russell Soley, Assistant Secretary of 



the Navy ; General Lee, by General Fitzhugh 
Lee ; General Johnston, by Robert M. Hughes, 
of Virginia: General George H Thomas, by Dr. 
Henry Coppee, late U.S.A.; General Hancock, 
by General Francis H. Walker; and General 
Sheridan, by General Henry E. Davies. Each 
volume will contain from three hundred to four 
hundred pages, and will include a steel portrait 
and maps. The series is printed on superb 
tinted paper, exquisitely bound in pale green 
vellum cloth, with gilt tops. The third volume 
of the series is the Life of General Jackson, 
which was the last literary work of the late 
James Parton. 



MISCELLANIES, RELIGIOUS AND PER- 
SONAL, AND SERMONS. By the Rev. 
George W. Nichols, D.D. Bridgeport, 
Conn. i2mo, pp. 379. 

This pleasant volume, by a well-known writer, 
who has published several books of interest, 
contains many historical and biographical remi- 
niscences of value, including recollections of 
Chief Justice Jay and General Andrew Jackson, 
and of events occurring when the writer was a 
student at Yale and at the Episcopal Theological 
Seminary in this city, some sixty years ago. 



Can we suppose that the fortunes of ancient 
Rome, and of modern civilization, would have 
been exactly what they were, and are, if some 
mad freak of Caesar's in his youthful days had 
recoiled fatally on himself? Or that Luther, by 
almost a single act, has not left a mark on the 
pages of religious history which seems unlikely 
to be ever quite obliterated ? Or that the stream 
of literature would have run precisely the course 
it has run if Shakespeare had been knocked on 
the head some dark night in Sir Thomas Lucy's 
preserves ? — Contemporary Review. 

Having recently seen a paragraph in The Sta- 
tioner to the effect that a perfect book has never 
yet been printed, I should be glad to hear what 
the readers of " N. & Q." have to say upon 
the subject. By perfect is meant free from 
any mistake. The notice stated that a Span- 
ish firm of publishers once produced a work in 
which one letter only got misplaced through 
accident, and this is believed to have been the 
nearest approach to perfection that has ever been 
attained in a book. It further stated that an 
English house had made a great effort to the 
same end, and issued proof-sheets to the univer- 
sities with an offer of fifty pounds if any error 
\v.-j-. discovered in them; but in spite of this 
precaution several blunders remained undetected 
until the work issued from the press. — Notes 
and Queries. 



The statement recently made in a dispatch 
from Hartford that ex-President Pynchon, of 
Trinity College, had obtained the copy of Wil- 
liam Pynchon's book, which lately belonged to 
H. S. Sheldon, of Sheffield, is interesting to anti- 
quarians. That copy is the best of those now ex- 
isting. Next to this is the copy in the Congre- 
gational Library in Boston. The only other copy, 
so far as I know, is the one in the British Mu- 
seum, which I examined some years ago. The 
scarcity of the copies is due. not to the fire in the 
Boston market-place (for that consumed but a 
small number of copies), but simply to the lapse 
of time. The book, entitled The Meritorious 
of Price of Our Redemption, was published 
in London in 1650. The edition was a small 
one, and it is not surprising that, after the lapse 
of two hundred and forty years, it is a rare book. 
It is not true that Mr. Pynchon recanted, or that 
he fled to Connecticut. He sent a communica- 
tion to the general court, which may be found 
in The Andover Reviezv of September, 1886, and 
remained a year or two in Springfield, waiting 
the action of the court. Then he settled up his 
business and departed for England, where he 
lived for two years, employed in literary pur- 
suits. His book was a very able one, and casts 
a flood of light upon the state of opinion in 
Massachusetts twenty years after the settlement 
of Boston. — Rev. E. H. Byington, in Boston 
Herald. 







THE FIRST PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON. 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXIX 



MARCH, 1893 



No. 3 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

I. — New York 

By General T. F. Rodenbough 

IF the city of New York was conspicuous as the centre of operations 
during the war to establish the unity and independence of the colo- 
nies, it was no less prominent as the principal base of supplies in the 
struggle to preserve the Union. An ancient writer has said, u It'sufficeth 
not to the strength of the armes to have flesh, blood, and bones, unless 
they have also sinewes, to stretch out 
and pull in for the defense of the body ; 
so it sufificeth not in an army to have 
Victuals, for the maintenance of it ; 
Armour and Weapons for the defense 
of it ; unless it have Money also, the 
Sineives of Warre" 1 The financial rec- 
ords of the time bear convincing testi- 
mony to the effective manner in which 
the merchants and bankers of the Empire 
City supplied the federal government 
with the " sinewes " needed " to stretch 
out and pull in for the defense of the 
body " of the nation in its great peril. 
Before a shot had been fired, two impor- 
tant expeditions, designed to succor be- 
leaguered garrisons, were fitted out at 
this port ; after the capture of Sumter, a 
movement to the front of men and means 
furnished by New York began, and did not end until the surrender at 
Appomattox. 

It is a notable fact that whenever the country has been threatened 
with danger to its form of government, the city of New York has declared 

1 Ward's Ani?nadversions of Warre, London, 1639. 
Vol. XXIX. -No. 3.- 13 




194 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

its position only after due reflection and careful consideration of the ques- 
tion involved. It was this tendency that delayed its final decision to take 
up arms against the mother-country at the opening of the Revolution ; it 
was this feeling that induced some of its leading citizens to join in an 
effort to dissuade the South from secession. One of the last efforts to 
bring about a peaceful solution of the grave problem was called " the 
Pine street meeting." It was held under the auspices of leading citizens. 
Charles O'Conor presided, and resolutions, fraternal yet firm and dig- 
nified in tone, were unanimously passed. 

Early in January, 1861, President Buchanan appointed John A. Dix 
secretary of the treasury, who signalized the closing days of that adminis- 
tration by a memorable and patriotic act. Within three days after the 
new cabinet minister had entered upon his duties he sent a special agent 
to New Orleans, Mobile, and Galveston, to save, if possible, the revenue 
cutters stationed at these ports. On January 29, Secretary Dix was 
advised by wire that the commanding officer of the McClelland, at New 
Orleans, refused to obey his orders. Immediately on receipt of this infor- 
mation, and without consultation with any one, he penned the order which 
has become historic, and which is here published in fac-simile. Although 
the secretary's action was decided upon without a moment's hesitation as 
to its spirit, the language received due consideration, as we are told 1 in a 
letter from General Dix to a friend long after the occurrence: 

" Not a word was altered ; but the original was handed to the clerk charged with the 
custody of my telegraphic dispatches, copied by him, and the copy signed by me and sent 
to its destination. Before I sent it, however, a question of military etiquette arose in my 
mind in regard to the arrest of Captain Breshwood, and I took a carriage and drove to 
the lodgings of Lieutenant-General Scott, to consult him in regard to it. Mr. Stanton was 
then attorney-general. My relations with him were of the most intimate character ; and 
as he resided near General Scott's lodgings, I drove to his house first, and showed the 
dispatch to him. He approved of it, and made some remark expressing his gratification 
at the tone of the order. General Scott said I was right on the question of etiquette, 
and I think expressed his gratification that I had taken a decided stand against southern 
invasions of the authority of the government. I immediately returned to the department 
and sent the dispatch. General Scott, Mr. Stanton, and the clerk who copied it were 
the only persons who saw it. 

I decided when I wrote the order to say nothing to the president about it. I was 
satisfied that, if he was consulted, he would not permit it to be sent. Though indignant at 
the course of the southern states, and the men about him who had betrayed his confidence 
— Cobb, Floyd, and others — one leading idea had taken possession of his mind — that in the 
civil contest which threatened to break out, the North must not shed the first drop of 
blood. This idea is the key to his submission to much which should have been met with 

1 Memoirs of John A. Dix, by Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., New York, 1884. 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



'95 



tz 







tPZSWVv 



prompt and vigorous resistance. During the seven weeks I was with him he rarely failed 
to come to my room about ten o'clock, and converse with me for about an hour on the 
great questions of the day before going .to his own room. I was strongly impressed with 
his conscientiousness. But he was timid and credulous. His confidence was easily 
gained, and it was not difficult for an artful man to deceive him. But I remember no 
instance in my unreserved in- 
tercourse with him in which I 
had reason to doubt his up- 
rightness. 

Tuesdays and Fridays were 
cabinet days. The members 
met, without notice, at the 
president's house in the morn- 
ing. My order was given, as 
has been stated, on Tuesday 
evening. I said nothing to 
the president in regard to it, 
though he was with me every 
evening, until Friday, when 
the members of the cabinet 
were all assembled, and the 
president was about to call 
our attention to the business 
of the day. I said to him, 
' Mr. President, I fear we have 
lost some more of our revenue 
cutters.' ' Ah ! ' said he, ' how 
is that ?' I then told him what 
had occurred down to the re- 
ceipt of the dispatch from Mr. 
Jones informing me that Cap- 
tain Breshwood refused to 
obey my order. ' Well,' said 
he, ' what did you do ? ' I 
then repeated to him, slowly 
and distinctly, the order I had 
sent. When I came to the 
words, 'shoot him on the spot,' 
he started up suddenly, and 
said, with a good deal of emo- 
tion, 'Did you write that?' 

' No, sir,' I said ; ' I did not write it, but I telegraphed it.' He made no answer, nor do I 
remember that he ever referred to it afterward. It was manifest, as I have presupposed, 
that the order would never have been given if I had consulted him. 

It only remains for me to say that the order was not the result of any premeditation — 
scarcely of any thought. A conviction of the right course to be taken was as instantane- 
ous as a flash of light ; and I did not think, when I seized the nearest pen (a very bad one, 










3&%tmrf> 



Vff 






I96 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

as the fac-simile shows) and wrote the order in as little time as it would take to read it, 
that I was doing anything- specially worthy ot remembrance. It touched the public mind 
heart strongly, no doubt, because the blood of all patriotic men was boiling with 
dignation at the humiliation which we were enduring; and I claim no other merit than 
that of having thought rightly, and of having expressed strongly what I felt in common 
with the great body of my countrymen." 

" Such is the history of the famous dispatch. In concluding it I quote 
my father's words by way of explanation and justification of his language. 
* He says, in his report to congress : ' It may be proper to add, in reference 
to the closing period of the foregoing dispatch, that as the flag of the 
Union, since 1777, when it was devised and adopted by the founders of 
the republic, had never until a recent day been hauled down, except by 
honorable hands in manly conflict, no hesitation was felt in attempting to 
uphold it at any cost against an act of treachery, as the ensign of the 
public authority and the emblem of unnumbered victories by land and 
sea.' " 1 

For many years the general-in-chief of the army had his personal 
residence and official headquarters in the city of New York. Although 
increasing infirmities warned General Scott that his days of active service 
were well-nigh spent, yet he failed not. before relinquishing his office, to 
call the attention of President Buchanan, as early as October, i860, to the 
unprotected state of certain fortifications on the southern coast, expressing 
his " solemn conviction that there is some danger of an early act of rash- 
ness preliminary to secession," and urging their prompt occupation by 
suitable garrisons.^ But the bewildered politician hesitated, and the oppor- 
tunity was lost. As we recur in memory to that dark period of national 
history, we find it illumined by one ray of light, increasing in brilliancy as 
the years roll on. In striking contrast to the vacillation and timidity of 
the executive and the divided opinions of the cabinet, appear the firmness, 
simplicity, and patriotism of Robert Anderson. Believing that the South 
had been unjustly treated, having reason to think that his government had 
abandoned him, beset with temptations of kinship and friendship, sur- 
rounded with enemies ready to destroy him, the tempered steel of his 
nature was equal to the test. His duty, according to his simple code of 

^Memoirs of John A. Dix, I. 373. 

- " From a knowledge of our southern population it is my solemn conviction that there is 
some danger of an early act of rashness preliminary to secession, viz., the seizure of some or all 
of the following posts: . . . Forts Pickens and McRea, Pensacola harbor; Forts Moultrie and 
Sumter. Charleston harbor. All these works should be immediately so garrisoned as to make any 
attempt to take any one of them, by surprise or coup de main, ridiculous." — General Scott's 
Memoir:.. New York, 1864 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR I97 

morals, was plain : like the Roman sentinel, he might be forgotten, but he 
would never voluntarily abandon his post. How unselfishly and gallantly 
Major Anderson and his little band of regulars acquitted themselves is a 
matter of undying fame. One member of the Buchanan cabinet — Secretary 
Black — wrote of Anderson's military movement from Fort Moultrie to Fort 
Sumter, that*" he has saved the country, I solemnly believe, when its day 
was darkest and its peril most extreme. He has done everything that 
mortal man could do to repair the fatal error which the administration has 
committed in not sending down troops enough to hold all the forts." 

With the change of administration the reins of government slipped 
from the nerveless hands of one president into the firmer if somewhat 
unskillful grasp of another. It cannot be said that order promptly emerged 
from chaos. The task before Mr. Lincoln was too colossal, and the means 
at his disposal too crude, to cause the machinery 
of government to work effectively at once. So, 
in the early attempt to provision Sumter and re- 
enforce Pickens, the functions of cabinet officers 
and captains of the staff were curiously inter- 
mingled. The spectacle of a military engineer 
and a military secretary to the commanding gen- 
eral working in haste and secrecy, under the per- 
sonal supervision of a secretary of state, to arrange 
the details of an important movement of the land 
and naval forces, without the knowledge of the 
ministers of war or navy ; the perfunctory refer- 
ence of their work to the general-in-chief for his 

official signature, and its final transfer by the president to the juniors 
aforesaid with carte blanche as to its execution, were hardly calculated to 
produce that " good order and military discipline" which were to prove 
essential factors in the restoration of the Union. The president, however, 
finding that his efforts to execute the laws by ignoring regulations and 
" cutting knots " resulted in confusion, returned to the system of making 
each department of the government responsible for details pertaining to 
it ; and, thereafter, he generally observed this rule. 

When Anderson's famous telegram announcing the fall of Sumter was 
published, the effect upon the people of New York was instantaneous. 
Politicians were silent in the face of the unanimity with which men of all 
parties were roused to action. As was well said : " The incidents of the 
last two days will live in history. Not for fifty years has such a spectacle 
been seen as that glorious uprising of American loyalty which greeted 




198 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



FORTJSUMTCfl FOR THIRTY FOUR NOUR-SX UNTIL THE ftUARJERS WERE EN 



NEWlYORIU • HON;S«CAMEROfn SECY.RAR; WASHNi HAVINC" DEFENDED 



V 



MRELY BURNED THE. tlMN GATES DESTROYED BY FIRE_»THE CORCE'*ALL3 



SERIOUSLY IHJURED.THE MAGAZINE SURROUNDED BY FLAMES AND US 



I ? 

OOOR CLOSED FROM THE EFFECTS OF! HEA* .FOUR 8ARRELLS AND.THRES 



CARTRIDGES OF POWDER ONLY BEINC AVAILABLE AND NO PROVISIONS 



the news that open war had been commenced upon the constitution and 
government of the United States. The great heart of the American 
people beat with one high pulsation of courage, and of fervid love and 
devotion to the great republic. Party dissensions were instantly hushed ; 
political differences disappeared and were as thoroughly forgotten as if 
they had never existed ; men ceased to think of themselves or their 
parties — they thought only of their country and of the dangers which 
menaced its existence. Nothing for years has brought the hearts of all the 

people so close together, 

5.*;BALTIC0FF SANDY HOOK APR.E1CHTEERTH.TEN THJRTY a.m. ,v.» X l & 

__^____________ i ___ or so inspired them all 

with common hopes and 
common fears and a com- 
mon aim, as the bombard- 
ment and surrender of an 
American fortress." 

President Lincoln's 
first call for aid was in- 
stantly responded to by 
the legislature of New 
York with an appropria- 
tion of three millions of 
dollars ; the militia regi- 
ments of the city and 
vicinity hastened to offer 
their services ; recruiting 
rendezvous were opened 
for new organizations ; 
the Chamber of Com- 
merce passed resolutions 
pledging substantial aid 
to the government, and 
urging the prompt block- 
ade of southern ports ; and a great wave of popular enthusiasm swept 
over the city. 

The municipality of New York promptly passed the following resolu- 
tions, drafted by one who afterwards distinguished himself on many 
bloody fields — Daniel E. Sickles: 

1 The original dispatch was printed by Morse's telegraph, and the ribbon-like strips were pasted 
on a sheet of paper in order to be more convenient and for better preservation. The above illustra- 
tion is ma'le from a photograph of the original in the possession of General E. D. Townsend U. S. A. 



IEMA1NJNG BUT PORK. I ACCEPTED TERMS OF EVACUATION OFFERED BY, 



GENERAL BEAVREGARD BJS.IWC.tO* SAME OFFEREO BY HIM ON THE ELEV 



I - 

ENTfl.lRST.PRJOfi TQ«THE COMMENCEMENT OF HOSTILlTiLS AND MARCHED 



OUT OP TMr FORT SUNDAY AFTERNOON THE FOURTEENTH INST,W|TH 



COLORS FLY1NC. AND. DRUMS BEAT INC. BR INC INC AWAY COMPANY AND 



" ' ~ 1 

PRIVATE PROPERTY AND SALUTING* MY FLAG »ITM FIFTY GUNS* ROBERT, 



ANDERSON". MAJOR F IRSTJARTf LIE! .COMMANDING. 



Anderson's telegram, april 18, iE 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



I 93 



" Resolved, That we invoke in this crisis the unselfish patriotism and the unfaltering 
loyalty which have been uniformly manifested in all periods of national peril by the 
population of the city of New York ; and while we reiterate our undiminished affection 
for the friends of the Union who have gallantly and faithfully labored in the southern 
states for the preservation of peace and the restoration of fraternal relations among the 
people, and our readiness to co-operate with them in all honorable measures of reconcilia- 
tion, yet we oi>ly give expression to the convictions of our constituents when we declare 
it to be their unalterable purpose, as it is their solemn duty, to do all in their power to 
uphold and defend the integrity of the Union, and to vindicate the honor of our flag, and 
to crush the power of those who are enemies in war, as in peace they were friends. 

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions be transmitted to 
the President of the United States, and to the Governor of the State of New York. " 

In a recent address General Sickles said: "I well remember the 
words of President Lincoln when he re- 
ferred to this action of our city govern- 
ment, a few days afterwards, when I called 
upon him for instructions touching the 
command I had undertaken to raise on 
the invitation of Governor Morgan. He 
said : ' Sickles, I have here on my table 
the resolutions passed by your common 
council appropriating a million of dollars 
toward raising men for this war, and prom- 
ising to do all in the power of your authori- 
ties to support the government. When 
these resolutions were brought to me by 
Alderman Frank Boole and his associates 
of the committee, I felt my burden lighter. 
I felt that when men broke through party 
lines and took this patriotic stand for the 
government and the Union, all must come 
out well in the end. When you see them, tell them for me, they made my 
heart glad, and I can only say, God bless them/ " 

The march of the first New England troops through the city, to the 
defense of the capital, is graphically described by the Rev. Dr. Dix : x 

*' They came in at night ; and it was understood that, after breakfasting at the Astor 
House, the march would be resumed. By nine o'clock in the morning an immense 
crowd had assembled about the hotel ; Broadway, from Barclay to Fulton street, and the 
lower end of Park row, were occupied by a dense mass of human beings, all watching 
the front entrance, at which the regiment was to file out. From side to side, from wall to 
wall, extended that innumerable host, silent as the grave, expectant, something unspeak- 

1 Memoirs of John A. Dix, II. 10. 




0%****£ Q.Jitet*»- 



:oc 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



able in the faces. It was the dead, deep hush before the thunder-storm. At last a low mur- 
mur was heard ; it sounded somewhat like a gasp of men in suspense ; and the cause was 
that the soldiers had appeared, their leading- files descending the steps. By the twinkle of 
their bayonets above the heads of the crowd their course could be traced out into the 
open street in front. Formed, at last, in column, they stood, the band at the head ; and 
the word was given, ' March ! ' Still dead silence prevailed. Then the drums rolled out 
the time— the regiment was in motion. And then the band, bursting into full volume, 
struck up — what other tune could the Massachusetts men have chosen ? — ' Yankee 
Doodle.' I caught about two bars and a half of the old music, not more ; for instantly 
there arose a sound such as many a man never heard in all his life, and never will hear ; 
such as is never heard more than once in a lifetime. Not more awful is the thunder of 
heaven as, with sudden peal, it smites into silence all lesser sounds, and, rolling through 
the vault above us, fills earth and sky with the shock of its terrible voice. One ter- 
rific roar burst from the multitude, leaving nothing audible save its own reverberation. 
We saw the heads of armed men, the gleam of their weapons, the regimental colors, all 
moving on, pageant-like ; but naught could we hear save that hoarse, heavy surge — one 
general acclaim, one wild shout of joy and hope, one endless cheer, rolling up and down, 
from side to side, above, below, to right, to left ; the voice of approval, of consent, of 
unity in act and will. No one who saw and heard could do.ubt how New York was 
Sfoinor " 



The resistance to the passage of the Sixth Massachusetts through 
Baltimore, on the 19th of April, fanned the public excitement to the 
verge of madness. The news that descendants of freemen who fell at 
Lexington had been slain, on the anniversary of that memorable fight, 

while marching to the defense of the capital, sent 
a thrill of indignation through the North. 

If the impending calamity of civil war found 
the government of the United States in a state of 
transition as regarded its personnel, it was met by 
New York with all the firmness and ability of a 
substantial state administration and the strength 
of a patriotic majority in the city. At Albany 
that sterling citizen, Governor Edwin D. Morgan, 
stood ready to second the new president ; he was 
aided in matters of detail by an efficient staff, of 
which Chester A. Arthur — the future chief magis- 
trate — was an excellent type. The men of power 
and influence in the community, with true public 
spirit and patriotic impulse, rose en masse, and, exercising a character- 
istic American talent for organization, put themselves directly in touch 
with the federal executive. Through the channels of trade, manufact- 
ures, and the learned professions, popular subscriptions were made to a 





GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 201 

fund for the equipment and temporary subsistence of troops hastening 
to the defense of the capital. In an inconceivably short time an immense 
sum of money was placed at the government's disposal, and the tramp 
of the Union legions was heard from Maine to California. 1 Among 
individuals who devoted themselves faithfully to 
the Union cause was the well-known Thurlow 
Weed. Famous as a political leader, he now 
came to the front as a philanthropist and coun- 
selor. He has left behind him interesting me- 
moirs of the war time, which show how important 
were the services of men like Weed, Simeon 
Draper, and Henry W. Bellows, who, without 
glittering insignia or martial title, labored early 
and late for the cause, furnishing " Victuals," 
" Armour," and the "Sinewes of Warre." An 
example may here be related. Mr. Weed was ^~~/y a , 

summoned to the White House from New York KVt^t^un^ C<oC££^7L- 
by a telegram dated February 18, 1863. On the 

following day he called on President Lincoln, who said : " Mr. Weed, we 
are in a tight place. Money for legitimate purposes is needed imme- 
diately ; but there is no appropriation from which it can be lawfully taken. 
I didn't know how to raise it, and so I sent for you." u How much is 
required?" asked Mr. Weed. " Fifteen thousand dollars," said the presi- 
dent. "Can you get it?" "If you must have it at once, give me two 
lines to that effect." Mr. Lincoln turned to his desk and wrote a few lines 
on a slip of paper. Handing it to Mr. Weed, he said, "Will that do?" 
" It will," said Mr. Weed ; " the money will be at your disposal to-morrow 
morning." On the next train Mr. Weed left Washington, and before five 
o'clock that afternoon the slip of paper which he carried in his pocket bore 
fifteen names with one thousand dollars opposite each. 

One of the most important and immediate results of the popular agita- 
tion following the fall of Sumter was the organization of the " Union 
Defense Committee of the City of New York." It comprised some of the 
most prominent men in trade and the learned professions. It became 
the almoner of the municipality for the emergency, and a veritable Alad- 
din's lamp through which, at a touch, regiments were armed, equipped, and 

1 The New York Herald, April 29, 1 861, makes up a table of voluntary contributions by 
cities, counties, and individuals in the North, " all $1,000 or over, which sum up to $11,230,000, 
of which New York city gives $2,155,000, and the New York state legislature $3,000,000 more. 
And all this has been subscribed since April 15." 



2o: 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



transported to the nearest rendezvous ; steamers of the largest size were 
chartered as transports, or, in some cases, as additions to the naval forces 
of the United States. The local facilities, the business training, and the 
unlimited credit of the committee, combined with a loyal enthusiasm 
accomplished wonders. Nor was this patriotic zeal without its embarrass- 
ments. The committee, having turned on the stream of aid and comfort, 
undertook, in some cases, to direct the war department in its use, to urge 
the president to greater haste in crushing the rebellion, and inadvertently 
to usurp the executive functions of the governor. The federal authorities 
declined to move with undue haste, but their determination was conveyed 
to the committee in a way to strengthen rather than to impair the good 
feeling which it was important to maintain between the Union people and 
the government. Thenceforward their relations were mutually satisfac- 
tory. The Union Defense Committee was or- 
ganized April 22, 1861, and adjourned sine die, 
April 30, 1862. During that period it disbursed 
more than a million dollars for the benefit of New 
York volunteers and the support of soldiers' wid- 
ows and orphans. 

Soon after General Scott's retirement from 
active service a delegation from the Union De- 
fense Committee, headed by Hamilton Fish, 
called upon the old hero at the Brevoort House 
to present an address embodying the sentiments 
^^u^fozt ]&/£? °f l° ve ar| d respect which all Americans, and 
especially the citizens of New York, entertained 
Edwards Pierrepont also made appropriate remarks, comprising 
this extract : " The advents of true patriots and great men are always 
separated by long intervals of years ; but few have ever appeared ; and 
in the whole circuit of the sun scarce one who had the courage to resign 
his power until death called for his crown, his sceptre, or his sword. It 
will be the crowning glory of your honored life that, after remaining at 
the soldier's post until all imminent danger was over, . . . you had 
the wisdom from on high to retire at the fitting hour, and thus to make 
the glories of your setting sun ineffably more bright for the radiant 
lustre which they shed upon the young and dawning hope of your beloved 
land. . . ." 

On April 17, General Sandford, commanding the First Division N. G. 
S. X. Y., received orders from Albany "to detail one regiment of eight 
hundred men, or two regiments amounting to the same number, for 




for him. 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 203 

immediate service." The detail fell to the Seventh regiment, and on 
Friday, the 19th, at 3 P.M., it marched down Broadway with nine hundred 
and ninety-one men, bound for the capital of the nation. More than 
three months previously the regimental board of officers had " resolved 
that, should the exigency arise, we feel confident in having the command- 
ant express to the governor of the state the desire of this regiment to 
perform such duty as he may prescribe." l 

The march to Cortlandt street was in the nature of a triumphal 
pageant. The entire city was present to wish the first regiment of the 
first city in the land God-speed. If in these days of militia reform the 
Seventh maintains its supremacy, in those times of local train-bands, 
when military efficiency of state troops was the exception, the regiment 
was, indeed, first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of its 
countrymen. Its successful movement to the defense of Washington, by 
way of Annapolis, under the wise leadership of Colonel Lefferts, is a 
matter of history. It will, perhaps, never be known how much those 
" one thousand of the flower of the city of New York " contributed by 
their presence to save the capital from hostile occupation. It was suffi- 
cient that President Lincoln could announce that " the Seventh regiment 
and the Massachusetts regiment are now in Washington. There was 
great need of re-enforcements, but Washington may be considered safe 
for the country and the constitution." The Union Defense Committee 
advised the president (April 21) that " On behalf of the committee of the 
citizens charged with the due attention to public interests, and invested 
with this power by the mass meeting of Saturday, we take leave respect- 
fully to represent to the government at Washington that intense solicitude 
prevails here for the safety of the city of Washington, and that there is 
an earnest demand that a safe and speedy communication should be kept 
open between the seat of government and the loyal states. Whatever 
force of men or supply of means is needed to occupy and control the 
necessary points in the state of Maryland, can be furnished from or 
through New York. The energy, the enthusiasm, the power in every 
form, of our people, it is impossible to overrate. But their demands upon 
the action of all the public authorities are proportionate. The absolute 
obliteration of all party lines among our whole population, and their per- 

1 General Scott wrote from Washington, January 19, 1S61, to General Sandford, with re- 
gard to this resolution : " Perhaps no regiment or company can be brought here from a distance 
without producing hurtful jealousies in this vicinity. If there be an exception, it is the Seventh 
Infantry of the city of New York, which has become somewhat national, and is held, deservedly, 
in the highest respect." 



204 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



45s*' 



feet union in enthusiastic patriotism, make it, in our judgment, highly 
expedient that there should be present in this city persons who can, in 
case of emergency, represent the war, navy, and treasury departments in 
giving the authority of the government to movements of troops and 
vessels, the stoppage of steamers, the provision of arms, and the many 
steps which may need to be taken without an opportunity of communi- 
cating with Washington. We feel to-day that our government and the 
city of Washington are in a hostile country, with communication em- 
barrassed and in danger of being wholly cut off. If disaster happens from 

this cause, the excitement of 
our people may lead them 
into strong expressions of dis- 
content, and the present happy 
state of public sentiment in 
universal support of the ad- 
ministration may be suc- 
ceeded by a reaction of feel- 
ing greatly to be deplored." 

The great capitalist and 
steamship proprietor, Corne- 
lius Vanderbilt, placed some 
of his finest vessels at the 
disposal of the government. 
When the terrible Merrimac 
threatened to destroy the 
Union fleet in the James 
river, the commodore fitted 
out his largest and strongest 
steamer, the Vanderbilt, to 
operate against the Confed- 
erate ram, and presented her to the government. In remembrance of 
this princely gift, congress subsequently voted a gold medal to the donor. 
Closely following the men of New York came the action of her noble 
women. A circular addressed " To the women of New York, and espe- 
cially to those already engaged in preparing against the time of wounds 
and sickness in the army," was published. It set forth the importance 
of system and concentration £0 effect the best results in the field. 1 It 

1 " To the Women of New York, and especially to those already engaged in preparing against the 
lime of Wounds and Sickness in the Army : 
The importance of systematizing and concentrating the spontaneous and earnest efforts now 




&&^%OY#i)fr- 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



20: 



was the germ of the most important auxiliary to the medical department 
of the Union armies which the war created — the Sanitary Commission. 
Out of this conference grew the " Woman's Central Association of Re- 
lief." Upon the advice of the Rev. Dr. Bellows a committee proceeded 
to Washington to confer with the war department as to the needs of the 
service, and* the best method of supplying them. This committee repre- 
sented the Woman's Central Association of Relief for the Sick and 
Wounded of the Army, the Advisory Committee of the Boards of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of the Hospitals of New York, and the New York 
Medical Association for Furnishing Hospital Supplies in Aid of the Army. 
Out of their suggestions arose that wonderful institution for alleviating the 
horrors of war, known as the " United States Sanitary Commission." 

" If pure benevolence was ever organized and utilized into beneficence, 
the name of the institution is the Sani- 
tary Commission. It is a standing answer 
to Samson's riddle: ' Out of the strong 
came forth sweetness.' Out of the very 
depths of the agony of this cruel and 
bloody war springs this beautiful system, 
built of the noblest and divinest attri- 
butes of the human soul. Amidst all 
the daring and enduring which this war 
has developed, amidst all the magna- 
nimity of which it has shown the race 
capable, the daring, the endurance, the 

greatness of soul, which have been discovered among the men and women 
who have given their lives to this work, shine as brightly as any on the 
battlefield — in some respects even more brightly. . . . Glimpses of 
this agency are familiar to our people ; but not till the history of its 
inception, progress, and results is calmly and adequately written out and 

making by the women of New York for the supply of richer medical aid to our army through its 
present campaign, must be obvious to all reflecting persons. Numerous societies, working without 
concert, organization, or head — without any direct understanding with the official authorities — 
without any positive instructions as to the immediate or future wants of the army — are liable to 
waste their enthusiasm in disproportionate efforts, to overlook some claims and overdo others, while 
they give unnecessary trouble in official quarters by the variety and irregularity of their proffers of 
help or their inquiries for guidance. As no existing organization has a right to claim precedence 
over any other, or could properly assume to lead in this noble cause, where all desire to be first, it 
is proposed by the undersigned, members of the various circles now actively engaged in this work, 
that the women of New York should meet in the Cooper Institute on Monday next, at ir o'clock. 
a.m., to confer together, and to appoint a general committee, with power to organize the benevo- 
lent purposes of all into a common movement." 




STEAMER * VANDERBILT. 



206 



GREAT CITIES IX THE CIVIL WAR 



spread before the public will any idea be formed of the magnitude and 
importance o{ the work which it has done. Nor even then. Never, until 
every soldier whose flickering life it has gently steadied into continuance, 
whose waning reason it has softly lulled into quiet, whose chilled blood it 
has warmed into healthful play, whose failing frame it has nourished into 
strength, whose fainting heart it has comforted with sympathy — never, 
until every full soul has poured out its story of gratitude and thanksgiving, 
will the record be complete ; but long before that time . . . comes 
the Blessed Voice, ' Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.' An approximate esti- 
mate has been made from which it can 
be stated that the gifts of the women of 
the country, made through the Sanitary 
Commission, exceed in value the sum of 
seven million dollars, and the total cash 
received by its treasurer to October I, 
1863, was eight hundred and fifty-seven 
thousand seven hundred and fifteen dol- 
lars and thirty-three cents." 

The promptness and determination 
with which New York took her stand in 
the great trouble surprised and disap- 
pointed the South, which had counted 
upon at least a negative course by reason 
of mutual commercial interests. No 
longer resting under that delusion, the 
southern press poured forth vials of 
wrath after this fashion : " The insane 
fury of New York arises from purely mercenary motives. She is concerned 
about the golden eggs which are laid for her by the southern goose with 
the sword. Let us assure her we have more fear of her smiles than of her 
frowns. New York will be remembered with especial hatred by the South 
to the end of time. Boston we have always known where to find ; but this 
New York, which has never turned against us till the hour of trial, and is 
now moving heaven and earth for our destruction, shall be a marked city 
to the end of time." Even before the great clash of arms, the newspapers 
of both sections had opened fire with the most bitter word-weapons and 
the most startling war rumors conceivable. It was to be their harvest- 
time — to reap while others sowed. 

The severe strain to which republican institutions were about to be 




IKS. BOTTA. 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 20/ 

exposed in America became the subject of great interest to our European 
neighbors, and the leading British newspapers did not fail to appreciate 
its value. Therefore a new order of Bohemian made its appearance, si- 
multaneously, in New York, Washington, and Richmond. As a rule, the 
foreign war correspondent wrote with comparative impartiality. Now and 
then a superior sort of person, like "Bull Run Russell," appeared upon the 
scene and essayed to make his portfolio carry weight with the credentials 
of an envoy extraordinary, but, lacking ordinary tact, contrived to have 
himself recalled early in the strife. A more discreet ambassador was, ap- 
parently, the representative of the Illustrated London Nezvs. It is interest- 
ing, after many years, to see ourselves as an intelligent stranger saw us 
then. Writing in the last days of May, 1861, he says: 

I could easily believe myself to be in Paris, or some other city devoted to military 
display, instead of New York, the commercial emporium of the North. From morning 
to night nothing is heard but the sound of the drum or the martial strains from trumpet 
and bugle, as regiment after regiment passes on its way to the seat of war through streets 
crowded with a maddened population. All trade is at a stand-still. Store after store 
down Broadway has been turned into the headquarters of Anderson's Zouaves, Wilson's 
Boys, the Empire City Guard, and hosts of corps too numerous or too eccentric in their 
names for me to recollect. Verily, a cosmopolitan army is assembled here. As one 
walks he is jostled by soldiers dressed in the uniforms of the Zouaves de la Garde, the 
Chasseurs a Pied, Infanterie de la Ligne, and other French regiments— so great, apparently, 
is the admiration of our cousins for everything Gallic. I must confess I should like to see 
more nationality. In justice, however, to the men, I cannot do otherwise than express 
my unqualified approval of the material out of which the North is to make her patriot 
army. Many of those I have seen marching through the streets appear already to have 
served in the field, so admirably do they bear themselves in their new roles. The very 
children have become tainted with the military epidemic, and little, toddling Zouaves, 
three and four years old, strut, armed to the teeth, at their nurses' apron-strings. As I 
write I have a corps of chasseurs, composed of all the small boys in the hotel, exercising 
and skirmishing in the corridor outside my room. . . . There is not a house that 
does not display Union colors of some kind ; there is not a steeple ever so lofty that is not 
surmounted by a star-spangled banner; there is not a man nor woman in the city that 
does not wear a patriotic badge of some kind. It is a mighty uprising of a united people 
determined to protect their flag to the last. 

u Early in the summer of 1861, when things were rapidly developing 
toward the rebellion, a new power, not hitherto exercised in this country, 
was exerted for the public safety. Persons were arbitrarily arrested and 
confined under military guard on evidence satisfactory to the general gov- 
ernment that they were guilty of acts of a disloyal and dangerous character. 
It devolved upon the secretary of state in the first instance to indicate who 
should be thus put in confinement. He made the arrests through his 



208 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



marshals, and they were turned over to General Scott, who held them at 
Fort Lafayette, in New York harbor." 1 

One of the earliest duties devolving upon the president was to counter- 
act, as far as practicable, the strong influences brought to bear by the 
South upon the governments of Great Britain and France to recognize the 
Confederacy, or at least to break off the friendly relations with the United 
States which existed at the outbreak of secession. He determined to ask 
three eminent citizens — Archbishop John Hughes of New York, Bishop 
Charles P. Mcllvaine of Ohio, and Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, 
then abroad — to represent the general government. Archbishop Hughes 
accepted the invitation of the president, with the condition that his friend 
Thurlow Weed should be included in the commission, in an advisory 

capacity. Thus the powerful combination of church 
and state, of war and diplomacy, made it an ideal 
embassy. These wise men established themselves 
alternately at London and Paris, mingled with the 
leaders of the people, and cultivated the society 
of the royal and imperial premiers. They hap- 
pened to be in the right place when the irritating 
episode of the Trent occurred, and war between 
England, France, and America seemed imminent. 
It was averted by only a hair's-breadth, and in 
the light of later developments as to the inside 
history of the rebellion, it would seem that the 
American people owe President Lincoln's peace 
commission a heavy debt of gratitude. 
The third year of the civil war was marked in the city of New York 
by the most protracted and bloody riot in her history. The northern 
states had responded nobly to the president's various calls for volunteers, 
but as the great struggle continued, voluntary food for powder became 
scarce, and the government was forced to resort to compulsory enlistment. 
In most of the states there was little difficulty in enforcing the draft. In 
New York there was hesitation on the part of Governor Seymour to aid 
ii; a measure extremely unpopular among a certain class in the community. 
His reluctance to co-operate with the general government encouraged the 
worst elements in the city to open rebellion. The merits of the question 
are clearly set forth in a work by the (then) pfovost-marshal-general of the 
United States. 2 From this and other reliable sources it appears that on 

1 Anecdotes of the Civil War, E. D. Townsend, New York, 1S84. 

2 New York and 1 'he Conscription, James B. Fry, New York, 18S5. 




GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



20Q 



July 2, 1862, the president issued a call for three hundred thousand vol- 
unteers — his final effort to suppress the rebellion by voluntary military 
service. On August 4, following, he called for three hundred thousand 
nine-months militia. In September the war department issued instruc- 
tions under which some of the governors commenced a draft. 

In a letter dated August 4, 1862, to Count de Gasparin, President 
Lincoln said : " Our great army has dwindled rapidly, bringing the neces- 
sity for a new call earlier than was anticipated. We shall easily obtain 
the new levy, however. Be not alarmed if you shall learn that we have 
resorted to a draft for part of this. It seems strange even to me, but it is 
true, that the government is now 
pressed to this course by a popular 
demand. 1 Thousands who wish not 
to personally enter the service are 
nevertheless anxious to pay and send 
substitutes, provided that they can 
have assurance that unwilling persons 
similarly situated will be compelled 
to do likewise." 

In his annual report, dated De- 
cember 31, 1862, Adjutant-General 
Hillhouse said: " There was nothing 
of that eagerness to enter the service 
w T hich had been manifested at various 
periods, and it appeared as if the peo- 
ple had fallen into an apathy from 
which only an extraordinary effort 
could arouse them." He further said 
that the state was deficient twenty-eight thousand five hundred and seven- 
teen men in volunteers furnished since July 2, 1862, and of these eighteen 
thousand five hundred and twenty-three belonged to the city of New York, 
adding that " the credit to the city and county of New York is based on the 




J. L. WORDEN. 



1 " There is only one way to remedy our fatal error : that is, for the president at once to estab- 
lish a system of conscription, by which, instead of three hundred thousand, at least five hundred 
thousand men should be called under arms. . . . Instead of levying new regiments com- 
manded by inexperienced officers of their own choosing, and who, for a year to come, would barely 
add anything to our efficiency in the field, the raw recruits ought to be collected at camps of 
instruction, in healthy localities East and West, where, under the direction of West Point gradu- 
ates, they should be drilled and disciplined. From thence, as they are fit for active service, they 
should be furnished to the army, to be incorporated into the old regiments." — August Belmont to 
Thurlow Weed, July 20, 1862. 
Vol. XXIX.-No. 3.-14 



210 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL AVAR 

actual returns filed in this office, but it is believed that it is less than the 
volunteers furnished." The necessity for a general conscription was set 
forth in the public utterances of war democrats and republicans alike. 
" Senator McDougall (democrat) said : ' Now, in regard to the conscription 
question, I will say for myself that I regretted much, when this war was 
first organized, that the conscription rule did not obtain. I went from 
the extreme east to the extreme west of the loyal states. I found some 
districts where some bold leaders brought out all the young men, and sent 
them or led them to the field. In other districts, and they were the most 
numerous, the people made no movement toward the maintenance of the 
war ; there were whole towns and cities, I may say, where no one volun- 
teered to shoulder a musket, and no one offered to lead them into the 
service. The whole business has been unequal and wrong from the first. 
The rule of conscription should have been the rule to bring out men of all 
classes, and make it equal throughout the country ; and therein the North 
has failed.' " 1 

General Fry, the provost-marshal-general, said : " It was of great 
importance to the people of the state as well as to the general government 
that a correct enrollment should be made. The Adjutant-General of New 
York, when speaking, in his report of December 31, 1862, of the principle 
of compulsory service, said to the governor : ' Nor is it less a matter of 
interest to the states. Whatever may be the plan adopted, the force 
required must be drawn from their population liable to military duty, on 
which the one million of volunteers hitherto sent to the field has already 
made serious inroads. They have, moreover, a common interest with the 
general government in such an application of their military resources as 
will render them most effective for the purposes in view with the least 
possible waste, and with as little hardship as possible to the community.' 
The Enrollment Act was approved March 3, 1863. Section nine re- 
quired that the enrollers ' immediately proceed to enroll ' and report the 
result ' on or before the first day of April ' to the Board of Enrollment, 
and the board was required by the act to consolidate the names into one 
list and transmit the same to the provost-marshal-general ' on or before 
the first day of May.' There was, it is true, a proviso that if these duties 
c oal d not be done in the time specified, they should be performed as soon 
thereafter as practicable ; but neither the intention of the law, nor the 
manifest necessity under which it was enacted, permitted delay ; or, as 
President Lincoln expressed it in his letter to Governor Seymour, dated 
August 7, 1863, ' We could not waste time to re-experiment with the vol- 

1 New York and the Conscription. 






GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 211 

unteer system, already deemed by congress, and palpably, in fact, so far 
exhausted as to be inadequate ; and then more time to obtain a correct 
decision as to whether a law is constitutional which requires a part of 
those not now in the service to go to the aid of those who are already in 
it ; and still more time to determine with absolute certainty that we get 
those who are to go in the precisely legal proportion to those who are not 
to go.' ' My purpose,' the president added, ' is to be in my actions just 
and constitutional, and yet practical in performing the important duty 
with which I am charged, of maintaining the unity*and the free principles 
of our common country.' " 

The political campaign of 1862 in New York was hardly less exciting 
than the military operations in Virginia. The republican standard- 
bearer was that gallant soldier and unselfish patriot, James S. Wadsworth ; 
his democratic opponent, the eminent lawyer, Horatio Seymour. The 
first stood on a radical platform — one of its planks being the prosecution 
of the war by " all the means that the God of Battles has placed in the 
power of the government." The other candidate was put forth by a 
more conservative constituency, favoring " all legitimate means to sup- 
press the rebellion," and leaning to a milder policy. Seymour was 
elected by a majority of ten thousand seven hundred and fifty-two. " On 
January I, 1863, the outgoing administration of Governor Morgan turned 
over to the incoming administration of Governor Seymour the revised 
state enrollment, the government's order to draft the militia, and the 
deficiency of New York heretofore mentioned." 1 

Preparations for the proposed draft were rapidly pushed forward by 
the war department. Those affecting the city comprised the appoint- 
ment of a provost-marshal for each congressional district, and an assist- 
ant provost-marshal-general to supervise their work, for the cities of 
New York and Brooklyn ; this officer was Colonel Robert Nugent, Sixty- 
ninth New York volunteers, a gallant soldier, a discreet officer, an Irish- 
man, and a democrat. As early as April 24, 1862, Governor Seymour 
and Mayor Opdyke were informed of this. The first order for making a 
draft in the state under the Enrollment Act was issued July 1. Notwith- 
standing the knowledge which the municipal authorities possessed, that 
an unpopular public measure was about to be put into execution within the 
city limits, it does not appear that any unusual precaution was taken to 
preserve the peace. Indeed, the force available for that purpose, outside 
of the police, was limited to a handful of regulars in the harbor garrisons, 
and a few disabled men of the Invalid corps. The local militia regiments 

1 New York and the Conscription. 



212 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

had been summoned to repel the threatened invasion of a neighboring 
state in co-operation with the armies in the field, leaving their own homes 
open to an enemy in the rear more to be dreaded than the soldiers of 
Lee. Nevertheless, the police department comprised numerous resolute, 
experienced, and able officers, especially its president, Thomas Acton, and 
its superintendent, John A. Kennedy. 

The morning of Saturday, July II, had been selected for the com- 
mencement of the draft in the city, and the day passed without much 
interference with the officers charged with its supervision; and the local 
authorities felt encouraged to think that the remainder of the work would 
be completed without serious opposition. The following day being 
Sunday, was undoubtedly seized by those intent upon obstructing the 
provost-marshals in the discharge of their duty to foment trouble among 

the ignorant or reckless element that abounds in 
every large city. On Monday morning a few 
policemen were sent to the enrolling offices at 
6yy Third avenue and at 1190 Broadway. At the 
last-named place the mystic wheel was set in 
motion, and the drawing of names was continued 
without interruption until noon, when the provost- 
marshals suspended operations as a measure of 
l^yj. 3§p^|fi|P^\ precaution. Up to ten o'clock in the morning the 
city had been comparatively quiet. At that hour 
Superintendent Kennedy, while upon a tour of 
/^ ?yi~ A^c^C^c^^) inspection, without escort, and in plain clothes, was 

attacked by a mob at the corner of Forty-sixth street 
and Lexington avenue, and, after being severely beaten, barely escaped with 
his life through the intervention of an influential friend. He was disabled 
for some days, and the immediate command of the police devolved upon 
Mr. Acton. That officer established himself at police headquarters in 
Mulberry street, and, with the advantage of a complete telegraphic 
system centring there, practically directed the operations of the cam- 
paign which ensued. The entire police force of the city had now been 
assembled at its respective station-houses, and for the next three days 
was constantly employed in stamping out the sparks of insurrection 
which were flying about and at times breaking out into sheets of flame 
that threatened the existence of the city. From the Cooper Institute to 
Forty-sixth street,- Third avenue was black with human beings, who hung 
over the eaves of the buildings, filled the doors and windows, and packed 
the street from curb to curb. Small bodies of police were driven away or 




GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 213 

trampled under foot, houses were fired, stores looted, and a very carnival 
of crime inaugurated. Negroes became especially obnoxious, and neither 
age nor sex was regarded by the white brutes in slaking their thirst for 
blood : from every lamp-post were suspended the victims of their blind 
fury. With one accord several thousand rioters swooped down upon the 
Colored Orphan asylum, then occupying the space from Forty-third to 
Forty-fourth street on Fifth avenue. The two hundred helpless children 
were hurriedly removed by a rear door while the mob rushed in at the 
front ; the torch was applied in twenty places at once, and despite the 
heroic efforts of Chief Engineer Decker and other firemen to save the 
structure, it was burned to the ground. Emboldened by the progress they 
had made in lawlessness, the principal body of the rioters, numbering 
some five thousand men, moved upon the citadel of the oppressor, as they 
considered the central office of the police in Mulberry street. 

To meet this threatening demonstration President Acton detailed 
Sergeant (afterward Inspector) Daniel Carpenter, a man of great courage 
and ability, and placed under his command about two hundred policemen 
who had been held in reserve at that point. It was a duty of supreme 
importance, and well was it executed. Without unnecessary delay, Car- 
penter moved his column down Bleecker street to Broadway, at the same 
time sending a detachment up the nearest parallel streets to the east and 
west, to strike the flanks of the infuriated mass bearing down upon his 
front. At the proper moment a combined charge utterly demoralized 
the undisciplined horde, which, sinking under the well-planted blows of 
the police, fled in every direction. The street looked like a battlefield, 
broken heads were countless, and the spoils of war included the stars and 
stripes and a banner inscribed "No Draft." 

As the night closed in, it became evident that the disturbance was too 
wide-spread and deep-seated to be controlled by clubs, and that re-enforce- 
ments must be called for. To this end Mayor Opdyke called for troops 
upon General Wool, commanding the Department of the East, and Gen- 
eral Sandford, of the National Guard. General Wool directed Brev.-Brig.- 
General Harvey Brown, Colonel of the Fifth U. S. Artillery, commanding 
the troops in the harbor, to report with his available force to General 
Sandford of the state militia for duty. General Brown declined to obey 
what he considered an illegal order, but finally yielded to the solicita- 
tions of certain prominent citizens, and agreed to waive a part of the 
question in dispute, stipulating that he should personally direct the oper- 
ations of the troops drawn from the military posts under his command, 
according to his previous assignment by the war department. 



14 



GREAT CITIES IX THE CIVIL WAR 



General Brown established his headquarters at the central office, 
remaining there, in active co-operation with the police board, during the 
continuance of the riot. General Sandford did not attempt to control the 
operations of the regular troops, but, at the head of some seven hundred 
men of the militia, temporarily absent from their regiments, proceeded to 
occupy the state arsenal at Seventh avenue and Thirty-fifth street. 

The second and third days were marked by fresh outbursts and much 
bloodshed : bayonets and bullets were substituted for policemen's billies. 

The territory of the disturbance had 
extended to Harlem, and westward be- 
yond Sixth avenue. Evidences of able 
leadership among the bands of maraud- 
ers were visible. The roofs of houses 
became vantage-ground, from which 
stones were hurled and shots fired at 
the police and troops in sight. Detach- 
ments composed of mixed civil and mili- 
tary forces were sent out from Mulberry 
street to disperse the more formidable 
bodies of law-breakers. In one of these 
encounters Colonel O'Brien of the Elev- 
enth New York volunteers (then on re- 
cruiting service in the city), although 
not assigned to duty with the troops, 




was conspicuous 



•pposing the mob 



near the corner of Second avenue and 
Thirty-second street. With a disre- 
gard of ordinary prudence, he ventured 
shortly after, alone and in uniform, to 
return to the same locality. With fiend- 

GENERAI. WINFJELD SCOTT. • 1 1 1 1 'II- 

ish glee the roughs seized him, and, 
after beating him unmercifully, dragged him up and down the street, 
and finally, after subjecting him to every conceivable abuse, tossed him, 
covered with filth, into his own back yard, where he expired after lin- 
gering without relief for several hours. Among his most cruel persecu- 
tors were women, who emulated the worst deeds of the most brutal Indian 
squaw. Although the insurgents received some salutary checks during 
the second day, the disorder was far from losing strength. Driven from 
one section, it quickly made its appearance in another. It gradually crept 
over to the North river. Public buildings were threatened. The Tribune 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 21 5 

building received a large share of sinister attention, and the residences of 
the mayor and other citizens obnoxious to the mob were often in peril. In 
the meantime the general government had taken precaution in the way of 
placing gunboats at various points in the waters surrounding the city, and 
at the Navy yard, to co-operate with the weak land force available. Orders 
were issued to the Seventh and other city regiments to return home, and 
quite a large force was under orders in the Army of the Potomac and at 
Washington to move to New York at a moment's notice. But the admi- 
rable arrangements of General Brown and President Acton, and the excel- 
lent discipline of the force under their direction, finally prevailed against 
the unorganized army of anarchy and misrule, and by midnight of the 
third day the wires reported " All quiet." The backbone of the beast was 
broken, but nevertheless all good citizens drew a breath of relief when, 
shortly after, it was known that the Seventh had returned to aid in defend- 
ing home and fireside. 

On the fourth day proclamations were issued by the governor and 
mayor, the one setting forth the prevalence of insurrection, the other 
announcing the practical close of hostilities. It became necessary during 
the day to break up two or three murderously inclined bands, who suc- 
cumbed only to a free use of canister. In these affairs Captains Franklin 
and Putnam * and Lieutenant Wood of the army distinguished themselves. 

1 " Early on the morning after the battle of Bull Run I started with wine, fruit, and other 
articles suited to the condition of invalids, and visited the different hospitals about Washington, 
relieving as far as I could the wounded of our own state. As I was leaving the hospital at 
Georgetown the surgeon invited me to see a patient who had shown extraordinary endurance. I 
found a young man upon a cot. The surgeon removed some lint from a musket-ball wound. He 
then asked the young man to raise himself, so that, while resting upon his elbow, I saw that the ball 
had passed through his body, avoiding any vital spot. The patient, the surgeon informed me, had, 
after being the last to leave the field, re-formed the thinned ranks of his company and marched at 
their head from the battle-ground to their former encampment near Washington, and then reported 
himself as a wounded officer. Notwithstanding this fearful wound, he was calm and hopeful. He 
came, as he informed me, from Minnesota, and was in command of a company in a Minnesota 
regiment. He gave me his name, and I left strongly impressed with the idea that, if his life was 
spared, he was destined for future usefulness. I went directly to the secretary of war, who 
directed a commission to be issued for my protege. I went from Secretary Cameron to Presi- 
dent Lincoln, who not only cheerfully approved the commission, but was only prevented by press- 
ing duties from taking it over to Georgetown himself. In less than three hours after I left him, 
Captain Putnam of the Minnesota volunteers found himself designated as Captain Putnam of the 
United States army. . . . During the sanguinary riots of July, 1863, I was in New York. . . . 
When sitting at Police Headquarters a United States officer came in who had been directed to 
disperse the rioters who had murdered Colonel O'Brien. Our recognition was mutual, as was the 
surprise and the gratification. . . . Captain Putnam, as I learned from the commissioners, 
continued active and vigilant, making thorough work wherever he went, until the riots were over.'' — 
Thurlow Weed, in Galaxy, IX. 837. 



2l6 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

It was announced by the mayor that the draft had been suspended, 
while the common council appropriated two million five hundred thousand 
dollars toward paying six hundred dollars each for substitutes for the poor 
who might be drafted. In the afternoon the Sixty-fifth and One hundred 
and fifty-second New York volunteers arrived, and joined the force at 
Police Headquarters in Mulberry street. 

One of the most satisfactory features of the terrible experience through 
which the city passed at this time was the mutual respect and confidence 
which existed between the regular troops and the police force combined 
to preserve law and order. In the final report of the police commission- 
ers a grateful tribute was paid the soldiers, and General Brown, in relin- 
quishing his command to General Canby, said that " having during the 
present insurrection been in immediate and constant co-operation with the 
police department of this city, he desires the privilege of expressing his 
unbounded admiration of it. Never in civil or military life has he seen 
such untiring devotion and such efficient service." 

Order having been restored, the draft was resumed and completed 
without further interruption, Governor Seymour having issued a procla- 
mation warning the people against disorders, and saying : " I again repeat 
to you the warning which I gave to you during the riotous proceedings of 
last month, that the only opposition to the conscription which can be 
allowed is an appeal to the courts." General Dix, commanding the 
Department of the East, in a letter to the governor at this time said : 
" The recent riots in this city, coupled as they were with the most 
atrocious and revolting crimes, have cast a shadow over it for the moment. 
But the promptitude with which the majesty of the law was vindicated, 
and the fearlessness with which a high judicial functionary is pronounc- 
ing judgment upon the guilty, have done and are doing much to 
efface what, under a different course of action, might have been an indel- 
ible stain upon the reputation of the city. It remains only for the people 
to vindicate themselves from reproach in the eyes of the country and the 
world by a cheerful acquiescence in the law. That it has defects is gener- 
ally conceded. That it will evolve cases of personal hardship is not dis- 
puted. War, when waged for self-defense, for the maintenance of great 
principles, and for the national life, is not exempt from the sufferings 
inseparable from all conflicts which are decided by the shock of armies, 
and it is by our firmness and our patriotism in meeting all the calls of the 
country upon us that we achieve the victory and prove ourselves worthy 
of it and the cause in which we toil and suffer." General Fry thus tersely 
sums up the situation: " The real cause of the riot was that in a commu- 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



21/ 



nity where a considerable political element was active in opposition to 
the way the war was conducted, if not to the war itself, and where there 
was a strong opinion adverse to the principles of compulsory service, cer- 
tain lawless men preferred righting the government at home, when it 
made the issue of forcing them by lot to fight its enemies in the field." 

Among the sensational incidents of the spring of 1864 may here be 
noted the despicable attempt to use the misfortunes of the country for 
stock-jobbing purposes.. It was just after the bloody affair of Cold Har- 
bor, when Grant and Lee, having locked horns in the Wilderness, were 
taking a breathing spell, 
and the public suspense 
was at its height. It was 
very early in the morn- 
ing of May 18, 1864, and 
" steamer-day " in the 
city, when an unknown 
messenger appeared at 
the door of the press- 
room of the Journal of 
Commerce with what pur- 
ported to be the tele- 
graphic "copy" of a 
proclamation by the 
president. A similar 
document was handed in 
to the men in charge of 
the offices of all the other 
principal papers. It was 
an hour calculated to 
favor the designs of the 

reckless promoter, but the fraud was discovered in time by all except the 
Journal of Commerce and the World, The proclamation was to the effect 
that " in view of the situation in Virginia, the disasters at Red River, the 
delay at Charleston, and the geenral state of the country," it seemed 
expedient to appoint a day of fasting and humiliation. At the same time 

1 The beautiful memorial arch here shown was dedicated in Brooklyn, October 21, 1S92, to the 
soldiers and sailors who fought between the years 1861 and 1865. The ceremonies were held 
immediately after the parade in honor of the four-hundredth anniversary of the discovery of Amer- 
ica by Columbus, the date of the Brooklyn celebration of that event having been set on the date 
chronologically correct. The arch was designed by John H. Duncan, the architect of the Grant 
Monument now being erected on Riverside drive. 




SOLDIERS AND SAJLORS' MEMORIAL ARCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



2l8 GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 

the emergency required of the president to call for another four hundred 
thousand men, to be raised within a specified time, by a forced draft if 
necessary. Immediate and strenuous efforts were made to discover the 
author of the forgery. The war department ordered the arrest of the edi- 
tors of the two newspapers mentioned, although upon due representation 
of the facts by General Dix, commanding the Department of the East, 
the order was promptly revoked. The final disposition of the matter is 
stated in a report made by General Dix : 

" Headquarters, Department of the East, 
New York City, May 20, 1864. 
HON. E. M, Stanton, Secretary of War: 

I have arrested and am sending to Fort Lafayette Joseph Howard, the author of the 
forged Proclamation. He is a newspaper reporter, and is known as " Howard, of the 
Times." He has been very frank in his confessions, says it was a stock-jobbing opera- 
tion, and that no person connected with the press had any agency in the transaction 
except another reporter, who manifolded and distributed the Proclamation to the news- 
papers, and whose arrest I have ordered. He exonerates the Independent Telegraphic 
Line, and says that the publication on a steamer-day was accidental. His statement, in 
all essential particulars, is corroborated by other testimony. 

JOHN A. Dix, Major-General." 

An event of great local importance opened the year 1 864. It was the 
Metropolitan Fair in aid of the United States Sanitary Commission. Like 
the fairs in other large cities, it was a recognition of the labors of those 
disinterested men and women who had already sacrificed health and sub- 
stance in the Union cause by the bedside of sick and wounded soldiers. 
Large buildings in Fourteenth street and on Union square were filled to 
overflowing with the rich treasures of art, science, literature, and the varied 
industries represented in the metropolis, tastefully arranged and classified, 
and offered for sale to those who, prevented by circumstances from serv- 
ing in the field, might in this way render aid and comfort to the great 
cause. The ceremonies of inauguration were impressive, and comprised 
a parade of all the troops in the city, regular, volunteer, and militia 
— more than ten thousand men — headed by Generals Dix and Sand- 
ford. The main building in Fourteenth street was thrown open to an 
immense throng on the evening of April 4, 1864, with an address by Joseph 
H. Choate, and an "Army Hymn," by Oliver Wendell Holmes. The 
hymn was sung by a chorus composed of the members of the principal 
church choirs of the city. For three weeks a stream of humanity poured 
through the entrances to the fair, leaving the rich man's gold and the 
widow's mile to swell the generous tribute of the Empire City toward the 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 219 

restoration of the Union. The receipts from the Sanitary Fair at Chicago 
were sixty thousand dollars; from the fair at Boston, one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars ; from the fair at Cincinnati, two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars ; and the doors of the Fourteenth street and Union 
square bazaar closed upon a military chest of more than a million dollars. 

In the month of April, 1865, bright with the promise of the season and 
the achievements of our arms, came that terrible shock, like a thunderbolt 
out of a clear sky, the assassination of President Lincoln. For the third 
time in the history of the country a day in April had dawned on the citi- 
zens of New York with news of dread import. Lexington — Baltimore — 
Washington! On the morning of the 15th the people swarmed into the 
streets, and by common consent sought the government business centre in 
Wall street. An immense crowd gathered in front of the custom-house ; 
the greatest agitation prevailed ; grief at the national loss struggled with 
indignation at the assassin. The collector of the port, Simeon Draper, 
with much forethought, and in the interests of law and order, organized 
an impromptu mass meeting, and several speakers addressed the people. 
It is an interesting reminiscence, that among those who thus gave expres- 
sion to the emotions of the hour was one who in after years, and holding 
the same great office, was to fall a victim to the assassin's bullet — James 
A. Garfield. Well did he express the universal feeling of his auditors: 
"The spirit of rebellion, goaded to its last madness, has recklessly done 
itself a mortal injury, striking down with treacherous blow the kindest, 
gentlest, tenderest friend the people of the South could find among the 
rulers of the nation." All business was by common consent suspended. 
The newspaper and telegraph offices were surrounded by thousands, eager 
for details of the tragedy which threatened to involve the lives of three 
officers of the government ; the governor and the mayor issued proclama- 
tions ; the bishop of the diocese directed special services to be held in the 
Episcopal churches. The day (April 20) which had been set apart by the 
executive of the state for rejoicing over recent victories, was designated as 
a time "to acknowledge our dependence on Him who has brought sudden 
darkness on the land in the very hour of its restoration to union, peace, 
and liberty." 

On the morning of the 2 1st the funeral cortege started from the Capi- 
tol on its sorrowful journey of nearly two thousand miles to the tomb of 
our country's greatest martyr. After lying in state for a day in historic 
Independence Hall, the body of the late president was borne to New 
York, where it was received with the deepest solemnity and the most sin_ 
cere demonstration of love and grief. The arrangements for the lying in 



220 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



state at the City Hall were of the most complete character, and for twenty- 
four hours a continuous procession of men and women, gentle and hum- 
ble, side by side, passed sadly by the bier. On the second day a pageant 
of enormous extent attended the transfer of the mortal remains of the 
" savior o\ his country " to the train waiting to convey them to their final 
resting-place. More than sixty thousand soldiers and citizens formed the 
escort, and more than a million people lined the route. Nothing before 

or since transpiring in the city can be compared 
to the universal and personal sorrow manifested 
by every soul of that mighty host. 

One of the brightest pages in the history of 
the city and state of New York is that on which 
are inscribed the names and deeds of their sons 
and daughters during the war for the Union. 
A passing reference to a few of the quarter of a 
million of those who fought for their principles 
is all that is possible here. First of all, perhaps, 
stood the noble Wadsworth. His patriotism 
was unimpeachable ; he had vast wealth, high 
social position, ripeness of years, and gallant 
sons to represent him in the field. Yet he 
spared not of his abundance, used his influence 
to raise and equip troops, led them to battle, and 
at the head of his division laid down his life in the service of his country. 
That his worth was appreciated, the following extract from resolutions 
adopted by the Union Defense Committee fully testifies: 

"When we consider that, from the very beginning- of this war, General Wads- 
worth, a wealthy, cultured, and honored gentleman, impelled by a high sense of duty 
and of right, left his home of beauty, of luxury, of affection, and of love, to sacrifice every 
pleasure, to devote his every hour, to spend the weary winter in the frontier camp, to 
soothe and cheer the homesick, dying soldier, to waste much of his private fortune, to 
imperil his own health, and finally to offer up his willing life in his country's cause, we 
can find on the roll of history no record of a braver, truer man, or of a more devoted 
patriot." 




At the suggestion of General Dix, the secretary of war was asked to 
have one of the forts in the harbor named " Wadsworth " in honor of " one 
eminently endeared to the people of this state." The fort at the Narrows 
called Fort Tompkins was eventually designated by the war department as 
Fort Wadsworth. 

Among other sacrifices on the altar of the constitution and the Union, 



GREAT CITIES IN THE CIVIL WAR 



221 



we recall the gentle and scholarly Winthrop, the dashing Corcoran, the 
Highlander Cameron, the youthful, fearless Ellsworth, and Mrs. Caroline 
M. Kirkland. This charming woman and gifted writer, by her tireless and 
sincere devotion to the work of the Sanitary Fair, give up her life to the 
cause of her country as completely as the soldier who fell at the cannon's 
mouth. 

Another great New Yorker, worthy of a place by the side of Wads- 
worth, has been frequently mentioned in this chapter. None during the 
serious time of the civil war performed his part with greater resolution, 
sterner justice, truer dignity, and more unblemished honor than John 
Adams Dix. The civic robe and the army uniform alike became him. 

From the brief sketch given here it will be seen that the Empire City 
sent forth the last appeal for a peaceful solution of the sectional problem 
in 1861 ; that from her gates was forwarded the first relief for beleaguered 
federal forts; that at the first alarm, her best household regiment marched, 
with her neighbors of New England, to defend the national capital ; and 
that to those troops, exclusively, was assigned the duty of protecting the 
White House — the Ark of the Covenant — from threatened danger. Her 
money was lavishly given, her best blood freely shed ; her noblest women 
hourly strove to restore the Union to its original strength and power; and 
now, after many years of peace, prosperity, and unity throughout the 
land, it may truly be said that her labor was not in vain. 










FORT LAFAYETTE. 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 1 

By Leonard Irving. 

In his introduction Mr. Lodge quotes Professor McMaster's rather un- 
gracious sneer: "General Washington is known to us, and President 
Washington ; but George Washington is an unknown man." In nothing 
does the criticism on the author of the History of the People of the United 
States we have somewhere encountered find such illustration or confirma- 
tion of its correctness as in these two sentences. Mr. McMaster has given 
us a brilliant, a vivid account of men's manners and opinions in the period 
of which he treats, beginning with 1783. But he accomplishes this mainly 
by reproducing upon his pages, as the result of infinite industry and a 
wonderful memory, the contemporary expressions or descriptions found in 
the newspapers of the day. We do, indeed, get a little wearied and con- 
fused at the conflicting sentiments which greet us from time to time, and 
we need to look closely to see just when he shifts the kaleidoscope from 
one journal or set of opinions to another. Nevertheless, we get a living 
picture of the days and years of old with their events, and the people mov- 
ing athwart them. But — and now we come to our critic's remark — our 
author is lost whenever he ventures away from his kaleidoscope and treats 
us to an opinion of his own. He then gives us either " something true 
that is not new, or something new that is not true," and exhibits a woful 
lack of ordinary or historic judgment. 

This is what is the matter with his judgment of Washington. He 
departs from the region of clear and undoubted facts. He hints and 
insinuates at possibilities of ugly discovery. He infers great evils from 
the half dozen occasions when Washington swore deep oaths, which we 
take leave to say, with a deep abhorrence of habitual profanity, seem to us 
simply evidences of the vigorous (and none the less Christian) manhood 
of Washington ; for there are moments in such a life as his when the vol- 
canoes of human nature must find an eruption in some such way. Mr. 
McMaster sneeringly refers to the fact of his refusing a salary, contrasting 
it with the story of his extorting a few shillings from a poor stone-mason's 
widow. Now all this is exceedingly disingenuous. Either Mr. McMaster 

1 George Washington. By Henry Cabot Lodge. In 2 vols. Boston and New York : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 1891. {American Statesmen Series.) 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 223 

should have said a great deal more, and related fully circumstances to 
corroborate his insinuations, or he should have said nothing at all. The 
bare innuendo is not at all historical. And neither is it historical to give 
half a fact or tell half a story. We are glad to see that Mr. Lodge gives 
the whole of the story about the mason's widow ; and it turns out neither 
to be, nor to indicate by any means, what Professor McMaster would lead 
us to believe. 

The towering excellence and nobility of George Washington is too 
much for some people. The Athenians, as Mr. Lodge reminds us, grew 
very tired of the " just " Aristides, and worked the "oyster-shell " scheme 
to get him out of their sight. " Men who are loudly proclaimed to be 
faultless," our author justly remarks, " always excite a certain kind of 
resentment. It is a dangerous eminence for any one to occupy." And so 
like the vulture, quick to scent carrion, many persons are eager to discover 
a fault in Washington, and are unduly excited and hurry to conclusions 
ahead of those the facts will warrant. It is silly to suppose or maintain 
that Washington was faultless. He was a splendid, healthy-natured man, 
and no goody-goody prig. But it is mean to be anxious to show that he 
possessed traits of meanness. The story of the mason's widow half told- 
shatters our idol far worse than twice as many oaths uttered on suitable 
occasions. Were it really so, a noble nature would hang his head in sor- 
row ; but before hanging the head, such a man would want to know the 
whole truth. The iconoclast, however, has not time to read the whole 
story, but is ready with his innuendo at once. 

And it is certainly significant, very encouraging to the honest admirers 
of Washington, and to those nobler natures who rejoice in a character 
that towers far above them, that one and another of these " bad " stories, 
as they come to be thoroughly read in all their details, fail after all to 
throw any real discredit upon our hero. The latest case in point is culled 
from the daily press at the very time of this writing. A paper was read 
at a woman's club by a lady; and the report went forth that this lady had 
proved by Washington's own letters, that he denied his mother's request 
to visit him or live with him at Mount Vernon, on the ground that he 
would be ashamed of her before his distinguished guests, and would not 
take the trouble to have her meals sent to her room by the servants. 
Now this looked pretty black. The buzzards who like to feed on ruined 
reputations were delighted, and fastened on this happy revelation at once. 
One shouted forth his satisfaction in this wise : " If the document is 
genuine, and its veracity has not been questioned, it would appear that 
the hero of the hatchet story was not unlike the generality of sons." But 



224 DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 

a little caution in receiving, and a little care in investigating, on the part of 
those who did not quite so much enjoy the odor of carrion, revealed an 
entirely harmless state of affairs. In the first place, the authoress of the 
paper read before the woman's club had not drawn the dreadful inferences 
attributed to her. " She simply meant to illustrate," says one who asked 
her the question, " the enormous social pressure in those days of which 
we are prone to think as times of primitive simplicity." And then a 
perusal of the letter of Washington itself discovers that there is no rude, 
unfeeling denial of a request, but the most tender solicitude for the comfort, 
the bodily and mental ease of the aged and devoutly revered parent. 
Of course, if one has an evil eye, the evil thing may be read in this very 
letter. But the natural conclusion of the unbiased, well-balanced mind 
will be such as will leave unsullied the fair reputation of Washington. 

And here again, as in the case of Columbus, Irving must come in for 
his share of the flings from the modern scientific historian. It is a mortal 
offense for him to have had any admiration for the characters whose life- 
story he has so charmingly told us. The genial, gentle, noble-minded, 
pure-hearted gentleman could not but feel an admiration for his heroes. 
But these qualities are not scientific, exclaim the critics. Perhaps not ; 
but it is quite as undeniable that Irving was also a truth-loving gentleman, 
and he had science enough to get at the facts as far as it was possible in 
his day. He had no special faculty for evil interpretation of facts, but he 
seems to have had some for a right interpretation. At any rate, this latest 
book on Washington, written by no contemptible historical scholar, leaves 
the impression of a character quite as grand and lofty as Irving gave us. 

If there is one thing which we gain by the reading of Mr. Lodge's vol- 
umes, it is the answer to the question suggested by Mr. McMaster's sneer, 
" Do we know George Washington, as distinct from General and President 
Washington?" We arise from their perusal with a very clear idea of the 
real man throughout the entire career, beginning with early youth and 
manhood, and ending with the years of retirement which preceded death. 
It is a pity Mr. McMaster could not have read these volumes earlier; but 
as many of the facts and incidents upon which Mr. Lodge's presentations 
of the " man " turn are not absent from Irving's earlier pages, it is some- 
what surprising that our brilliant historian should have stood in such help- 
less distress before the real character of Washington, unable to fathom it, 
troubled with suspicions of coldness and hardness, haunted by possibilities 
of unutterable meannesses in private, in contrast with splendid generosity 
in public. 

We shall not need, of course, in these pages to tell the story of a life 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? jj: 

so familiar as that of Washington. Our aim will be to take our cue, in 
treating of it at all, from the book under consideration, but with special 
reference to an attempt to get before our minds George Washington the 
man, as his personality reveals itself in the great dividing periods of his 
life: in early youth and manhood; as soldier and general; and, very 
briefly, as statesman and president. 

Of the earlier years of his life little is known, but much has been 
invented. The cherry-tree business we have all heard about ad nauseam. 
For all this mythology about Washington the world is indebted to Parson 
Weems. The audacity of this man's lying has immortalized himself, and 
has immortalized a Washington of Weems, hardly now to be dissevered 
in any mind from the Washington of reality. Mr. Lodge perhaps wisely 
has devoted several pages to an elaborate and " premeditated " attempt to 
kill this Weems as a biographer, but we doubt whether any one book can 
successfully extinguish the stories which this clergyman has scattered 
abroad. " To enter into any serious historical criticism of these stories," 
says Mr. Lodge, "would be to break a butterfly." A whole battery 
aimed at a butterfly would not be apt to hurt the creature greatly ; it 
would merely be pushed gently out of the way by any current of air 
pressed on in advance of the heaviest cannon ball that succeeded in cross- 
ing its flight. Mr. Lodge's artillery of criticism we are afraid is doomed 
to the same disappointment. Weems' cherry-tree story still lives. 

When Washington is sixteen years of age, and is entrusted with his 
first serious task — a man's work, even at that early age — we begin to get 
a more definite idea of who he is. This task was the result of an esti- 
mate of Washington by an English nobleman, a thorough man of the 
world, not easily imposed upon by appearances. And what had Lord 
Fairfax found in this young man ? "A high and persistent courage, 
robust and calm sense, and, above all, unusual force of will and character." 
Another glimpse of the real George we obtain before he is twenty years 
old. His brother Lawrence, from whom he inherited Mount Vernon, 
being very ill with consumption, he accompanied him on a trip to the 
West Indies, and they spent some time at Barbadoes. Already had 
George Washington formed the habit of noting down the happenings of 
the days as they pass, and these notes unmistakably reflect the writer's 
character: "All through these notes," our author remarks, "we find the 
keenly observant spirit, and the evidence of a mind constantly alert to 
learn. We see also a pleasant, happy temperament, enjoying with hearty 
zest all the pleasures that youth and life could furnish. He who wrote 
these lines was evidently a vigorous, good-humored young fellow, with a 

Vol. XXIX.— No. 3.— 15 



226 DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 

quick eye for the world opening before him, and for the delights as well 
as the instructions which it offered." Thus, on the whole, George Wash- 
ington appears quite like some one we can understand. There is nothing 
mythical about him ; he is quite a " human " being, like the rest of us, 
only a little better and stronger than the most of us. Along these lines 
he will develop as the years go by. 

We confess we like such a " human " view of Washington in youth 
better than the goody-goody myth of Weems. We prefer it even to the 
well-meant picture of a greater romancer than Weems, but who was such 
professedly and honestly. Thackeray, in "The Virginians," probably more 
from a study of the subsequent great man than from an actual knowledge 
of the facts of his younger days, gives us a fine, but a somewhat priggish 
and unnatural youth : " Mr. Washington had always been remarked for a 
discretion and sobriety much beyond his time of life. . . . Himself 
of the most scrupulous gravity and good breeding, in his communication 
with other folks he appeared to exact, or, at any rate, to occasion, the 
same behavior. His nature was above levity and jokes ; they seemed out 
of place when addressed to him. He was slow of comprehending them. 
His words were always few, but they were always wise ; they were not 
idle as our words are, they were grave, sober and strong, and ready on 
occasion to do their duty." We can imagine a man like Lord Fairfax 
taking pleasure in the society of such an oppressively proper young man ! 
It is by no means strange that George Warrington in the novel conceived 
an intense antipathy to such a model youth ; we rather suspect many of 
us would have done the same ourselves. 

But we need not distress our minds with the thought that such was the 
real George Washington. We get another glimpse of him from Irving's 
and Lodge's pages, which represents him— so sober, so proper, so simple, 
etc. — in the light of a dude; and we declare we very much like that lighter 
view, offset as it is by so much that is solid and worthy. Once when he 
was commander-in-chief of the Virginia colonial troops, or militia, he 
found his operations for the defense of the frontier interfered with by a 
captain of the regular army, who, by virtue of the king's commission, re- 
fused to obey a field officer who bore but a governor's commission. He 
commanded all of thirty men, but Washington should not command him. 
So Washington determined to take a trip north and interview General 
Shirley at Boston, in order to settle the relations between regular and 
colonial officers. His fame on account of his conduct at Braddock's 
defeat had gone before him, and he resolved to make his personal appear- 
ance worthy of that fame. His observant eye had noticed the gay dress 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 227 

of the young officers from England, and he took pains to be as gayly 
bedight as any of them. He sent to London for '.' horse furniture with 
livery lace," a fashionable " gold laced hat," two " complete livery suits 
for servants," and two " silver laced hats for servants," and other fine 
belongings for his own accoutrement. He was received with much enthu- 
siasm at Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. At New York he nearly 
met his fate in the person of the beautiful and rich Mary Philipse, de- 
scendant of patroons Frederick and Adolphus Philipse, Dutch colonial 
magnates for a hundred years past. Upon this whole incident Mr. Lodge 
comments as follows: " How much this little interlude, pushed into a 
corner as it has been by the dignity of history, how much it tells of the 
real man ! How the statuesque myth and the priggish myth and the dull 
and solemn myth melt away before it ! Wise and strong, a bearer of 
heavy responsibility beyond his years, daring in fight and sober in judg- 
ment, we have here the other and the more human side of Washington. 
One loves to picture that gallant, generous, youthful figure, brilliant in 
color and manly in form, riding gayly on from one little colonial town 
to another, feasting, dancing, courting, and making merry. For him the 
myrtle and ivy were entwined with the laurel, and fame was sweetened by 
youth. He was righteously ready to draw from life all the good things 
which fate and fortune, then smiling upon him, could offer, and he took 
his pleasure frankly, with an honest heart." 

So much for the George Washington of earlier days. Now, then, do we 
know him as George Washington during his career as general ? Mr. Mc- 
Master says he was cold of heart ; yet he complains of his occasional oath. 
As we have already intimated, such outbursts betray the presence of fire 
somewhere, however well kept under. As Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll (a 
good authority, doubtless) remarked the other day : " There are times 
when swearing may be regarded as a virtue, when it is the blossom of 
indignation. There are times when volcanic words burst from the crater of 
the heart.'" George Washington was a man of violent passions, held in 
magnificent control, liable to break out at critical moments, while the 
habitual restraint of them necessarily gave him the appearance of " collect- 
edness," perhaps coldness. Says Mr. Lodge : " Let us look a little closer 
through the keen eyes of one who has studied many faces to good purpose. 
The great painter of portraits, Gilbert Stuart, tells us of Washington that 
he never saw in any man such large eye-sockets, or such a breadth of nose 
and forehead between the eyes, and that he read there the evidences of 
the strongest passions possible to human nature. John Bernard the actor, 
a good observer, too, saw in Washington's face, in 1797, the signs of an 



228 DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON ? 

habitual conflict and mastery of passions, witnessed by the compressed 
mouth and deeply indented brow." 

This characteristic temper of the man made of him first of all a splen- 
did soldier, a fierce fighter with an ineffable contempt of danger. It was 
the passionate George Washington who was prepared to fight rather than 
surrender at Fort Necessity, although the odds were fearfully against him ; 
and the very boldness of his front made the surrender possible on hon- 
orable terms. It was the same George Washington who retrieved, at least 
for himself, a glorious fame out of an infamous defeat in Braddock's cam- 
paign. It was the passionate George Washington who rode up alone into 
the face of the British troops landing at Kip's bay, New York city, when 
two or three patriot battalions played the poltroon. It was the same old 
spirit, dating from Braddock's day and earlier, which bade George Washing- 
ton as man and soldier ride in between the fire of his own troops and that 
of the enemy at Princeton, until his aid-de-camp could bear his anxiety no 
longer, and hid his face in his hat to prevent seeing him fall. And it was 
just this same fierce fighter who burst out in flaming wrath and angry 
words against the fool Charles Lee at Monmouth, because he shrunk 
from giving a hard blow at the enemy at the critical moment, when a hard 
blow must be successful. This was no time for mincing words ; but that 
it was a time for action, and that a failure to act then was almost treason, 
able cowardice, is shown by the fact that the day was recovered, even at 
that unfavorable crisis, by a few prompt soldierly dispositions under the 
very fire of the enemy. So, last of all, it was still George Washington the 
soldier, the man of passionate fighting impulses, who broke out into words 
of anger, that frightened poor private secretary Lear, when General St. 
Clair, deliberately disregarding the President's latest caution, had allowed 
himself to be surprised by Indians, so that hundreds of brave men were 
uselessly slaughtered. It is evident, indeed, that Mr. McMaster does not 
know George Washington, when he makes this latest of Washington's out 
bursts of passion the text of his homily on the wickedness of swearing ; 
or, what is worse, the occasion for sly hints as to the possibilities of base^ 
ness hidden under publicly known excellences as general and president. 

For right here, too, we learn to know the man George Washington fur, 
ther, as most tender-hearted. There is no real brave man, however fierce 
a fighter when it is time for his blood to be up, who is not also most kindly 
in his feelings. For let us read all he said when the news of St. Clair's 
defeat reached him: " To suffer that army to be cut in pieces, hacked, 
butchered, tomahawked, by a surprise, the very thing I guarded him 
against! O God! O God! he's worse than a murderer! How can he 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 229 

answer it to his country? The blood of the slain is upon him, the curse 
of widows and orphans, the curse of heaven ! " Now we do not dare 
assert that in what Mr. Lodge has to say in comment on this he means 
to aim a severe blow at Mr. McMaster. He speaks in complimentary 
terms of him in the introduction. Yet no words could have hit that his. 
torian more squarely between the eyes than these : " The description of 
this scene by an eye-witness has been in print for many years' and yet we 
find people who say that Washington was cold of heart and lacking in 
human sympathy. What could be more intensely human than this? 
What a warm heart is here, and what a lightning glimpse of a passionate 
nature bursting through silence into burning speech ! " 

But this is all of a piece with the man George Washington long before 
he was either general or president. While still a young man, commanding 
on the Virginia frontier, he was harassed by the apathy of the legislators, 
who contemplated the desolations of Indian warfare with perfect equa- 
nimity at a safe distance. Then he wrote : u The supplicating tears of the 
women and moving petitions of the men melt me into such deadly sorrow 
that I solemnly declare, if I know my own mind, I could offer myself a 
willing sacrifice to the butchering enemy, provided that would contribute 
to the people's ease." And Mr. Lodge eloquently remarks : " This is one 
of the rare flashes of personal feeling which disclose the real man, warm 
of heart and temper, full of human sympathy, and giving vent to hot 
indignation in words which still ring clear and strong across the century 
that has come and gone." It would seem that Mr. McMaster's study of 
contemporary newspapers, including those of the notorious Freneau and 
Bache, has been so exhaustive that there was no time left for him to 
consult Washington's own letters. These might have dissipated some of 
those chilly suspicions awakened by hostile and unscrupulous assailants, 
paid to make assaults upon a character too overwhelmingly great and 
towering to be quite endurable to such infinitesimal creatures of the dust. 

To know the man George Washington as distinct from the general 
and president, we need perhaps also to get a view of him as a thinker. 
There have been as wrong impressions as to what he was capable of revolv- 
ing in his mind as there were regarding his heart and temperament. To 
know George Washington we must know something of his mind. As to 
mental equipment he is supposed to occupy a very mediocre place. And 
it is true that he was not very learned. The classic and the modern lan- 
guages were unknown to him. Yet he had been a good reader, was 
well acquainted with history, and understood the force of its examples. 

1 Italics are ours. 



23O DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 

But above all learning he had an excellent head ; and, as Matthew Arnold 
truly says: " The valuable thing in letters, that is, in the acquainting one- 
self with the best which has been thought and said in the world, is the 
judgment which forms itself insensibly in a fair mind along with fresh 
knowledge." And this result of letters or reading, which depends entirely 
upon the excellency of the mind that addresses itself to them, and not 
upon the amount of learning acquired, was eminently present in the man 
George Washington. "If you speak of solid information or sound judg- 
ment," said Patrick Henry at one time, " Colonel Washington is unques- 
tionably the greatest man in the congress." 

This power of mind shone forth both in his generalship and statesman- 
ship. He could see occasions of great and critical importance, when ail 
must be risked if all was not to be lost, and could seize the moment when 
such occasions became ripe. He could retreat, be a true Fabius, refuse to 
fight when all the soldier within him burned to fight, and play a skillful 
game of fence with an antagonist superior in numbers. Thus he withdrew 
through New Jersey before Cornwallis. But then at the right instant he 
struck the blows at Trenton and at Princeton. " Moreover," as Mr. 
Lodge observes, " these battles show not only generalship of the first 
order, but great statesmanship. . . . By Trenton and Princeton 
Washington inflicted deadly blows upon the enemy, but he did far more 
by reviving the patriotic spirit of the country, fainting under the bitter 
experience of defeat, and by sending fresh life and hope and courage 
throughout the whole people." And he adds: " To the strong brain grow- 
ing ever keener and quicker as the pressure became more intense, to the 
iron will gathering force as defeat thickened, to the high, unbending charac- 
ter, and to the passionate and fighting temper of Washington, we owe the 
brilliant campaign which in the darkest hour turned the tide and saved the 
cause of the Revolution." 

George Washington's generalship again shone brightly in the campaign 
which included the two battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. Both 
were defeats ; but the force of the enemy was overwhelming and their 
appointments perfect, while Washington's army was small and wretchedly 
equipped. It was the wonder of European military men such as Fred- 
erick the Great, that such an army as Washington's after the defeat at 
Brandywine should have been ready to take the offensive at Germantown, 
and so nearly snatch victory. While, besides all this, the Fabian policy was 
deliberately laid aside with a far-seeing purpose: it was necessary to keep 
1 1 owe from going to the aid of Burgoyne. It was incredible to Washington 
that he should have gone off on the expedition to Philadelphia at that 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 231 

juncture. But being there, he saw the necessity of keeping him busy, and 
he did it, and thus indirectly Burgoyne's surrender was made possible by 
the operations of the commander-in-chief. And as for skill and prompt- 
ness in combination, the power of bold and rapid striking, as well as that 
of seeing the vital point where to strike and crush, the whole campaign 
issuing in the surrender of Yorktown affords a clear example. " It was a 
bold stroke to leave Clinton behind at the mouth of the Hudson," says 
Mr. Lodge, commenting on this campaign, " and only the quickness with 
which it was done, and the careful deception which had been practiced, 
made it possible. Once at Yorktown, there was little more to do. The 
combination was so perfect, and the judgment had been so sure, that Corn- 
wallis was crushed as helplessly as if he had been thrown before the car of 
Juggernaut. There was really but little fighting, for there was no oppor- 
tunity to fight. Washington held the British in a vice, and the utter help- 
lessness of Cornwallis, the entire inability of such a good and gallant 
soldier even to struggle, are the most convincing proofs of the military 
genius of his antagonist." 

Even before the career of the general was quite finished, George Wash- 
ington begins to loom upon the vision as an enlightened, far-seeing, prac- 
tical, patriotic statesman. He rose above his surroundings, the true sign 
of a great mind, whether it have learning or not. While men all around 
him — men even like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry — were bursting 
with sectional jealousies, and paralyzing the confederation by the narrow- 
minded assertion and the more mischievous application of the principle of 
states' rights, Washington's clear eye was already fixed upon a national 
existence. Cherishing himself a truly national spirit, he saw far ahead the 
need of a strong national government. Taking farewell of the several 
governors as commander-in-chief of the army he wrote : " If a spirit of dis- 
union, or obstinacy and perverseness, should in any of the states attempt 
to frustrate all the happy effects that might be expected to flow from the 
union, that state which puts itself in opposition to the aggregate wisdom 
of the continent will alone be responsible for all the consequences. . . . 
It is indispensable to the happiness of the individual states that there 
should be lodged somewhere a supreme power to regulate and govern the 
general concerns of the confederated republic, without which the union 
cannot be of long duration, and everything must very rapidly tend to 
anarchy and confusion." This voice of warning was unheeded, the anarchy 
and confusion came, and then at last the people learned to see the wisdom 
of George Washington. Then came the Constitution, and after it the 
government. And constantly the mind of Washington penetrated to the 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 

necessities of each situation as it arose, and by the clearness of his vision 
was enabled to start the United States upon a career of national being and 
prosperity which still very closely follows the lines laid down by him, or 
with his intelligent approval. 

Mr. Lodge apologizes at the close of his volumes for their generally 
eulogistic tone — " a tone of almost unbroken praise." " If this be so," he 
says, " it is because I could come to no other conclusions, . . . and 
although my deductions may be wrong, they at least have been carefully 
and slowly made." These deductions cannot be so very wrong, when we 
contemplate, in conclusion, the words in which Mr. Lecky, the English 
historian, speaks of Washington in his latest book: " In civil as in military 
life, he was pre-eminent among his contemporaries for the clearness and 
soundness of his judgment, for his perfect moderation and self-control, for 
the quiet dignity and the indomitable firmness with which he pursued 
every path which he had deliberately chosen. Of all the great men in 
history he w r as the most invariably judicious, and there is scarcely a rash 
word or action or judgment recorded of him. ... In the dark hour 
of national ingratitude, and in the midst of the most universal and intoxi- 
cating flattery, he was always the same calm, wise, just, and single-minded 
man, pursuing the course which he believed to be right, without fear or 
favor or fanaticism ; equally free from the passions that spring from 
interest, and from the passions that spring from imagination. . . . He 
was in the highest sense of the words a gentleman and a man of honor, 
and he carried into public life the severest standard of private morals." 

Other men have been made great by position or success. George 
Washington was great before he reached these, in the simple majesty of 
his splendid, symmetrical manhood. He was General Washington, and 
he was President Washington ; but he was George Washington before 
either. And it is as George Washington that the world knows him, and, 
knowing him, admires and loves. 



As illustrating the keen appreciation by Washington of the patriotism 
of men in every section of the country, and how he could pour forth 
unstinted praise of it wherever found, we present the letter of which a 
facsimile in part appears on the following page. The occasion of its writ- 
ing was the receipt of a letter from a number of New York gentlemen, 
dated November 26, 1783 — or the day after the evacuation — expressing 
their gratification at being once more restored to their city, and attribut- 
ing that restoration, under Providence, to his " Wisdom and Energy," and 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON? 233 












Z**-*^ '*-t*£^^. Gc ^ at ^^. ^ *€L<^ ^-A^^^ry*^* &-*^y'<ry 



c *~e/i- c<^ 



3£z, 



Ct^./ /vH-e- 



AL 









/^^■y^A^^^^^^^ fi^yor^^ c^~^C^y J^^t^ f^^f<e^*. 




234 



DO WE KNOW GEORGE WASHINGTON ? 



assuring him: "that we shall preserve with our latest breath our gratitude 
for your services, and veneration for your character." The full text of 
Washington's reply (of which one paragraph is omitted from the facsimile) 

is as follows : 

Gentlemen, I thank you sincerely for your affectionate Address, and intreat You to 
be persuaded that nothing could be more agreeable to me than your polite Congratula- 
tions : Permit me, in Turn, to felicitate you on the happy Repossession of your City. 
Great as your joy must be on this pleasing occasion, it can scarcely exceed that which I 
feel, at seeing you, Gentlemen, who from the noblest Motives have suffered a voluntary 
Exile of many years, return again in Peace & Triumph to enjoy the fruits of your Virtu- 
ous Conduct. 

The Fortitude and Perseverance which you and your suffering Brethren have exhib- 
ited in the Course of the War, have not only endeared You to your Countrymen, but will 
be remembered with Admiration and Applause to the latest Posterity. 

May the Tranquility of your City be perpetual. May the Ruins soon be repaired, 
.Commerce flourish, Science be fostered," and all the civil and social Virtues be cherished, 
in the same illustrious Manner, which formerly reflected so much Credit on the Inhab- 
itants of New York. In fine, may every species of Felicity attend You Gentlemen, & 
your worthy fellow Citizens. 

G° Washington 





THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 



By William H. Mayes 

The history of the various states of the Union is so blended with that 
of the nation that characteristic individuality is largely lost, but Texas has 
a history peculiarly and distinctly its own. The weird story of the brief 
struggle of the early pioneers of Texas for independence from Mexican 
oppression seems more like a chivalric romance of the early times than a 
true record of stern realities of the present century. The Texas campaign 
of 1836 furnishes one of the most interesting and remarkable chapters in 

American history, yet, strange to say, 
the great masses of the people know 
but little of its tragic defeats and 
resplendent achievements. 

The permanent settlement and 
colonization of the territory of Texas 
by Anglo-Americans dates from July 
16, 1 82 1, the day on which Stephen 
F. Austin first entered the wilderness 
with thirteen hardy pioneers and 
selected the rich valleys of the Brazos 
and Colorado rivers for the occupancy 
of his colony, after having made, as he 
thought, all the necessary preliminary 
arrangements with the territorial gov- 
ernor at San Antonio. Arriving with 
his colony the latter part of the year, 
he learned that it would be necessary for him to visit the City of Mexico to 
secure the sanction of the newly inaugurated republican government. Leav- 
ing the colony in charge of Josiah H. Bell, Austin proceeded to the City of 
Mexico, but the unsettled state of Mexican affairs made it necessary for him 
to remain a whole year to secure the passage of satisfactory colonization 
laws. So favorable were these that numerous colonial grants were applied 
for; settlements were rapidly opened, and the pioneers enjoyed a brief era 
of prosperity, only interrupted by occasional depredations of roving bands 
of Indians. The government of Mexico was at first very friendly to the 
Austin colony. For six years it was exempted from taxation, duties, and 
customs, while many other liberal concessions were made in the grants. 




GENERAL SANTA ANNA. 



236 Till: STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 

The first revolt against Mexico followed a decree of April 6, 1830, issued 
by President Bustamente. It prohibited any further emigration from the 
United States to Texas, directed that Mexican convicts should be trans- 
ported to Texas (thus converting the province into a penal colony), and 
ordered the opening of custom-houses and the collection of onerous taxes 
and duties. The military sent to enforce these orders was successfully 
repulsed and driven from the territory. Santa Anna had engaged about 
this time in a civil war with Bustamente for the restoration of the Mexican 
republican constitution of 1824, and there was great rejoicing in the colony 
when he assumed the presidency in March, 1833. 

The republican government of Mexico consisted of several quasi-inde- 
pendent states, and the province had been attached as a territory to 
Coahuila " until Texas possessed the necessary elements to prove a sepa- 
rate state of herself." The legislature of Texas was composed of ten 
deputies from Coahuila and two from Texas, and all legislation became 
decidedly unfavorable to the colonists. The latter prepared a memorial, 
setting forth the reasons why Texas should be separated from Coahuila, 
and have a state government of her own. Austin was delegated to convey 
the proposed constitution to the City of Mexico ancl to urge upon the 
government the admission of Texas into the Mexican confederacy. When 
he arrived in the city, Santa Anna was in the midst of his plans for chang-. 
ing the form of government from a republic to centralized despotism, and 
already several states had been reduced to submission. 

He was alarmed at the rapid progress Texas had made in so short a 
time, and to more effectually place the territory at a disadvantage, Austin 
was arrested and incarcerated in a foul dungeon, without books or writing 
material, " where for many months he never saw a ray of sunshine nor the 
hand that gave him food." The Mexican dictator was alarmed by the 
superior industry, thrift, enterprise, and invention of the colonists, and 
regretted that they had been invited to Texas, preferring that, if occupied at 
all, it should be occupied by savages, who would effectually cut off all com- 
munication and intercourse with a people who seemed to love hardships, 
and who possessed such restless energy that they prospered under the 
severest reverses. While he was confident of his ability to subjugate the 
Mexican states he began to fear that the progress and civilization of these 
people would make a reign of despotism difficult, and that it might event- 
ual!}' blot out of existence his own barbarous government. 

Austin's petition was refused, and an army of four thousand men 
ordered to Texas on a pretense of protecting the coast and frontier, but in 
reality to carry forward a war of extermination. The uncalled-for incarcer- 



THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 



237 



ation of Austin, and the sending of military forces, as the only response to 
the request for separate state government, served to kindle the flame that 
had long been smoldering ; and when Santa Anna issued an order com- 
manding the people to surrender their private arms, thereby exposing their 
wives and children to the mercy of unfeeling savages, as well as to the 
horrors of starvation (many being dependent on wild game for their daily 
food), the final stroke of despotic tyranny had been delivered. The will of 
the oppressed subjects refused longer to bow to that of so merciless a 
ruler, and Texans unitedly resolved on freedom from Mexican misrule. 
The same spirit of independence that had been instilled in the breasts of 
the early settlers of the United States had found a warm place in the 
bosoms of these descendants of a hardy race of pioneers. 

It was a desperate measure, but the colonists saw in it their only hope 
of saving themselves and families from further oppression, and their 
country from the despotic sway of tyrannical monarchism ; therefore, with 
a total citizenship of scarcely two thousand able-bodied men, Texas, in con- 
vention, on March 2, 1833, formally declared her independence of Mexico 
— a country with a magnificent array of trained warriors. Santa Anna, 

now having subdued in 
turn each state of the 
republic, had already in- 
vaded the province in per- 
son with a well-equipped 
army of eight thousand 
men, to reduce to subjec- 
tion and chastise these 
self-willed subjects, and 
thereby perfect his right 
to the self-styled appella- 
tion, the " Napoleon of 
the West." 

The Texas army hav- 
ing captured San Antonio, the Mexican seat of government, in December, 
and having driven the Mexican forces from the city and taken possession 
of the fort of the Alamo, Santa Anna first directed his attention to retak- 
ing San Antonio, and atoning for the disgraceful defeat of the Mexican army. 
He came upon the town February 23, and the garrison, under com- 
mand of Colonel W. B. Travis, at once withdrew to the Alamo, a structure 
fortified soon after the Spaniards settled that part of Texas, and used as a 
place of safety for the settlers and their property in case of Indian hos- 




THE ALAMO. 



238 THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 

tility. It had neither the strength, arrangement, nor compactness of a 
regular fortification. The chapel was seventy-five feet long, sixty-two 
wide, twenty-two and a half high, surrounded by walls of solid masonry 
tour teet thick. It was one story in height, with upper windows, under- 
neath which were platforms for mounting cannon. There was a barrack, 
one hundred and eighty-six feet long, connected with the church, and 
another one hundred and fourteen feet in length. These were eighteen 
teet high, and, like the chapel, built of solid masonry. The fortifications 
were manned by fourteen guns, but they were so situated at the windows 
that the\- were of little use for a close engagement. 

On Sunday, March 6, a little after midnight, the Mexican army, four thou- 
sand strong, marched to their assigned places for the final attack. At four 
o'clock the bugle sounded. The Mexican forces rushed upon the fort and 
were met by a shower of grape and rifle-balls. Twice the assailants fell back 
in dismay. Santa Anna put himself in front of his men, and with shouts and 
oaths led them to the third charge. Above the clash of arms and the roar of 
battle could be heard the assassin notes of DeQuello, " No quarter ! " When 
they reached the foot of the wall ladders were placed in position, and the 
Mexican officers forced their men to ascend them. Man after man, column 
after column, made the attempt to scale the walls, only to fall to the 
ground, stabbed or shot down by the Texans. But the feeble garrison, 
worn out by sheer exhaustion, could not long withstand the assault of 
such overwhelming numbers ; a breach was made, the defense of the outer 
wall was abandoned, and the garrison took refuge in the chapel, where 
further retreat was impossible, and where each group of brave men fought 
and died on the spot where it was brought to bay. 

Travis, Crockett, Bowie (names that will be ever honored in history), 
together with the entire band of one hundred and eighty-three, were cruelly 
slaughtered after the most bitter resistance. Mrs. Dickinson, her infant 
child, and a negro servant were the only ones spared, every combatant 
being put to the sword. " Thermopylae had its messenger of defeat, but the 
Alamo had none." The bodies of the Texans were collected in a huge 
pile and burned, and as the Sabbath sun sank in the west, the smoke from 
that funeral pyre of heroes ascended to heaven. 

General Urrea had advanced along the Texas coast simultaneously 
with Santa Anna's march on San Antonio. He proceeded by way of San 
Patricio to Goliad, where Colonel J. W. Fannin was in command of about 
four hundred men, mostly of the Georgia battalion. Fannin was taken by 
surprise at the approach of Urrea's army, and realizing the folly of resist- 
ing so large a force, made a retreat, but was intercepted at Colita creek. 



THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 



239 




SIEGE Of THE ALAMO, MARCH 6, 1836. 



Two assaults were successfully repulsed by the little army, but the despe- 
rate condition of the forces compelled them to surrender, which they did, 
on condition that they should be treated as prisoners of war in civilized 
countries and be sent at once to the United States. The prisoners were 
taken back to Goliad, where, on the morning of March 27, without previous 

warning and under pre- 
text of starting them 
home, they were marched 
out in four companies, 
strongly guarded, and 
when a short distance 
from the walls were halted 
and shot. Those who 
were not instantly killed 
were dispatched with 
sabres, except a few who 
made their escape. His- 
tory furnishes no record 
of a more cruel massa- 
cre. Santa Anna offered no excuse, for there was none. 

When Santa Anna learned that the capture of the Alamo had been fol- 
lowed by the massacre of Fannin's entire force, he thought the conquest of 
Texas effected, and was preparing to return to his capital and leave his two 
trusted generals to complete the reorganization of the government of the 
conquered province. But hearing that Houston, with a considerable army, 
was encamped on the Colorado river, he concluded to remain and complete 
his conquest and return to Mexico in martial style, the hero of the conti- 
nent, the " Napoleon of the West." 

The slaughter at the Alamo and the massacre at Goliad stirred to the 
very depths the blood of every Texas citizen. They saw that Santa Anna's 
policy was one of extermination, and that he did not hesitate to undertake 
any form of cold-blooded barbarity. The army was now reduced to less 
than eight hundred able-bodied men, but they determined to risk their 
lives for Texas independence, sharing, if need be, the fate of their brave 
comrades under Travis and Fannin. The women and children of Texas 
were dependent on this little force of soldiers for their lives, and this was 
inspiration enough to make the Texans feel that they could meet and con- 
quer on the battlefield any host of Mexicans that could be arrayed against 
them. The remaining army was hastily gathered together, and the women 
and children placed under the protection of the soldiers. A hasty march was 



240 



THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 



made to the junction of Buffalo Bayou with the San Jacinto river, where a 
suitable position was selected to intercept Santa Anna's army, then advanc- 
ing upon San Jacinto. Vince's Bridge furnished the only means of escape 
from the country for a vanquished army. This, at best, was a very inse- 
cure exit for retreating- troops, but the Texans thought only of victory in 
front of them, protection for their families, and revenge for the loss of their 
countrymen. The little army was drawn up on the banks of the river in a 
beautiful live-oak grove, and eloquently addressed by General Sam Hous- 
ton, the sturdy and beloved commander, who at the close of an impassioned 
appeal gave them, as the battle-cry, " Remember the Alamo ! " The words 
were at once taken up by every man in 
the arm}-, and one unanimous shout 
pierced the very vault of heaven, 
"Remember the Alamo! Remember 
the Alamo ! " while the green island 
of prairie trees echoed and repeated 
the cry, " Remember the Alamo ! " j 
They did not have long to wait. 
Their eloquent leader had scarcely con- ! 
eluded his address when the scouts 5 
came flying into camp and announced 
that Santa Anna's army was approach- \ 
ing. This was at ten o'clock on April 
20. The remainder of that day was 
spent in skirmishing, and it was not 
until three o'clock the next afternoon 
that decisive action was taken. The 
conscious disparity in numbers served 
only to increase the enthusiasm and confidence of the Texas forces and 
heighten their anxiety for the conflict. 

The moment had come for victory or defeat, for independence or death. 
The war-cry was sounded, and the shout of an united army rent the air 
with the inspiring words, " The Alamo ! The Alamo ! " General Houston, 
riding in front, called out, " Come on, my fearless braves, your general 
leads you ! At this moment Deaf Smith dashed along the lines, swinging 
an axe over his head and shouting, "I have cut down Vince's Bridge ! 
Now fight for your lives and remember the Alamo ! " The Texas army 
advanced to within sixty paces of the Mexican lines, when a storm of bul- 
lets went flying over their heads. The volley was not answered until a 
shower of lead was poured into the bosoms of the Mexicans. The Texans 




GENERAL SAM HOUSTON. 



THE STRUGGLE OF TEXAS FOR INDEPENDENCE 241 

charged with the fury of madmen, and were soon engaged in a hand-to- 
hand conflict, using their guns as clubs, and with bowie knives literally 
carving their way through the lines of living flesh. 

The Mexicans were overcome by the very fierceness of their foes, and 
in fifteen minutes the battle was ended and independence was won. Only 
eight Texans had lost their lives and but thirty had been wounded. Nearly 
seven hundred Mexicans had perished on the battlefield, three hundred 
had been wounded, and eight hundred captured, by an army scarcely ex- 
ceeding seven hundred. Santa Anna was captured and was held a prisoner 
of war for several months. 

Scarcely in the world's history is there a record of such disastrous defeats, 
followed so closely by so renowned a victory ; seldom has a successful war 
for independence terminated so soon after its inception, and never else- 
where has so grand a victory been achieved under such unfavorable cir- 
cumstances. On the one side was arrayed a paid military, well clothed, 
armed with all the military equipments of the age, trained to warfare, and 
encouraged by the personal command of their ruler ; while on the other 
were a few desperate pioneers, poorly clad, half starved, without suitable 
arms, disheartened at the loss of their countrymen at the Alamo and at 
Goliad, but fighting with all the determination that could be inspired by 
unjust oppression, the slaughter of relatives and friends, the perilous situ- 
ation of the country, and the threatened destruction of their homes and 
their helpless wives and children. 

Heaven could not but smile on so noble a warfare, and enter the decree, 
" Justice has won and the victory is yours." 



TEXAS 

Up the hillside, down the glen, 
Rouse the sleeping citizen ; 
Summon out the might of men ! 

Like a lion growling low, — 
Like a night-storm rising slow, — 
Like the tread of unseen foe, — 

It is coming, — it is nigh ! 

Stand your homes and altars by ; 

On your own free thresholds die. 

Whoso shrinks and falters now, 
Whoso to the yoke would bow, 
Brand the craven on his brow ! 



— Whittier 



Vol. XXIX.-No. 3.— 16 



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THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 

By John Austin Stevens 

The capture of Montreal by General Amherst on September 8, 1760, 
completed the conquest of New France in America. The capitulation of 
Vaudreuil included all Canada, which was said " to extend to the crest of 
land dividing branches of Erie and Michigan from those of the Miami, the 
Wabash, and the Illinois rivers." 

William Pitt, the master spirit of the war, was not satisfied with this 
partial subjection, and looked to English domination in the West Indies, 
as well as on the mainland. The sugar islands, as they were called, were 
a prolific source of trade and wealth. Angered by information of a special 
convention between France and Spain, which, concluded in secret on 
August 15, 1 76 1, threatened war in the coming spring, the great minister 
resolved to seize the remainder of the French West India islands, especially 
Martinique, and to capture Havana. These conquests were to be followed 
by that of Panama, and of the Philippine islands. The Spanish monopoly 
in the New World was to be forever destroyed. The cabinet refusing to 
support his war measures, — which were, to withdraw the British ambas- 
sador from Madrid, and, by intercepting the Spanish treasure-galleons, to 
cripple the resources of Spain, — Pitt resigned the seals, October 6, 1761. 
But the diplomacy of Choiseul, inducing Spain to join with France in a 
demand upon Portugal to break off alliance with Great Britain, compelled 
a declaration of war by England, which was formally proclaimed on 
January 4, 1762. The desires of Pitt were shortly fulfilled by the capture 
of Martinique from the French on February 14, 1762, by an armament 
from New York under General Robert Monckton, governor of that 
province, supported by Admiral Rodney with a British fleet ; and on July 
30 following, (1762), of the city of Havana from Spain by an army sent 
from England under command of the Earl of Albemarle (under whom 
Carleton and Howe served), aided by Admiral Pococke with a powerful 
fleet. The first of these conquests was of Pitt's planning. Its reduction 
was followed by that of its dependent islands, comprising Grenada and the 
Grenadines, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Tobago — which included the pos- 
session of all the Caribbee isles. To recover something of their prestige, 
and at least to maintain a claim on the fishing banks, the French attacked 
and reduced St. John's, the capital of Newfoundland ; but were soon dis- 



244 THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 

lodged by an expedition under command of Lord Admiral Colville and 
Colonel Amherst, ordered thither by Sir Jeffrey Amherst. 

With these acquisitions England dictated the terms of peace, and 
remodeled the political state of America at her will. Spain gave up the 
Floridas, which completed the English possession of the Atlantic coast 
from Cape Breton to the Gulf of Mexico, and in compensation France 
ceded New Orleans to Spain, with Louisiana west of the Mississippi. As 
to the West India captures, England restored Martinique, Guadeloupe, 
and Marie Galante to France, and Cuba with Havana to Spain. Spain 
abandoned and France retained rights on the northern fisheries. Pre- 
liminaries for peace on these bases, between France and Spain on the 
one side, and England and Portugal on the other, were signed at Fon- 
tainebleau on November 3, 1762; and the definitive treaty, known as the 
Treaty of Paris, received signature at that city on February 10, 1763. 
Had Pitt remained in power, not a vestige of European power, other than 
the British, would have remained on the North American continent. 

In every one of these conquests, even in that of Havana, the colonies 
had taken an active, in some a decisive, part. They had been the main- 
stay of Pitt's policy, and had voted men and money without stint at his 
call, in full faith in his purpose and his power. His fall from power was 
the shadow which fell upon their triumph at the peace. The fact is a 
familiar one, that the war had enormously increased the national debt of 
Great Britain, and the matter next in order was how to raise the money 
to pay it, or at least its interest. Upon this pressing question and the 
manner of answering it hinged the issue of events during the next score 
of years. 

Lord Halifax, and the other gentlemen of the Board of Trade and 
Plantations, to whom was intrusted the direction of affairs in the colonies, 
had matured, even while the war was in progress, a scheme for governing 
America and of raising a revenue in the colonies. Their plans were inter- 
rupted by the death, in October, 1760, of George the Second. The en- 
forced retirement of Pitt followed the next October, 1761. The plan of 
the Board of Trade was to lower and collect the duties prescribed by 
the Sugar Act of 1733. By this act there was laid a tariff on the products 
of the islands — rum, sugar, and molasses — imported into any of the English 
colonies, and a drawback on all sugars refined in and exported from 
Great Britain, over and above all previous drawbacks and bounties; a 
provision which, apparently for the benefit of the English, and probably 
instigated by the Scotch refiners, struck a blow at this now thriving busi- 
ness in the New York colony. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COM MERCK 245 

The encroachments of the home government on the chartered rights 
and the unchartered liberties of the colonies, reached every branch of 
government. It is difficult, therefore, to measure the discontent with 
each, but an effort will be made to confine this study to the Acts of 
Trade. Massachusetts opposed the writs of assistance to officers of the 
customs ; New York, the assumption of the crown to appoint the judi- 
ciary ; Virginia, the attempt to enforce upon her a continuance of the 
traffic in slaves, which England had monopolized by one of the conditions 
of the Treaty of Paris. All alike, having seaports, resisted the enforcement 
of the Acts of Trade by the court of admiralty, which, by its nature, was 
independent of the provinces and answerable only to the king. 

The restrictions of the Acts of Trade applied not only to the colonies, 
but also to Ireland, and in that application injured the colonies. No 
ship from its harbors could cross the Atlantic, nor could it send any of 
its products or manufactures except these were in English bottoms. 
The navigation acts of Charles II. were strictly prohibitive of export: 
of woolens, by that of William III., and later by statute of George II., 
1732. Export of linen was permitted by Anne, 1704, and again by George 
II., 171 5. Importation could only be made of colonial produce through 
or from England. The Sugar Act of George II., 1733, just quoted, by its 
first section forbade this importation except from Great Britain only. 

The existing duty on the trade of the colonies with the French and 
Spanish islands was prohibitory from its excess, but was regularly evaded 
by connivance between the merchants and the British officials, from gov- 
ernors to customs officers. In March, 1763, Charles Townshend, First 
Lord of Trade, and charged with the administration of the colonies, form- 
ulated the long-meditated plan of reducing this duty and enforcing its 
collection. Parliament was anxious for it, as it was known that the 
collection of less than two thousand pounds revenue in America cost the 
British customs establishment between seven and eight thousand pounds 
a year. In the same month George Grenville, then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, supplemented this bill with one giving authority to employ 
the ships and officers of the navy as custom-house officers, guards, and 
informers. It is not probable that the Americans would have revolted 
against these or any other customs regulations. They would have evaded 
them. They did evade them, and quarreled with the modes of their 
enforcement, but. they did not deny the right to Parliament to levy its 
customs and to collect them. But the revenue from the custosm, with the 
restricted trade and the lowered duties, was insufficient for the support of 
the British military establishment. 



246 THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 

In this dilemma the Lords of the Treasury, in September, 1763, ordered 
the draft of a bill to extend the stamp duties to the colonies. In the 
interim between this first design of the Stamp Act and the royal assent by 
commission, George the Third being then retired in a fit of insanity 
'March 22, 1765), stringent measures were taken to enforce the acts of nav- 
igation. The American illicit trade with the sugar islands and the Spanish 
main, which, in the mild language of Bancroft, " custom had established 
in the American ports [as] a compromise between the American claim to 
as free a trade as the English, and the British acts of restriction," was 
very large : it being estimated that of one million and a half pounds of 
tea consumed each year in the colonies, not more than one-tenth part 
came from England. 

Passing over the familiar subjects of the non-importation agreements, 
the action of the inhabitants of Boston, New York, Charleston, and other 
cities, in regard to the tea ships, and the initial events of the Revolution- 
ary war — a matter of great interest and of special bearing on the present 
study is that of privateering during the war, both on the part of the 
English and the Americans. 

The British naval service had become so irksome and distasteful to the 
sailors that Admiral Arbuthnot had to resort to extreme measures to keep 
his vessels manned. As a final resort he laid an embargo on all shipping. 
In September, 1779, on assuming command, he had declared by proclama- 
tion : " That in future for every seaman or seafaring man that may desert 
from the king's ships or transports, I will press man for man out of the 
privateers and merchant vessels." This continued as a standing notice, 
and was published in all the newspapers at New York. 1 The merchants, 
distressed by the embargo and anxious to be relieved from the daily 
expense accumulating on ships and goods, applied to Sir Henry Clinton, 
the commander-in-chief. Colonel William Tryon, who had been colonial 
governor, and continued to serve in the British army after the outbreak of 
the Revolution, also plainly set forth to Admiral Arbuthnot that his proc- 
lamation, however well intended or proper for the prevention of desertion 

1 There were three newspapers in New York in 1772 : The New York Gazette and Weekly 
Mercury, printed by Hugh Gaine, printer and bookseller and stationer, in the Bible and Crown, 
in Hanover Square (established August 3, 1752, discontinued October 13, 1783) ; The New York 
Journal, or The General Advertiser, "containing the freshest articles both Foreign and Domestick," 
printed and published by John Holt, on Hunter's Quay, Rotten Row (established May 29, 1766, 
discontinued in 1785); The New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy, "containing the freshest 
Advices Foreign and Domestick," established by James Parker in January, 1742-3 — August 
27, 1770. Samuel Inslee and Anthony Carr published this paper and continued it two years. — 
Isaiah Thomas, History of Pointing in America. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 247 

from the king's ships, could not fail to damp the ardor of the merchants 
and the privateers. These demonstrations resulted in the relief desired. 
Not long after, Governor James Robertson, who was the Governor of New 
York province, so far as he could govern it during the war — advised Lord 
George Germaine that he was " in hopes soon to be able to revive the 
spirit of privateering." 

It was necessary that the system so effective on the American 
side, should be set off by an equally effective one on the side of the 
British. As Governor Robertson wrote : " The obstructions to their trade 
had given the rebels but too many opportunities lately of carrying into 
their ports many of our ships and great numbers of their own." Insurance 
also had risen greatly. From the beginning of the war the rates had been 
high, but now were extreme. On February 17, 1778, the Duke of 
Richmond stated in Parliament : " The price of insurance to the West 
Indies and North America is increased from two to two and one-half, and 
five per cent., with convoy ; but without convoy and unarmed the said 
insurance has been made at fifteen per cent. But, generally, ships under 
such circumstances can not be insured at all." 

Privateers in large numbers issued constantly from the harbors of New 
England. But the successes of this class of patriotic fighters were not 
confined to the exploits of the vessels fitted out in New England. One of 
the boldest achievements of the war took place in May, 1780. On the 24th, 
four American privateers, three of which were from New London, caught 
sight of the Carteret packet from Falmouth, and giving chase, ran her on 
shore at Sandy Hook, although she was armed with twenty-two nine- 
pounders. Captain Newman of the packet barely escaped with his mail, 
being pursued in his row-boat for several leagues. The packet's remains 
were sold at auction in July. The Chamber of Commerce generously 
rewarded Captain Newman with a piece of plate of twenty guineas' value, 
with their arms thereon, for his " attention and prudence in saving and 
bringing at all hazards his mail to New York," all of which was duly 
engraved. A short time after this daring feat the Mercury packet, Cap- 
tain Dillon, was captured and taken into Philadelphia, and the cutter of 
the Hon. Major Cochrane was attacked off the Hook. Again, in the early 
part of June the Comet and the Hawk, cruising in company, were chased 
by a British warship. The Hawk was driven on shore on Long Island and 
stranded. The Comet burned her wreck, took off or spiked her guns, and 
continuing her cruise off Sandy Hook about two miles, cut out three 
schooners and five sloops, all of which Captain Kemp brought safe into 
Philadelphia, with twenty-eight prisoners. 



24^ THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 

As the war went on another class of privateers appeared. These were 
the New York whale-boat men, led by Captain Hyler, the first captain of 
the Whaling Company, whose business had been arrested by the war. 
The shallow waters about New York bay afforded safe harbor and refuge 
to those light craft. The Shrewsbury river was the favorite resort of Cap- 
tain Hyler. From these waters, which are a continuation of Sandy Hook 
bay, lie watched the fisheries on the Shrewsbury banks, which were a main 
source of supply for the New York market, and pounced upon the fishing 
smacks as a fish-hawk on its prey, at his pleasure. His habit was to cap- 
ture the vessels, seize their cargoes, let them go free for a ransom of one 
hundred dollars, and recapture them if they appeared again. He neither 
allowed commutation nor granted passes. 

The exploits of the regular privateers, as well as of these whale- 
boat men, gave rise to a rather sharp interchange of opinions between 
the Chamber of Commerce and Admiral Arbuthnot. In a memorial 
addressed to him they advise that " a couple of fast-sailing frigates con- 
stantly cruise between Delaware and Block Island, and making the light 
house at Sandy Hook once or twice a week as the winds might permit, 
would effectually protect the trade of this port from all invaders." They 
state also the importance of the fishery upon the banks of the Shrews- 
bury to the New York garrison, and say that " unless a proper armed 
vessel can be appointed daily to protect the fishermen from the gun and 
whale boats that are preparing upon the adjacent shores to attack them, 
they will find it impracticable to pursue that business." The Americans 
had found the fault in the armor of the supposed invulnerable foe. 

To this representation Arbuthnot replied from his flagship, the Royal 
Oak, off New York, that his frigates had been constantly cruising off the 
bar, and between the points named by the chamber; but that so limited 
was his force, that it had not been in his power to " station a single frigate 
for the protection of the trade bound to Halifax, a port not inferior 
to any in America." Referring to the second topic, he added : " With 
respect to the protection of the fishermen employed on the banks of the 
Shrewsbury for supplying your market, I cannot help mentioning to you 
that early after I took command on this station I purchased a vessel 
mounting twelve carriage-guns ; she was fitted out at a considerable 
expense ; I requested that the city would man her, that I would pay the 
men, and that her services should never be diverted to any other purpose 
than giving such protection ; my offer was received with a strong degree 
of coolness, and till now I have never had any further solicitation on 
this subject." 






THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 249 

To this rather sharp retort the chamber answered disclaiming any 
purpose of giving offense in suggesting their " ideas of the mode (never 
hitherto altogether adopted) of affording effectual protection to this port." 
In the matter of the admiral's reference to the protection of Halifax, they 
scout the idea of comparison between the two ports (that and New York) 
as harbors for large ships, or as to the export and import trade of each. 
lt Though most of the charts are marked with only three and one-half 
fathoms of water on the bar outside of Sandy Hook, yet the most expe- 
rienced pilots declare they have always found the depth four fathoms. 
After getting over the bar the water deepens all the way to New York. 
Ships of war can go up the river through Hell Gate and the Sound, 
between Long Island and the continent, into the ocean. Sir James 
Wallace in the Experiment, of fifty guns, when chased by the French fleet 
off the east end of Long Island in 1777, came through the Sound, Hell 
Gate, and the East River, to New York. The tide flows up Hudson's or the 
North River one hundred and eighty miles. Before the Revolution ships 
went from London Bridge to Albany, which is one hundred and seventy 
miles up the river ; only six miles below it, it was necessary to lighten 
them by taking out part of the cargo." ' 

To his remarks upon his offer to protect the fishing banks, they assure 
him that no application had ever been made to them on that subject, or 
"they would have taken it up with the same zeal which they doubt not 
your excellency will admit they manifested to procure volunteers for 
manning his majesty's ships under your command " ; and they end with 
the engagement that if the admiral will be " so good as to furnish a proper 
vessel with provisions and ammunition to protect the fishermen on the 
banks of Shrewsbury for the benefit of this market, the Chamber of Com- 
merce will cheerfully exert their endeavors, and they doubt not they will 
be able in a short time not only to procure as many men as your excellency 
may think sufficient for that purpose, but also to raise funds for paying 
them, provided protection from injuries can be granted by your excellency 
to the men, and that they shall be discharged as soon as the fishing 
season is over." 

The admiral took no offense at the asperity of this communication. He 
reminded them that " offense to his majesty's enemies, as well as protec- 
tion to the loyal part of the community, necessarily engaged a considerable 
part of his attention," and assured them that he would " always bear testi- 
mony to the ready and cheerful assistance which the city gave to raising 

1 Political Magazine, 1 78 1. 



250 THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 

volunteers." He made no further allusion to the protection of the fish- 
ing banks. 

The Chamber of Commerce was furnished still another opportunity to 
express itself upon the subject of privateers ; and this time they were 
those who were intended to serve on the side of the British. Admiral 
Dig-bv, in command of the station after the surrender of Cornwallis at 
Yorktown, addressed the following letter to Governor Robertson, which 
was referred by the latter to the Chamber of Commerce: 

New York, April 3, 1782. 
Sir: 

There are already above one thousand men out in privateers, and four more ready, to 
man which will take above two hundred men. I must therefore beg your excellency will 
withhold granting any more commissions till the return of some of the large privateers 
whose cruises are expired, as there are two frigates now in port that cannot be sent to 
sea for want of men. At the same time I beg it may be understood that I mean to give 
all the encouragement to privateers in my power, whenever the king's service will 
permit. But I must beg leave to take this opportunity of informing your excellency that 
unless they are kept within bounds it will be impossible to carry on the king's service, 
and that the Perseverance, belonging to Messrs. King & Kemble, and commanded by Mr. 
Ross, has sailed without my pass, and returned to the Hook, and sailed again after bid- 
ding defiance to the guardship and king's boats, which, if suffered to pass unnoticed, 
must in the end prove a great detriment to my intentions. I have the honor to be your 
excellency's very obedient servant, 

Robert Digby. 

To His Excellency, Governor Robertson. 

In a lengthy memorial replying to this letter, addressed to the governor, 
the chamber observed, among other things, that " past uniform experi- 
ence abundantly justified them in observing that however difficult it may 
be to carry on the king's service unless privateers are kept within bounds, 
it will be found much more so if these bounds be reduced to too narrow 
a compass"; that due encouragement to privateers is, in other words, 
only to tempt both landsmen as well as seamen by the most powerful 
inducements, that of making it their interest to resort from all parts of 
the continent to this port, " nor has any maxim obtained more universal 
assent than that all wise governments should assiduously consult and 
attend to the temper and genius of the people ; and it is notorious that 
the genius of no people was ever more peculiar or conspicuous than that of 
the Americans for privateering." They therefore recommend, " to impress 
no man returning from captivity by cartel or escape, until their return to 
this port after performing one voyage — to impress no man on shore or 
from any outward bound vessels, but that this port should really and truly 



THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES AND COMMERCE 25 I 

be an asylum to all of the above description, except as is before men- 
tioned on some grand emergency"; else, ''rather than be liable to an 
impress on board men-of-war on their arrival here before they have made 
a voyage, experience has fully evinced they will enter on board merchant 
vessels and privateers among the rebels." That there was an underlying 
sympathy with the patriots among the American mariners is thus made 
to appear by the testimony of men loyal to the crown. 

The grave difficulties encountered by the United States in establishing 
its freedom abroad as well as at home must not be overlooked. The in- 
terests of the states were not and have never been entirely homogeneous. 
Each foreign power endeavored, after the old-school diplomacy, to intrigue 
for its own interests in the American domain, and the policy of each to- 
wards the young republic was governed by political rather than economic 
reasons. But while the continental powers sought closer relations, Great 
Britain stood aloof, partly in the hope that dissatisfaction and distress would 
be caused in New England by the continuance of her old restriction on the 
West India trade, which had been the most profitable to those colonies of 
all their commerce. While under this policy the annual exports from 
Great Britain to the United States had decreased nearly ^4,000,000, or ten 
per cent., this loss was partially compensated by an increase in her exports 
to the West Indies; and while the imports from the United States into 
Great Britain had decreased annually about eight hundred thousand pounds, 
•or fifty per cent., the imports from the West Indies had increased seven 
hundred thousand pounds, or twenty per cent. The decrease in the im- 
ports from the United States is accounted for by the decreased quantity 
of rice and tobacco from the Carolinas which found foreign markets through 
Great Britain — a condition of trade which caused equal dissatisfaction in 
Virginia, because of the seclusion of her staple product, which, in fact, in a 
few years destroyed her commercial importance. On the whole, however, 
Great Britain managed to maintain the balance of trade with the United 
States in her favor, and was content to wait the course of events at 
home and abroad, under the system of provisional annual legislation which 
had prevailed since the war ; and meanwhile rejected all American over- 
tures for a commercial treaty. 



AN INCIDENT IN THE LIFE OF WEBSTER 
By W. I. Crandall 

To go back fifty years in the life of an active man is a long stretch for 
the memory ; but the incident to be related is an amusing one, and not 
easily to be forgotten. Half a century ago the agricultural and mechanical 
interests of the empire state acquired a new impetus, judging from the 
numerous organizations of county fairs which were instituted in every part 
of the state, and were maintained with enthusiasm for successive years ; 
followed later in each autumn, by a state fair, to close the season's enterprise. 
Everything was considered worthy of exhibition, from a mouse-trap to a 
stage coach, or from a rabbit to the best breeds of imported stock ; and, as 
a consequence, the state fair became the great annual event, and a rallying- 
point for all that was worth seeing or hearing, and to which the most intel- 
ligent and practical citizens of the country gathered. Railroading was 
limited in its scope in those days, but the Erie canal still retained its 
usefulness and great popularity, as the chief artery of inter-communication ; 
so much so, that the cities and villages along its banks and branches would 
charter the canal boats to carry their products and themselves to this grand 
centre of display — the state fair — an event which grew in importance each 
year, the trip becoming a source of pleasure as well as profit. 

There was honorable rivalry between the inland cities to secure the 
fair for the succeeding year. When that point was settled, however, all 
the auxiliary county societies vied with each other to excel in the display 
and make it a success; while the fortunate city holding the prize left noth- 
ing undone to eclipse the fair of the preceding year. Not only was lavish 
hospitality provided for the visitors, and the city decorated, but marked 
efforts were made to secure an eloquent orator of known ability and national 
reputation to deliver the address before the state association and the thou- 
sands who were sure to be present. To fail in this was an unpardonable 
sin. Usually a grand evening banquet closed the orthodox festivities, at 
which all the notables, far and near, were honored guests, and the toasts 
and responses were not the least part of the well-rounded entertainment. 

In the fall of 1841 or 1842 the state fair was held in the city of Roch- 
ester, then the greatest emporium of wheat and milling in the United States, 
for St. Paul and Minneapolis at that time were not yet in existence. Its 
milling capacity and remarkable water power made Rochester a leading 



AN INCIDENT IN THE LIFE OF WEBSTER 253 

attraction to the dominant agricultural interests, and the weather proving 
favorable, the numbers that came were very large. The canal and basins 
were blockaded with the boats arriving, and the broad streets were none 
too spacious to accommodate the crowds of eager visitors landing every 
hour. To explain this unusual attendance, it may be added that the state 
committee had secured the presence of Daniel Webster as the orator of 
the day, and this fact alone was an incentive to multitudes to come, 
anxious to see and hear the famous American whose eloquent orations 
were the admiration of the civilized world. 

The writer was then a boy employed in the leading jewelry store on the 
corner of what were known as Exchange and Buffalo streets, whose pro- 
prietor, a strong whig, had been long in business, and was an especial admirer 
of the " god-like Daniel," as Mr. Webster was familarly known among his 
warm-hearted friends. Before noon on the day the address was to begin, the 
sidewalk in front of this store was thronged with people, chiefly strangers, 
who had gathered around two gentlemen engaged in earnest conversation. 
The principal one of the two, who seemed to be the cause of this concourse, 
was dressed in a blue swallow-tail coat with brass buttons, was stoutly 
built, had a massive head, and was quite dignified in his bearing. He 
seemed oblivious to his surroundings until the pressure of the throng 
annoyed him, when he and his friend pushed their way into the jewelry 
store, only to be crowded still more, as the populace followed and filled the 
place till it was oppressive. 

Then Mr. C , the proprietor, began to fidget and dance about behind 

his counters, glancing quickly at each of his clerks, as if to say, " Look sharp 
for thieves ! " Though he, like others, had counted upon a large trade, 
this was evidently too much of a good thing in the way of customers. 
Meantime the two gentlemen continued their earnest conference, without 
noticing the eager spectators. Sometimes a sentence spoken a little 
louder would be heard, but not enough to make sense ; as, " But you 
must confess this!" exclaimed the man in blue. " It is impossible," re- 
plied the other. " Why impossible ? " queried the wearer of the brass 
buttons. " You know all the facts, and it should be done at once." " How 
can I?" said the other, " after my explanation to him ?" " Tell him " — 
and here the voices dropped to indistinctness. 

At this point Mr. C , innocent in his way, thought he understood 

what was the matter, and became so excited that he pushed through in 
front, and, touching the arm of the one in blue, requested him very de- 
cidedly " to leave the store," as the best way to get rid of the crowd. The 
gentleman addressed, pausing, looked at Mr. C with marked surprise ; 



254 AN INCIDENT IN THE LIFE OF WEBSTER 

then he appeared to realize the state of affairs, and in a very gracious 
manner bowed and apologized for the inconvenience he had caused. " In 
truth," he said, " he had not observed how he was trespassing." He and 
his friend then returned to the sidewalk, and the people followed, leaving 
the store alone to Mr. C and his clerks. 

How relieved the proprietor was as he rubbed his hands and drew in a 
long breath ! " Well," said he, ' 4 that was well managed. The rascals ! I 
hope nothing here has been stolen." Such an affair amused the clerks, of 

course, but what was their astonishment when Mr. A , the horologer 

and watch repairer, a man who had seen much of the world, and who was 
showing a customer a watch at the time, began to laugh pleasantly, and 
asked Mr. C " if he knew whom he had just turned out of doors ?" 

" No sir," said Mr. C , " except I'm positive the man in blue has had 

his pocket picked, and was trying to make the rogue confess." 

4 * Indeed, you are much mistaken," said Mr. A ; " that ' man in blue/ 

as you call him, is the ' god-like ' Daniel Webster whom you worship and 
have been so anxious to see for the last month, while the ' rogue ' whom he 
would confess is a prominent personal friend of his on the state committee." 

" Impossible," faltered Mr. C . But as the truth began to enter his 

soul, the color fled from his face ; he stood for several minutes completely 
dazed, too mortified and overcome to move or attempt reparation. When, 
however, he did recover his composure, he noticed a Rochester friend stop 
before the door and cordially shake hands with Mr. Webster as an old 
acquaintance, for the distinguished senator of Massachusetts was still 
conversing with the committeeman in front of the store. " Ah ! there's a 

chance," said Mr. C , and rushing out he button-holed the mutual 

friend, and begged an introduction to the " great expounder." The clerks 
curiously followed to the door to witness the last scene in the comedy in 
which so great a personage was the chief actor. The introduction was 

kindly given, and when Mr. C , with many salutations, explained the 

episode in the store with humble apologies, a genial smile spread over 
the broad face of Webster, and grew into a jolly laugh so hearty and 
contagious, that the writer and his fellow clerks forgot their manners and 
joined in the laughter ; while many spectators, imagining they understood 
the joke, increased the merriment, which mysteriously spread around the 
corner, for most of the people had not the slightest idea of what they were 
laughing at. 

It took Mr. C several weeks to reconcile his conscience to the part 

he had acted, but finally he began to regard it as an excellent joke and 
worthy of remembrance. 



THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND (TAMMANY) 
By H. C. Mercer. 

If one descends the Neshaminy creek along its right bank at Prospect 
Hill, in New Britain township, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and coming 
out of the hemlock grove that overhangs the water, ascends the first rivu- 
let that crosses his path, a walk of three or four hundred yards will bring 
him 'to its source: a small spring, half hidden by grass, in a hollow of the 
open hillside meadow. About fifty feet downward from the spring, close 
to the rill, we find, by pulling away some briars, an old stump much 
decayed, where forty years ago stood a large poplar, and just forty-seven 
feet below it some large saplings mark the former site of a chestnut tree. 
Between the two stumps stands a young cherry tree, and there a little 
nearer the rivulet, at the foot of the bank, eleven feet from the poplar and 
thirty-six from the chestnut (according to Aden H. Brinker), is the site of 
an Indian grave. 

The spot is on the farm now owned by Enos Detweiler, 1 about a mile 
up Neshaminy creek from Godschalk's dam, and there is no doubt that 
about the middle of the last century an Indian chief was buried there by 
white men. The local tradition of the death and burial has been often 
referred to by antiquarians, notably in Watsons Annals (ii., 172), in a 
quoted letter written from Bucks county, by one E. M., in about 1842, to the 
editor; in Sherman Day's Historical Collection (p. 163) ; in Harper 's Maga- 
zine (vol. xliv., p. 639) ; by W. J. Buck in the Doylestown Democrat for 
May 6, 1856 ; and by John Rodgers within a few years in the Doylestown 
Intelligencer. It was noted down by me last year, from the lips of Thomas 
Shewell, Esq., of Bristol, the oldest living male descendant — great grand- 
son — of Walter Shewell (born 1702, died 1779), who superintended the 
burial about one hundred and fifty years ago. 

A very aged Indian, too infirm to walk, so ran the story as he knew it 
direct from his ancestors, while being carried by younger followers to a 
conference with the proprietaries (probably at Philadelphia), halted near 

1 I traced back the ownership of the property in the Doylestown land records to about 1770. 
From that time (Deed Book 19, p. 76) it had come down through David Caldwell, William Forbes, 
William Dean, David Waggoner, Abram Moyer, John Mover, Captain J. Robbarts, in 1822 ; 
(Deed Book 49, p. 139) to John Q. Adams Brinker and the present owner. I cannot learn that it 
was ever owned by the Shewells. 



THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 

the above-mentioned spring. 1 There, tired of their burden, the young 
Indians built a hut for the old man, and leaving him in charge of an Indian 
girl, 2 suddenly, after night came on, abandoned him and went on to the 
rendezvous. So enraged and distressed was he, on waking, to find him- 
self deserted, that he tried to commit suicide by stabbing himself ; and 
when his weak, trembling hand could not thrust the knife with effect, at 
last set fire to his bed of leaves and threw himself upon it. 3 The other 
Indians, who had been refused a hearing by the proprietaries in his absence, 
and sent back to fetch him, on arriving at the hut found him dead, with a 
great hole burned in his side. 

The affair was noised abroad, and Walter Shewell, Esq., of Painswick 
Hall, 4 the most prominent man in the neighborhood, and once sheriff of 
Bucks county, had the body buried in the presence of the Indians near 
the hut. All the common versions repeat the incident omitted by Mr. 
Shewell, that Walter Shewell's son Robert, then a little boy, wanted to go 
with his father to the funeral, but was forbidden. The Misses Shewell of 
Doylestown are very certain of the detail as forming part of their family 
tradition. But their cousin, my informant, doubts it. Not long after, the 
body of a son or descendant of Tammany, or Tamenend (for so all the 
traditions distinctly name the buried chief) was brought by Indians to 
the spring and there buried near the other grave, where Mr. Thomas 
Shewell, my informant, remembered seeing both grave-mounds with the 
stones and the two large trees, in about the year 1816. 5 Still later, two 
more dead Indians, supposed to have been descendants of Tamenend, 
were brought by the tribe to the spot for burial, and finally, for some 
reason unknown, interred in the old New Britain (Baptist) churchyard, 
where all trace of their unmarked graves has been lost. 6 

On January 31, 1892, I visited the spring and site of "Tammany's 

1 The common version and that of Sherman Day, taken from some member of the Shewell 
family about 1840 {Hist. Coll., p. 163), says distinctly that the old chief fell ill on the road. 

' l The current versions describe the girl as his daughter. 

3 All the other versions say that he first tried to burn himself, but was prevented, and after- 
wards stabbed himself while the girl was at the spring. 

* Painswick Hall named after an ancestral country seat of the Shewells in England. The old 
house recently sold by the Misses Shewell of Doylestown still stands on the left of the road 
leading from New Britain to Castle Valley, the first building on the left after crossing the road 
to Godschalk's mill. Early in the last century it belonged to an estate of five hundred acres. 
The Shewells were in New Britain in 1729. 

1 The Misses Shewell knew nothing of this grave. 

6 The Misses Shewell had not heard of these graves. Neither had the present sexton at 
New Britain. Eugene James, Esq., had an indistinct recollection of having heard them 
mentioned. 



THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 257 

grave " in the company of the only two persons now living who probably 
could positively identify the spot — Aden H. Brinker of New Britain, and 
Edward Brinker, sons of John Quincy Adams Brinker, who had bought 
the Detweiler farm from Captain Robbarts and sold it to its present 
owner. Knowing the need of exactness in these facts, I took the greatest 
care in learning from the Brinker brothers that Captain Robbarts had 
been a particular friend of the Shewells and a frequent guest at Pains- 
wick Hall, scarcely a mile away; that through Nathaniel Shewell the then 
owner (uncle of Mr. Shewell of Bristol) and others of the family, he had 
been fully acquainted with the particulars of the tradition. That after 
his sale of the farm to the Brinkers, he had boarded at the house until 
his death, and had frequently shown the boys and their father the graves 
by the spring. 

Aden H. Brinker was about fourteen years old when his father ordered 
him to remove the grave stones. They were flat, unhewn slabs of red 
slate, about three feet long and one and a half wide, with no marks upon 
them, standing at Tammany's grave, six or seven feet apart, and protrud- 
ing about eight inches from the ground. Much less account was made of 
the second grave than of the first, but both brothers remember their father 
and Captain Robbarts pointing it out, about fifty feet away, across the 
gully. Thus the spot has changed much since the graves were visible. So 
much, that perhaps Mr. Shewell, who has not seen it for nearly eighty years, 
would not recognize it. The steep overhanging bank has been much 
graded down by plowing. The source, according to Mr. Brinker, has 
receded nearly one hundred feet from the poplar stump. The trees are 
gone and the hillside is bare. 1 Still, if there is any certainty in human 
evidence, we are here within a few feet of the historic grave. Here, no 
doubt, a rusty iron knife or hatchet, a few glass beads bought from white 
men, and possibly a brass medal, might be dug up to tell the tale of this 
memorable interment. It is to be hoped, however, that no relic hunter, 
for the sake of a few comparatively modern trinkets (since he need expect 
to find no implements of the stone age), will venture to disturb the spot. 

There is no doubt, then, as to the burial of the Indian, and little doubt 
as to our having found the spot. The only remaining question is as to 
the identification of the chief. Was it Tamenend? 

Sherman Day {Historical Collections, p. 163) answers the question in 
the negative, and adduces in proof an ingenious and, at first, a convincing 

1 Besides the two large trees referred to, a walnut and two other chestnuts on the slope just 
above the spring and opposite Tammany's grave, were cut down by the Brinkers for barn building 
at the same time, 1850-60. 

Vol. XXIX.— No. 3.- 17 



258 THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 

argument. He fixes, and I think correctly, the date of burial after 1740; 
because Robert Shewell, the " little boy" who asked in vain (according to 
the common tradition") to go to the funeral, was born then. 1 Tammany, 
he thinks, could not possibly have been living so late and escaped the 
notice of the Moravian missionaries who explored the forks of the Dela- 
ware in 1742, and the Susquehanna soon after. But this is only a sugges- 
tion of Mr. Day's, and so is my answer to it. I suggest that Tamenend 
might have been living after 1740, unnoticed by white men, and for the 
following reasons : 

First, Tamenend was present at a council in Philadelphia on July 6, 
1694, when the Iroquois wanted the Delawares to attack the settlers 
{Colonial Records, i. 447), when he made this speech: "We and the 
Christians of this river have always had a free roadway to one another, 
and, though sometimes a tree has fallen across the road, yet we have still 
removed it again, and kept the path clear, and we design to continue the 
old friendship that has been between us and you." And, again, on July 
6, 1697 {Pennsylvania Archives, i. 124), when with " Wehiland, my brother, 
and Weheequickhou, alias Andrew, who is to be king after my death," he 
again, for the third time, sells his land between Pennypack and Neshaminy 
creeks. This is the last official notice of him thus far discovered. If he 
was forty 3'ears old then, he would have been ninety-three in 1750; or if 
fifty, one hundred and three at the later date, which is in general accord 
with the Bucks county tradition of his great age ; upon which tradition 
Cooper bases his description in the Last of the Mohicans. 

Secondly, the lands lying between Pennypack and Neshaminy creeks 
constituted the particular territory of Tamenend himself, which he sold 
three times over to William Penn, in 1683, 1692, and 1697. Then and for 

1 But it is useless, I think, to assign, as he does, T749, or tne date of any known public con- 
ference, to the journey of the old man and his followers over Prospect hill. Examination of the 
signed treaties proves that no one chief, whatever his rank as sachem, was present at any of the land 
conferences which did not concern him personally. Tamenend, who was head sachem of the whole 
Lenape system until 1718, was not present at the Jersey land treaty of 1673, or the lower Bucks 
county sale in 1692, or the Chester and Pennypack sale in 1685, nor that for the Schuylkill and 
Pennypack lands in 1683, or Susquehanna and Delaware lands in 1683 (see Colonial Records and 
Pennsylvania Archives). When, in 1683, selling lands between the Neshaminy and Pennypack {Pa. 
Arch., i., 62), Tamenend concerned himself with his own patrimony. A study of the deeds throws 
little light on the governmental system of the Lenape ; we find appended to each a list of strange 
names, and the same tract sold several times by different individuals, with no hint of a general 
tribal supervision. Doubtless dozens of informal conferences were never recorded, to anyone of 
which Tamenend may have been called. The 1749 conference concluded a sale of lands beyond 
the Blue mountains. At that time Tamenend, if living, had been deposed from the office of chief 
sachem for thirty-one years. 



THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 259 

years after the word Tamcnend must have been identified with the region, 
and is it likely that the Shewells, who came there in 1729, only thirty-one 
years after the last sale, would have made a mistake in the name? 

Third, there is some corroborative evidence for the tradition in a song 
composed in honor of the American saint, Tammany, in 1783, at one of 
the meetings- of the then celebrated Tammany brotherhood in Phila- 
delphia, beginning: 

" Of Andrew, of Peter, of David, of George, 
What mighty achievements we hear." 

It must have been written later than the date of the first Philadelphia 
almanac that dubbed Tamenend a saint, about 1760-70. While its last 
verse — 

" At last growing old and quite worn out with years, 
As history doth truly proclaim, 
His wigwam was fired, he nobly expired, 
And flew to the skies in a flame — " 

infers either that the composer had heard the story of his death on 
Neshaminy, or had, which is rather unlikely, confused him with the well- 
known Tedyuskung, who was burned to death in his wigwam, at Wyoming, 
in 1763, while intoxicated. 

At one of the society's meetings in 1781, a delegation of Senecas 
visited the society's " wigwam " on the Schuylkill, where hung a portrait 
of " Tammany," on which occasion Cornplanter made a speech, and, point- 
ing to the picture, poured a libation of wine on the ground, saying: " If 
we pour it on the ground, it will suck it up and he will get it." It was 
this merry-making brotherhood, founded in Philadelphia before the 
Revolution, who set in vogue the myth that the three white balls on 
Penn's coat of arms represented three dumplings which Tammany had 
cooked for him at the treaty tree. They adopted Indian names, and 
paraded in Indian dress on Tammany's day (the 1st of May). 1 They 
invented all manner of myths, stories, and sayings about the great Indian, 
and had him dubbed a saint by certain almanac makers. In short, they 
set going the word Tammany, so to speak, over the country, and gave 
rise to all the other so-called Tammany societies in the United States ; 
among them the Independent Order of Red Men, and the New York 
political organization known as Tammany Hall, founded in Borden's City 
Hotel, in New 7 York, in 1789. Thus also originated the name of Tam- 

1 The frequent elaborate Indian costumes still common at city parades in Philadelphia are 
unquestionably a relic of these processions. 



260 THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 

manytown, Juniata county, Pennsylvania; of Mount Tammany, near 
Williamsport, Maryland; of Tamenend, Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania; 
of Tammany street, Philadelphia, now Buttonwood ; of St. Tammany 
parish, Louisiana; of Tammany, Mecklenburgh county, Virginia, and of 
a hundred other places similarly designated. 

But lastly, to return to our subject, there is no question that the three 
clans of the Lenape — the wolf, turtle and turkey — were in a vague way 
presided over by a head sachem, chosen from the turtle clan by the mem- 
bers of the two other clans {Lenape and their Legends, p. 47). Just what 
his powers were is not definitely known. He certainly had little or 
nothing to do with the land sales of his fellow chiefs to the whites. 
Loskiel says that " he arranged treaties and conventions of peace" and 
kept the wampum peace belt of the tribe (Mission, p. 135). He held his 
office during good behavior, and so generally until death. Such a chief 
was Tamenend, and the others — Allumpees (died 1747) ; Nutimus, probably 
Tatemy (died 1761); Netatawces (in the west) and Tedyuscung(in the east, 
died 1763) — who came after him until the removal of the Delawares from 
eastern Pennsylvania. 1 Such were the many who came before him if we 
are to believe the testimony of the wallum olum, or Lenape bark record, 
an historic song illustrated by mnemonic pictographs, and sung by med- 
icine men at sacred occasions, recounting the tribal migrations. They 
appear also on the full list of head sachems, discovered by the eccentric 
antiquarian C. A. Rafinesque, and recently published by Dr. Brinton, 
[Lenape and their Legends, 1 70). 

The wallum olum tells us that Tamenend, or " the affable," was not 
the first of his name, but that long before, counting back by the names 
of scores of rulers before the coming of the whites, there were two other 
Tamenends, the first, a celebrated head sachem in the far west before 
the tribe had migrated eastward. Taking this and Reichel's Memoirs of 
the Moravian Church as our authority, we learn that our Tamenend was 
preceded by Ikwahou, and probably succeeded by Allumpees or Sassoonan, 
who was made chief in 1718, and held the orifice till his death in 1747- 

Here is an important date: the certain end of Tamenend's reign in 
1 718. If he died then, that is the end of our story. But that he did so is 
by no means certain. For some reason not thoroughly explained, the 
Iroquois at about this time obtained that curious moral and physical 
influence over the Delawares which has been the subject of much curious 
speculation. Then it was that governors were sent down from the Six 

1 These and many other interesting and uncollected data I find in, an annotated edition of 
Reichel's Memorials of the Moravian Church, at the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 



THE GRAVE OF TAMENEND 261 

Nations to look after them, and they were referred to as " women " and 
" in petticoats," and took that position of a conquered people which they 
held down to the outbreak of the Revolution. What the details of this 
sudden decadence were, whether a defeat in battle or a weakening internal 
dispute, no one has as yet authoritatively learned. The Moravians did 
not come into the upper Delaware and Susquehanna region until 1742, 
and, as Heckewelder testifies, the Indians were very reticent on these 
subjects. Allumpees, made sachem in 17 18, was a weak character, and died 
a drunkard in 1747. As the tool of the Iroquois he may have been elected 
by their powerful influence to supersede Tamenend, nor is it impossible to 
suppose that the latter, by a patriotic resistance to the majority of his 
people at the time of their degradation, had become distasteful to the 
Six Nations. 

If it be not unfair to suggest this, we have a ready explanation of 
the several apparent contradictory facts, that he had a great reputation 
among his tribe, and yet that they said so little about him ; that he lived 
until about 1750, and yet was unnoticed by early settlers and missionaries, 
and in public documents. Yet this is but supposition, and I have thus far 
tried in vain to sift to the bottom the stories that Tamenend once lived 
upon the site of Easton ; was buried where Nassau Hall now stands at 
Princeton college ; lived in the State of Delaware, or at the place in 
Damascus township, Wayne county, called by the early Connecticut 
settlers " St. Tammany's flat," in 1757. 



SERGEANT LEE'S EXPERIENCE WITH BUSHNELL'S 
SUBMARINE TORPEDO IN 1776 

Communicated by Professor Henry P. Johnston 

As to Captain David Bushnell, of the Revolutionary Army, sometimes 
mentioned as the father of modern submarine warfare, and who in Wash- 
ington's recollection was " a man of great mechanical powers, fertile in 
inventions and master of execution," one must be referred for details 
of life and service to the monograph issued in 1881 by General Henry L. 
Abbot, of the United States Engineer Corps, who had gathered all the 
information then to be had respecting this comparatively obscure genius 
of '76. It is a graceful and valuable tribute from an accomplished branch 
of our military service to the American pioneer in the profession. 1 

In brief, Bushnell, while a student in college, during the years 1771-75, 
endeavored to solve the problem of conducting without detection a power- 
ful explosive under a ship, and igniting it without danger to the operator. 
He succeeded in perfecting a remarkable machine or craft for the pur- 
pose, and made his first offensive attempts with it in New York harbor in 
the summer of 1776. That the attempts proved futile was due more to 
incidental circumstances than to defect in the principle or design ; and 
had opportunities been given him for repeated experiments, he would 
doubtless have made good all that was claimed for his invention. Lieu- 
tenant F. M. Barber, of the United States navy, after careful study of 
the machinery of the torpedo as described by the inventor himself, has 
expressed the opinion that, notwithstanding its failures, " it seems to have 
been the most perfect thing of its kind that has ever been constructed, 
either before or since the time of Bushnell." 

Ezra Lee, sergeant and then ensign in the Connecticut line of the 
Revolutionary army, who operated the torpedo, contributed much infor- 
mation regarding it to others, which appears in General Abbot's mono- 
graph ; but in the following letter we have for the first time any facts in 
the case from his own pen : 

- The Beginning of Modem Submarine Warfare, under Captain David Bushnell, Sappers 
and Miners, Army of the Revolution. Being a Historical Compilation arranged by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Brevet Brigadier-General. Printed at 
the Engineer School of Application, Willet's Point, New York, 1881. See Magazine of American 
History, volume for 1882, 



SERGEANT LEE'S EXPERIENCE WITH BUSHNELL'S TORPEDO 263 

Lyme [Conn.], 20th Feb'y, 1815. 
To General David Humphreys, 

Dear Sir, — Judge Griswold and Charles Griswold Esq., both informed me that you 
wished to have an account of a machine invented by David Bushneli of Saybrook at the 
commencement of our Revolutionary War. 

In the summer of 1776 he went to New York with it to try the "Asia" man of war : 
— his brother being acquainted with the working of the machine, was to try the first 
experiment with it, but having spent untill the middle of August, he gave out in conse- 
quence of indisposition. Mr. Bushneli then came to General Parsons (of Lyme) to get 
some one to go and learn the ways and mystery of this new machine and to make a trial 
of it. General Parsons sent for me and two others, who had given in our names to go 
in a fire-ship if wanted, to see if we would undertake the enterprise. We agreed to it ; 
but first returned with the machine clown Sound and on our way practised with it in 
several harbours. We returned as far back as Say-Brook with Mr. Bushneli, where 
some little alterations were made in it, in the course of which time (it being 8 or 10 days) 
the British had got possession of Long Island and Governor's Island. We went back as 
far as New Rochelle and had it carted over by land to the North River. 

Before I proceed further, I will endeavour to give you some idea of the construction 
of this machine, turtle or torpedo, as it has since been called. 

Its shape was most like a round clam, but longer, and set up on its square side. 1 It 
was high enough to stand in or sit as you had occasion, with a composition head hang- 
ing on hinges. Q It had six glasses inserted in the head and made water tight, each the 
size of a half Dollar piece to admit light. In a clear day a person might see to read in 
three fathoms of water. The machine was steered by a rudder having a crooked tiller, 
which led in by your side through a water joint ; 3 then sitting on the seat, the navigator 
rows with one hand and steers with the other. It had two oars of about 12 inches in 
length, and 4 or 5 in width, shaped like the arms of a windmill which led also inside 
through water joints, in front of the person steering, and were worked by means of a 
wench (or crank) ; and with hard labour, the machine might be impelled at the rate of 3 
nots an hour for a short time. 

Seven hundred pounds of lead were fixed on the bottom for ballast, and two hundred 
weight of it was so contrived as to let it go in case the pumps choked, so that you could 
rise at the surface of the water. It was sunk by letting in water by a spring near the 
bottom, by placing your foot against which the water would rush in, and when sinking 
take off your foot and it would cease to come in and you would sink no further; but if 
you had sunk too far, pump out water until you got the necessary depth. These pumps 
forced the water out of the bottom, one being on each side of you as you rowed. A 
pocket compass was fixed in the side, with a piece of light wood on the north side, 
thus +, and another on the east side thus — , to steer by while under water. 4 Three 
round doors were cut in the head (each 3 inches diamater) to let in fresh air untill you 
wished to sink, and then they were shut clown and fastened. There was also a glass 
tube 12 inches long and 1 inch diameter, with a cork in it, with a piece of light wood 
fixed to it, and another piece at the bottom of the tube to tell the depth of descent ; 5 one 
inch rise of the cork in the tube gave about one fathom water. 

It had a screw that pierced through the top of the machine with a water joint which 
was so very sharp that it would enter wood with very little force ; and this was turned 



264 SERGEANT LEE'S EXPERIENCE WITH BUSHNELL'S TORPEDO 

with a wench or crank, and when entered fast in the bottom of the ship the screw is 
then left and the machine is disengaged by unscrewing another one inside that held the 
other. From the screw now fixed on the bottom of the ship a line let to and fastened to 
the magazine to prevent its escape either side of the ship. The magazine [of powder] 
was directly behind you on the outside, and that was freed from you by unscrewing 
a screw inside. Inside the magazine was a clock machinery, which immediately sets a 
going after it is disengaged, and a gun lock is fixed to strike fire to the powder at the 
set time after the clock should run down. The clock might be set to go longer or 
shorter ; 20 or 30 minutes was the usual time to let the Navigator escape. This maga- 
zine was shaped like an egg and made of oak dug out in two pieces, bound together 
with bands of iron, corked and paid over with tar so as to be perfectly tight ; and the 
clock was formed so as not to run untill this magazine was unscrewed. 

I will now endeavour to give you a short account of my voyage in this machine. 

The first night after we got down to New York with it that was favourable (for the time 
for a trial must be when it is slack water and calm, as it is unmanagable in a swell or a 
strong tide) the British fleet lay a little above Staten Island. We set off from the city ; 
the whale boats towed me as nigh the ships as they dared to go and then cast me off. I 
soon found that it was too early in the tide, as it carried me down by the ships. I how- 
ever hove about and rowed for 5 glasses by the ships' bells before the tide slacked, so 
that I could get alongside of the man of war which lay above the transports. The moon 
was about 2 hours high, and the daylight about one. When I rowed under the stern of 
the ship I could see the men on deck and hear them talk. I then shut down all the 
doors, sunk down and came under the bottom of the ship. Up with the screw against 
the bottom but found that it would not enter. 6 I pulled along to try another place, but 
deviated a little one side and immediately rose with great velocity and come above the, 
surface 2 or 3 feet between the ship and the daylight, then sunk again like a porpoise. 
I hove about to try again, but on further thought I gave out, knowing that as soon as 
it was light the ships' boats would be rowing in all directions, and I thought the best 
generalship was to retreat as fast as I could, as I had 4 miles to go before passing Gov- 
ernor's Island. So I jogg'd on as fast as I could, and my compass being then of no use 
to me, I was obliged to rise up every few minutes to see that I sailed in the right direc- 
tion, and for this purpose keeping the machine on the surface of the water and the 
doors open. I was much afraid of getting aground on the island, as the tide of the flood 
set on the north point. 

While on my passage up to the city, my course, owing to the above circumstances, 
was very crooked and zigzag, and the enemy's attention was drawn towards me from 
Governor's Island. When I was abreast of the fort on the Island, 3 or 400 men got upon 
the parapet to observe me ; at leangth a number came down to the shore, shoved off a 
12 oar'd barge with 5 or 6 sitters and pulled for me. I eyed them, and when they had 
got within 50 or 60 yards of me I let loose the magazine in hopes that if they should take 
me they would likewise pick up the magazine, and then we should all be blown up 
together. But as kind Providence would have it, they took fright, and returned to the 
island to my infinite joy. I then weathered the Island, and our people seeing me, came 
off with a whale boat and towed me in. The magazine, after getting a little past the 
Island, went off with a tremendous explosion, throwing up large bodies of water to an 
immense height.' 

Before we had another opportunity to try an experiment our army evacuated New 



SERGEANT LEE'S EXPERIENCE WITH BUSHNELL'S TORPEDO 265 

York and we retreated up the North River as far as fort Lee. A Frigate came up and 
anchored off Bloomingdale. I now made another attempt upon a new plan. My inten- 
tion was to have gone under the ship's stern and screwed on the magazine close to 
the water's edge, but I was discovered by the watch, and was obliged to abandon this 
scheme ; then shutting my doors I dove under her, but my cork in the tube (by which I 
ascertained my depth) got obstructed and deceived me, and I descended too deep and 
did not touch the ship ;'I then left her. Soon after, the Frigate came up the river, drove 
our "Crane" galley on shore and sunk our sloop, from which we escaped to the shore. 



I am, &c. 



E. Lee 



Notes to the Letter. 



1. The machine was built of oak in the strongest manner possible, corked and tarred, 
and though its sides were at least six inches thick, the writer of the foregoing told me 
that the pressure of the water against it at the depth of two fathoms was so great that 
it oozed quite through as mercury will by means of the air pump. Mr. Bushnell's machine 
was no larger than just to admit one person to navigate ; its extreme length was not 
more than 7 feet. When lying in the water, in its ordinary state without ballast, its 
upper works did not rise more than 6 or 7 inches out of water. 

2. This composition head means a composition of metals something like bell metal, 
and was fixed on the top of the machine, and which afforded the only admission to the 
inside. 

3. The steering of this machine was done on the same principles with ordinary ves- 
sels, but the rowing her through the water was on a very different plan. These oars 
were fixed on the end of a shaft like windmill arms projected out forward, and turned at 
right angles with the course of the machine ; and upon the same principles that wind- 
mill arms are turned by the wind these oars, when put in motion, as the writer describes, 
draws the machine slowly after it. This moving power is small, and every attendant 
circumstance must cooperate with it to answer the purpose — calm waters and no current. 

4. This light wood is what we sometimes call fox fire, and is the dry wood that 
shines in the dark : — this was necessary as the points of the compass could not readily be 
seen without. 

5. The glass tube here mentioned, which was a sort of thermometer to ascertain the 
depth of water the machine descended, is the only part that is without explanation. The 
writer of the foregoing could not recollect the principles on which such an effect was pro- 
duced, nor the mechanical contrivance of it. He only knows that it was so contrived 
that the cork and light wood rose or fell in the tube by the ascent or descent of the 
machine. 

6. The reason why the screw would not enter was that the ship's bottom being cop- 
pered, it would have been difficult under any circumstances to have peirced through it ; 
but on attempting to bore with the augur, the force necessary to be used in pressing 
against the ship's bottom caused the machine to rebound off. This difficulty defeated 

1 The notes at the end of Sergeant Lee's letter appear to have been appended by Mr. Griswold, 
of Lyme, before the letter was forwarded to General Humphreys. 



266 HYMN TO CONCORD MONUMENT 

the whole ; the screw could not enter the bottom, and of course the magazine could not 
be kept there in the mode desired. 

7. When the explosion took place, General Putnam was vastly pleased, and cried out 
in his peculiar way — " God'scurse 'em, that'll do it for 'em." 



HYMN TO CONCORD MONUMENT 

By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 

Here once the embattled farmers stood, 
And fired the shot heard round the world. 

The foe long since in silence slept, 

Alike the conqueror silent sleeps ; 
And Time the ruined bridge has swept 

Down the dark stream which seaward creeps. 

On this green bank, by this soft stream, 

We set to-day a votive stone ; 
That memory may their deed redeem, 

When, like our sires, our sons are gone. 

Spirit, that made those heroes dare 
To die, and leave their children free, 

Bid Time and Nature gently spare 
The shaft we raise to them and thee. 

— Emerson 



AN ALLEGORICAL DRAWING BY COLUMBUS 

The fac-simile which appears on another page has been presented in 
American works only twice (which really amounts to once), in Winsor's 
Narrative and Critical History and in his Christopher Columbus. But in 
neither case is the complete original reproduced, the marginal explanations 
of the drawing being omitted. The sketch was made by Columbus in 1502, 
and sent by him from Seville to Genoa, where it is preserved to this day 
in the city hall. In May, 1502, Columbus departed from Spain on his fourth 
and last voyage to America, in the course of which he was destined to be 
disappointed in finding either the golden Chersonesus or a strait out of the 
Caribbean sea into the Indian ocean. He found, however, the gold mines 
of Veraguas, the country which has provided a title for his descendants 
which they bear to the present day. The whole story of this last journey 
was filled with distresses and disasters on sea and on land. Columbus suf- 
fered shipwreck on Jamaica, and even after his compatriots at Domingo 
had learned of his plight, he was left to linger for months in his precarious 
situation, so that his sojourn on that coast rounded out the full year. In 
November, 1504, Columbus again reached Spain, and in May, 1506, he died. 

There are some circumstances gathering about Columbus in the year 
1502, before he sailed, which seem to lend countenance to the idea that 
he really perpetrated this drawing. He certainly was a draughtsman ; at 
one period he had made his living by drawing maps, and was considered 
" a master in makynge cardes for the sea." Winsor remarks, with his usual 
caution when he has something commendatory to say of Columbus : " If 
some existing drawings are not apocryphal, he had a deft hand, too, in 
making a spirited sketch with a few strokes." Some of these drawings are 
given in a recent edition of Irving's Columbus. There were three in a 
letter of the Admiral written in 1493: one represents Columbus on the 
deck of his ship with an astrolabe in his hand, standing on the forecastle, 
and the foremast shown broken short off ; the other represents a caravel 
under full sail in mid-ocean ; the third shows his ship in the foreground, 
with the recently discovered islands in a rather crude perspective in the 
background. Two other drawings are purported to have come from 
Columbus's hand : one representing Fort Isabella, with the town in process 
of building; another showing a galley coasting the island of Hispaniola. 



^X My 

5q>oT£t£Nf//. 







ORIGINAL DOCUMENT 269 

The latter was made to illustrate a letter written by Columbus to Don 
Raphael Xansis, treasurer of the king, an extremely rare edition of which 
is preserved in the library of Milan. 

How the drawing of which we give a fac-simile came to be in Genoa 
may be explained by the fact that at this very time, in 1502, before pro- 
ceeding on his voyage, Columbus sent more than one important communi- 
cation to his native city. At that time he caused several elaborate papers 
and documents to be copied and bound in book form, setting forth his 
titles and privileges; one or two of which copies were sent to the Genoese 
ambassador in Spain. On April 2, 1502, he wrote that famous letter to the 
bank of St. George at Genoa, in which he directed them to use the in- 
terest of a certain sum to be deposited there, for the relief of the poor of 
the city. Hence, with these, other letters may have gone to his native 
city, in one of which the illustration under discussion may have been 
included. This we would suppose because the drawing is now found in 
Genoa, although of course it may have been presented to the city later 
as a valuable curiosity. Lastly there is a probability that Columbus 
made such a drawing, just because of its allegorical character, for about 
this time he was in a frame of mind for that sort of thing. He was 
composing the Libros de las Proficias (Books of the Prophets), in which 
he labored to prove that his exploits were 'not so much the result of 
conclusions based upon premises warranted by the science of the times, 
as the blind and passive fulfillment on his part of what was writ by 
holy men of old. " He had simply been impelled by something that 
he had not then suspected ; and his was but a predestined mission to 
make good what he imagined was the prophecy of Isaiah in the Apoc- 
alypse." He went on also to speculate about the end of the world ; and 
now that we have just celebrated the four hundredth anniversary of his 
achievement of 1492, it is a little refreshing to read that he calculated 
the world would hardly continue longer than one hundred and fifty-five 
years after 1502. 

But much more apposite to the actual allegory which he depicted with 
his pencil, Columbus wrote at this time a letter to the pope, in which he 
expressed it as his belief that his then distressed condition — deprived of 
titles and rights, superseded by other men — "was the work of Satan, who 
came to see that the success of Columbus in the Indies would 'be only a 
preparation for the Admiral's long-vaunted recovery of the Holy Land." 
Impressed with this idea, in a general frame of spiritual exaltation, he 
drew the picture here represented. Columbus places himself in a vehicle, 
half chariot, half ship, gliding over the sea. The figure beside him is 



270 ORIGINAL DOCUMENT 

Providence, Envy and Ignorance are the monsters following in his wake. 
Fairer creatures attend him and prosper his way : Constancy, Tolerance, 
the Christian Religion, Victory and Hope. Over the whole floats the 
figure of Fame, blowing two trumpets; out of one proceeds the name 
" Genoa,"' out of the other is sounded the li Fame of Columbus." Harisse 
states that the marginal writing explaining these allegorical features in 
Italian is in the handwriting of Columbus. To us the script seems almost 
too modern. It does not appear from his manner of reference to the copy 
of this drawing in the city hall of Genoa, that Harisse himself had seen it. 
It is more probable that some later hand has written the explanation. But 
the signature of Columbus is the one usually attached to his letters after 
the discovery. The characters have never been interpreted quite to the 
satisfaction of everybody. Winsorsays: " Perhaps as reasonable a guess 
as any would make them stand for ' Servus, Supplex, Altissimi Salvatoris 
Christus, Maria, Yoseph, Christoferens.' Others read: I Servidor, Sus, 
Altegas, Sacras, Christo, Maria, Ysabel [or Yoseph].' The 'Christoferens' 
is sometimes replaced by ' El Almirante.' " 

Note. — This reduced fac-simile on the opposite page was obtained from a vol- 
ume in the Boston Public Library, through the kindness of the trustees and librarian. 
The exact description of the Italian authority (from which our copy is taken) has 
been kindly written out by the librarian, Mr. Theodore F. Dwight, as follows : 

La taroca di bronzo, il pallio di seta ed il Codice 
Colombo Americano nuovamente illustrati per 
cura di Giuseppe Banchero. 

8° Genova, 1857. 
Tavola VIII following page 548. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 

By Charles Ledyard Norton 

{Continued from page 63] 

Colorado 



A state of the South Central group — 
area, 103,925 square miles ; dimensions-- 
270 miles north and south, 390 miles 
east and west. Latitude, 37 to 41 ° N.; 
longitude, 102 to 109 W. The name 
is Spanish, meaning " red," from the 
prevailing color of the rocks, originally 
applied to the principal river of the 
region. State motto, " Nil sine Nu- 
mine " — " Nothing without God." Nick- 
name, " The Centennial State," from 
the year of its admission to the Union 
— the centenary of the Republic (1876). 

1682. The whole continent west of 
the Mississippi (including Colorado) 
claimed for France by La Salle, and 
named Louisiana. He, however, never 
went west of middle Texas. 

1763. Spain claims the country by 
virtue of adjacent settlements. 

1776, August 5. Marching from 
Santa Fe, Francisco Silvestre Velez 
Escalante, with a considerable following 
of Spaniards and Indian converts, 
reaches Nieves, on the headwaters of 
the San Juan river. This is the first 
place within the state mentioned by 
undoubted European authority. 

September 9. Escalante, having 
crossed the southwestern corner of 
Colorado, passes into what is now 
Utah, near where the White river crosses 



the line. In the diary of his march, cliff 
dwellings, parks, rivers, and mountains 
are described so that they can be iden- 
tified. Some of the names that he gave 
to localities are still retained. He 
returned to Santa Fe by a circuitous 
route through Utah and Arizona. 

1 80 1. Louisiana retroceded to France 
by a secret treaty. 

1802. Small parties of hunters and 
trappers penetrate the Colorado region, 
but have left few authentic records. 

1803. April 30. Colorado, as included 
in Louisiana, ceded to the United States 
by France under the first Napoleon for 
$15,000,000. 

1805, July 15. Under orders from 
General Wilkinson, Lieutenant Zebulon 
Montgomery Pike leads an exploring 
expedition up the Arkansas river. 

1805, November 15. Lieutenant Pike 
sights the peak that bears his name, and 
spends several months in exploration. 
{Pike's Narrative, Phila., 18 10.) 

181 2. Creation of the territory of 
Missouri, including Colorado. 

1819. Expedition of Major Stephen 
S. Long. He reports the region between 
the thirty-ninth and forty-ninth parallels 
as "The Great American Desert." 

1828-1830. James Baker settles on 
Clear creek, four miles north of Denver. 



-, 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1830. A French trader, Maurice by 
name, is believed to have made a settle- 
ment on Adobe creek in the Arkansas 
Valley ; positive proof is lacking. 

1 S3 2. The Bent brothers build Fort 
William, on the north branch of Arkansas 
river. This is the first authentic settle- 
ment in the state. During the same 
year, one Louis Vasquez opened a trad- 
ing post five miles northeast of Denver. 

1838. First attempt at farming. 
American and Mexicans began irriga- 
tion for agricultural purposes at El 
Pueblo, near Fort William. 

1 84 1. Transit through Colorado, en 
route for the Pacific Coast, of the first 
" prairie schooner." 

1842 (about). A settlement formed 
by Bent, Lupton, Beaubain, and others 
on headwaters of Adobe creek ; exter- 
minated by Indians in 1846. Town of 
La Junta founded by James Bonney, 
on a Mexican grant subsequently con- 
firmed by the United States. 

Captain (afterward General) John C. 
Fremont leads an expedition into the 
territory. 

1843. Fremont's second expedition. 
He finds a few scattered fortified 
ranches ; but many of the early settlers 
had intermarried with Mexicans or 
Indians and were in a fair way to relapse 
into barbarism. 

1845. The section south of the 
Arkansas river, originally part of Texas, 
now included in Colorado, is annexed 
to New Mexico and Kansas. 

1846. That part of the state lying 
west of the Great Divide ceded to the 
United States by Mexico under the 
Gadsden purchase. 

1846-1847. The first "Mormon 



battalion," forcibly expelled from Illi- 
nois, passes the winter at Pueblo. (See 
Tylers History, Salt Lake City, 1881.) 
Birth of the first white American child 
in Colorado — Malinda Catherine Kelley. 
1849. Wagon trains of gold hunters 
begin to cross Colorado en route to Cali- 
fornia. 

185 1. September 17. Treaty of the 
United States with the Sioux, Chey- 
ennes, and Arapahoes as to boundaries. 

1852. Gold discovered on Ralston 
creek by a cattle trader, Parks by name. 

Fort William removed to the mouth 
of Purgatoire river, on the Arkansas. 

1853. Congress passes an act author- 
izing surveys of railroad routes from the 
Mississippi to the Pacific. 

October 26. Captain J. W. Gunni- 
son, U. S. A., killed with his escort by 
Indians. 

A party from Lawrence, 



Massachusetts, lay out El Paso on the 
present site of Colorado Springs, and 
St. Charles on the present site of Den- 
ver. During the winter the St. Charles 
site was " jumped " by settlers who saw 
its advantages, and the name was 
changed to Denver. 

November 6. The settlers of Auraria 
(now East Denver) send Hiram J. Gra- 
ham and Albert Steinberger (afterward 
" King " of the Samoan Islands) to 
Washington, as territorial delegates. 
They were not officially recognized. 

1859. Misled by a publication en- 
titled A Guide to Pikes Peak (Pacific 
City, Iowa, 1858), as many as one 
hundred and fifty thousand immigrants 
move into Colorado. In the autumn 
about one-third of them return, disap- 
pointed, to the Mississippi. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



273 



January 15. Gold discovered at 
Gold Run, Boulder Canon, by John 
Rothrock, Charles Clouser, and others. 
The product of this gulch for the first 
season was one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, all washed. out in hand rockers. 

Formation of the " El Paso Claim 
Club," with the purpose of formulating 
and enforcing provisional land laws. 

May. John H. Gregory discovers 
gold at Blackhawk. 

First school in Colorado opened at 
Denver by O. J. Goldrick. 

Autumn. Gold discovered in what is 
now the Leadville region. 

Colorado gold coined, $622,000. 

December 19. Denver incorporated 
as a city by the provisional legislature ; 
population, 34,277. 

Fort William leased to the government, 
and named Fort Wise after the governor 
of Virginia. 

1 860-1 863. A state of law-respect- 
ing anarchy prevailed — Kansas laws, 
miners' law, and territorial law being en- 
forced in different localities, often over- 
lapping each other's territory without 
serious friction. 

i860. Population, 34,277. Gold 
coined, $2,091,000. 

March 28. Election held under the 
laws of Kansas, to organize Arapahoe 
county. 

May 7. Preliminary steps taken to 
draft a constitution. 

October 5. An election was held. 
Beverly D. Williams chosen delegate 
to congress, and Richard Sopris to the 
Kansas legislature. Mr. Sopris only 
was recognized. 

University of Colorado incorporated. 
(See 1877.) 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 3.— 18 



October 10. Territorial convention 
at Auraria. 

October 24. R. W. Steele chosen 
territorial governor of Jefferson (other- 
wise known as " Pike's Peak "). 

November 7. Meeting of the first 
legislature, remaining in session forty 
days. R. W. Steele, governor. 

1861, February 8. Colorado admitted 
as a territory by act of congress. Wil- 
liam Gilpin, governor ; Lewis Ledyard 
Weld, lieutenant-governor. 

September 9. Meeting of the first 
territorial legislature at Denver. Colo- 
rado Springs selected as the capital. 

November 7. Denver reincorporated 
by the territorial legislature. Charles 
A. Cook, mayor. 

The territory of Colorado organized 
from parts of Utah, New Mexico, Kan- 
sas, and Nebraska. 

Boundaries defined along parallels of 
latitude and longitude, cutting off large 
tracts from Utah, Kansas, Nebraska, and 
New Mexico. 

1861-1862. William Gilpin territorial 
governor by appointment of President 
Lincoln. 

The confederates, under General 
Sibley, invade New Mexico with a view 
to cutting off communication between 
California and the east. 

The territory repudiates the secession 
movement, though attempts were made 
in the interest of the confederacy. 
Governor Gilpin organizes the 1st Colo- 
rado regiment, which did good service 
in New Mexico. 

1861-1865. 4,903 men furnished the 
Union Army during the civil war. 

1862. Capital removed to Golden 
City. (See 1868.) 



■■-- 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1S62-1S65. John Evans, governor. 

1863. April 19. Fire destroys the 
business section of Denver. 

October 1. Telegraphic communica- 
tion opened between Denver and the east. 

1864. General Indian war, thou- 
sands of settlers massacred, and hun- 
dreds of homes broken up. 

The University of Denver (Metho- 
dist) established. Silver discovered. 

1865. Congress passes a bill admit- 
ting Colorado as a state, but the presi- 
dent (Andrew Johnson) vetoes the 
measure, there being no proof of the 
required population. 

1 865-1 867. Alexander Cummings, 
governor. 

1 867-1 869. A. Cameron Hunt, gov- 
vernor. 

1869-1873. Edward M. McCook, 
governor. 

1870. Population, 39,864. Popula- 
tion of Denver, 4,749. 

187 1. Colorado Springs founded as 
a health resort (6,000 feet above the 
sea). The Denver & Rio Grande rail- 
road begun. (See 1878.) 

November. Boulder City incorporated. 

1872. Completion of the first tram- 
way in Denver. 

1 873-1 874. Sam'l H. Elbert, governor. 

1874. Colorado college opened at 
Colorado Springs. 

1874-1876. John L. Routt, governor. 

1876. Discoveries of rich silver de- 
posits in the Leadville region. 

The Ute war. Terrible atrocities by 
Indians, and bloody vengeance on the 
part of the whites. 

August 1. Colorado admitted to the 
Union as a state. 

{Conclusion 



October 3. First state election. John 
L. Routt, governor ; Lafayette Head, 
lieutenant-governor. 

November 1. Meeting of the first 
state legislature. Jerome B. Chaffee and 
Henry M. Teller chosen United States 
senators. 

Estimated population, 135,000. 

1877. University of Colorado opened 
at Boulder, endowed by congress, the 
state, and private gifts. 

1877-1879. John L. Routt, first state 
governor. 

1878. Completion of the Denver & 
Rio Grande railroad. (See 187 1.) 

1879. Phenomenal growth of Lead- 
ville. More than $25,000,000 of pre- 
cious metals mined during the year. 
Strikes and lawless proceedings sup- 
pressed with difficulty. 

1 87 9-1 883. Fred.W. Pitkin, governor. 

1880. Population, 194,327. Popula- 
tion of Denver, 35,629. 

1883-1885. James B. Grant, governor. 
1885. Population, 243,910. 
1885-1887. Benj. H. Eaton, governor. 

1887, August. Border fighting with 
the Utes, begun by lawless whites. 

1 887-1 889. Alva Adams, governor. 

1888. Soldiers' and Sailors' Home pro- 
vided by the legislature at San Luis Park. 

1889-1891. Job A. Cooper, governor. 

1890. Population, 412,198. Assessed 
valuation, $220,544,064.62. Pike's Peak 
railway completed. January to April 
session of the legislature marked by a 
struggle of rival factions in the lower 
house. It was settled by an appeal to 
the U. S. Supreme Court. Passage of 
an Australian ballot law. 

1 891-1893. John L. Routt, governor. 

of the series. ) 




The First Portrait of Washing- 
ton. — The frontispiece to this number 
is a copy of the first portrait ever made 
of George Washington. In a letter to 
the Rev. Jonathan Boucher, the rector 
of the parish which included Mount 
Vernon, dated May 21, 1772, Washing- 
ton thus playfully speaks of the ordeal 
of having his portrait painted : " In- 
clination having yielded to importunity, 
I am now, contrary to all expectation, 
under the hands of Mr. Peale ; but in so 
sullen a mood, and now and then under 
the influence of Morpheus when some 
critical strokes are making, that I fancy 
the skill of this gentleman's pencil will 
be put to it, in describing to the world 
what manner of man I am." 

The Mr. Peale here referred to was 
Charles Willson Peale, the celebrated 
portrait painter of those days. In 1872 
Washington was just turned of forty. 
Yet, although young, he was already 
famous, and had been so for nearly 
seventeen years, or ever since Brad- 
dock's defeat in 1755. Hence, there 
seemed to be great reason that his por- 
trait should be painted ; yet not till this 
date had he consented to have it done. 
This was therefore the earliest portrait. 
He was then still a colonel in the Vir- 
ginia colonial militia, and in this uniform 
he sat for his picture. The artist used 
it as the study from which to prepare 
the three-quarter length portrait of 
Washington known as the "Arlington 



portrait." But as events progressed, a 
few changes were made in colors. The 
colonial colonel's uniform became the 
continental general's blue and buff. 

Peale retained the original study in 
his own possession, and it formed part 
of his exhibition at his museum in Phila- 
delphia. He died in 1827, but not till 
twenty-seven years later, or in 1854, was 
his gallery offered for sale and dispersed. 
Then this first portrait of Washington 
came into the possession of Mr. Charles 
S. Ogden. On Washington's birthday, 
1892, this gentleman adopted a very 
nice mode of celebrating the day, by 
presenting this exceedingly interesting 
piece of canvas to the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society. 

The mover of the resolution of thanks, 
in closing his remarks, said : " In the 
history of American portraiture this 
portrait of Washington, in consequence 
of its being the first authentic original, 
will always occupy a prominent position, 
and the members of the society have 
good reason to congratulate themselves 
on its acquisition." 

An Injustice Done to Winthrop — 
No historian or editor is infallible. The 
most scrupulous and painstaking must 
answer for sins of omission and commis- 
sion. But not unfrequently these blun- 
ders are so gratuitous and palpable as 
to occasion astonishment. An unhappy 
and injurious mistake of this sort is the 



276 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



editorial note to page 220 of vol. ii. of 
Winthrop's History of New England 

[By James Savage. — Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, 1S53]. 

The matter is so interesting in itself, 
while the comment does certain fathers 
of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth 
colonies so great an injustice, that the 
note should be given entire. The error 
may have been pointed out before, but 
as the work is in common use, it cannot 
be amiss to speak of it here. It con- 
cerns the attitude of the people of New 
England, and especially of Boston, in 
the year 1644, toward La Tour and his 
adversary, D'Aulnay Charnisay, some ac- 
count of which has already been given 
in the preceding number of this maga- 
zine. Those stern religionists, men of 
conscience, truth, and sobriety, as we 
naturally esteem them, this editor con- 
victs, not only of putting a very loose 
construction upon the obligations of 
neutrality in respect to the rival gov- 
ernors, but he goes further and demon- 
strates to his own satisfaction their in- 
sincerity, nay their injurious misrepre- 
sentation, their injustice and falsehood 
in attributing to one party an offense 
well known to have been committed by 
the other. In an off-hand way, with lit- 
tle consideration apparently of the seri- 
ousness of the charge, he supposes them 
quite capable of knowingly holding a 
man responsible for what he never did, 
while the real and known offender they 
thus acquit. Were this really true, no 
allowance for the times could excuse or 
even palliate such a course. The ver- 
dict of downright hypocrisy could not 
be withheld. Now to the note and the 
evidence. Mr. Savage remarks : 



" Very inadequate ideas of the obliga- 
tions of neutrality, or very slight regard 
for its laws, must be observable in the 
management of affairs here, in which 
the rival French governors felt any in- 
terest. For La Tour the greater num- 
ber had engaged in actual war on 
D'Aulnay in the former year, and had 
met no better success than their cause 
deserved. But the acts of injury or 
violence done by one of these strangers 
would have been imputed to the other, 
perhaps, without hesitation, if reparation 
could by such a course have been ob- 
tained. A curious document to illustrate 
this point was given me by the late Judge 
Davis: 

Whereas about two yeares since Movms'r 
D'Aulnay under pretence or color of comerce did 
violently and injuriously take possession out of 
the Hands and custody of the Agents and servts. 
of Edward Winslow, William Bradford, Thomas 
Prence, and others their ptners at Matchebigua- 
tus in Penobscot, together with divers and sun- 
dry goods to their great losse, even to the valew 
of five hundred pounds or thereabout ; And for- 
asmuch as no satisfaces' hath ever been made 
and tendered by the sd Mouns'r D'Aulnay, for 
the sd Possession or goods by any his Agents ; 
The sd Edw. Winslow for himself and ptners 
hath and doth by these prnts fully surrender and 
make over his and their pp right and title, not 
only to the said possession of lands in Mache- 
biguatus aforesaid but to their fortificon, bows- 
ing, losse and damages, right and privileges 
thereunto belonging to Joh. Winthrop, Junior, 
Esq, Serjant Major Edw. Gibbons and Captain 
Thomas Hawkins, all of Boston, in New Engld, 
to them, their heires, associats, and assignes 
forever. Allowing and investing them with all 
such lawfull power by force of Arms or other- 
wise to recover the said Possession, fortificacons, 
howsing, lands, goods, etc., to them the said 
Edw., William, Thomas, and other their ptners 
at Machebiguatus aforesaid apptayning. And the 
same to have and to hold, occupy and enjoy, to 



TI STORY IN BRIE] 



277 



them the said Joh. Winthrop, Esq., Serjant 
Major Gibbons, and Captain Thomas Hawkins, 
their heires, Associats and Assignes forever, 
together with all such priviledges as apptayneth 
thereunto. In witness whereof the said Edward 
Winslow hath put his hand and seale the last of 
August, 1644. 

Per me Edward Winslow, Gov'r at 
prnt of New Plym. 
Witnesses hereunto 

Herbert Pelham j Seale \ 

John Brown { A Pelican ) 

" The seal," our editor continues, " is 
very perfect, the whole instrument in 
excellent preservation. One very re- 
markable thing about this transaction is, 
that the contemporary relation of the 
French act at Machias in 1633 by Gov- 
ernor Winthrop charges it as done by 
La Tour, and in the following year a 
reference to it uses the same command- 
er's name. 

"We can construe this deed by Wins- 
low, at this late date, only as his desire 
to hold D'Aulnay responsible for the 
wrong done so many years before by La 
Tour ; and it might seem an unfair 
attempt to retaliate by force. Luckily 
D'Aulnay was too strong, or we might 
have had to blush for outrages under such 
letters of marque, perpetrated by Major 
Gibbons or Captain Hawkins." 

So we are asked to believe that Wins- 
low, Bradford, Prence, John Winthrop 
junior, Gibbons, Hawkins, with their 
partners and associates, were implicated 
in such a business as that ! How with 
the facts and documents before one such 
an unjust, false, and slanderous construc- 
tion could have been entertained for one 
moment will remain the inexplicable 
thing. The inference has scarcely a 
shadow of foundation. A complete 



refutation lies within the manuscript 
this writer was editing. It is evident in 
the very materials of the notes. The 
opening clause of the deed recites that 
D'Aulnay 's offense occurred " about 
two years since," that is, in 1642, while 
as the writer shows by Winthrop's testi- 
mony, the La Tour affair happened in 
1633, or nine years earlier. One event 
took place "at Matchebiguatus in Penob- 
scot," the other at Machias, which the 
writer assumes to be the same place. 
Whatever part of Penobscot might be 
intended, it remains that the Bay of 
Penobscot is from Machias Bay eighty 
miles distant as the crow flies, and in- 
stead of the places being identical, they 
must have been one hundred miles 
or more apart by the sailing route. 
Lastly, the parties in interest in the two 
cases were different persons and from 
different localities. Although in the 
first instance of the La Tour affair a 
Plymouth man is mentioned as princi- 
pal, it is neither Winslow, Bradford, nor 
Prence, but Mr. Allerton ; and it after- 
ward appears that a Mr. Vines of Saco 
controlled the goods and established the 
port such as it was. Moreover there 
was at Machias at that time no planta- 
tion, fortification, or appropriated lands 
as mentioned in the Penobscot deed, 
but only " a wigwam " or cabin occupied 
by five of Mr. Vines's men for trading 
purposes. 

All this appears in Mr. Savage's own 
volumes under the faithful hand of Gov- 
ernor John Winthrop, by whom the case 
is recited upon the testimony before 
himself of both Mr. Vines and Lord La 
Tour face to face, the year previous to 
the making of the Penobscot deed. The 



278 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



2 giousness and almost unpardonable 
nature of this error will be manifest 
when we give Winthrop's accounts en- 
tire. His first note in the autumn of 
1633 is as follows : 

" News of the taking of Machias by 
the French, Mr. Allerton of Plimouth 
and some others had set a trading wig- 
wam there, and lost in it five men and 
store of commodities. La Tour, gov- 
ernor of the French in those parts, mak- 
ing claim to those parts, came to displant 
them, and, finding resistance, killed two 
men and carried away the other three 
and the goods." 

About ten years later, in June, 1643, 
when La Tour came to Boston in the 
ship Clement, seeking aid to raise the 
siege of Fort La Tour, this old matter 
came up, and we get the story in detail 
from the two parties in interest, one of 
them an eye-witness. Winthrop writes : 

" And whereas he [La Tour] was 
charged to have killed two Englishmen 
at Machias not far from his fort and to 
have taken away their goods to the value 
of five hundred pounds, Mr. Vines of 
Saco, who was part owner of the goods 
and principal trader, etc., being present 
with La Tour, the Governor heard the 
cause between them, which was thus : 
Mr. Vines being in a pinnace trading in 
those parts La Tour met him in another 
pinnace and bought so many of his com- 
modities as Mr. Vines received then of 
him four hundred skins, and although 
some of Mr. Vines his company had 
abused La Tour, whereupon he had made 
them prisoners in his pinnace, yet at Mr. 
Vines entreaty he discharged them with 
grave and good counsel, and acquainted 
Mr. Vines with his commission to make 



prize of all such as should come to trade 
in those parts, and thereupon desired him 
peaceably to forbear, etc., yet at his 
request he gave him leave to trade the 
goods he had left, in his way home, so as 
he did not fortify or build in any places 
within his commission, which he said he 
could not answer it if he should suffer 
it ; whereupon they parted friendly. 
Mr. Vines landed his goods at Machias, 
and there set up a small wigwam, and 
left five men and two murderers to 
defend it, and a shallop, and so returned 
home. Two days after La Tour comes, 
and casting anchor before the place, one 
of Mr. Vines' his men came on board 
his pinnace, and while they were in par- 
ley four of La Tour his men went on 
shore. One of the four which were in 
the house seeing them, gave fire to a 
murderer, but it not taking fire, he called 
to his fellow to give fire to the other 
murderer, which he going to do, the four 
French retreated, and one of the muskers 
went off (La Tour sayeth it was by 
accident and that the shot went through 
one of his fellow's clothes, but Mr. Vines 
could say nothing to that). It killed 
two of the men on shore, which La Tour 
then professed himself innocent of, and 
very sorry for ; and said further that the 
five men were at that time all drunk, and 
not unlikely, having store of wine and 
strong water, for had they been sober, 
they would not have given fire on such 
as they had conversed friendly with but 
two days before, without once bidding 
them stand, or asking wherefore they 
came. After this La Tour coming to 
the house and finding some of his own 
goods (though of no great value) which 
had a little time before been taken out of 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



279 



his fort at St. Johns by the Scotch and 
some English of Virginia (where they 
had plundered all his goods to a great 
value and abused his men,) he seized the 
three men and the goods and sent them 
to France according to his commission, 
where the men'were discharged, but the 
goods adjudged lawful prize. Mr. Vines 
did not contradict any of this, but only 
that he did not build or fortify at 
Machias, but only set up a shelter for 
his men and goods. For the value of 
the goods Mr. Vines showed an invoice 
which came to three or four hun- 
dred pounds, but La Tour said he had 
another under the men's hands that were 
there which came not to half so much. 
In courtesy he promised that he would 
refer the cause to judgment, and if it 
should be found that he had done wrong, 
he would make satisfaction." 

The above account in the main bears 
the unmistakable marks of truth; though 
as to La Tour's story of the " musker " 
discharging accidentally through a 
friend's clothing and killing two ene- 
mies on the shore, the event is so ex- 
traordinary we may be pardoned for 
taking it with a grain of salt, or even 
dismissing it as a sailor's or (worse yet) 
a fur-trader's yarn. Yet the thing is 
within the range of possibility, and to 
swallow the tale whole without a wink 
would seem no tax upon credulity at all 
in comparison with what is required in 
gratuitously supposing a conspiracy of 
such prominent men of character to 
saddle the notorious affair of La Tour 
upon another — a studious scheme to 
make reprisals upon a party known to 
be innocent, and that for a matter already 
settled. 



The well-known truth is that D'Aulnay 
Charnisay did seize Penobscot and hold 
it for years, having dispossessed the 
Plymouth people, who in turn had seized 
it previously, dispossessing Claude, the 
father of Charles La Tour. 

An Eye-witness of Burgoyne's 
Surrender 1 — The following letter was 
written by Colonel Dudley Colman, of 
Newbury, Mass., to his friend, Colonel 
Moses Little, member of the House of 
Representatives, and affords a unique 
view of the surrender of Burgoyne, by 
an eye-witness of that important event 
in the war of the Revolution : 

" Camp Albany, Oct. 28, 1777. 
Dear Sir : — I have the pleasure, though late, 
to congratulate you on the surrender of Gen. 
Burgoyne and his army. Some of them doubt- 
less you will have the pleasure of seeing before 
this reaches you. It may I think be reck- 
oned among the extraordinary events, history 
furnishes us with, to have 5,000 and upwards 
of veteran, disciplined troops, besides followers 
of the army, surrounded, and their resources 
and retreat so cut off in the field, as to oblige 
them to surrender prisoners of war, without 
daring to come to further action, is an event 
I do not recollect to have met with in his- 
tory, much less did I ever expect to see it in 
this war, I confess I could hardly believe it to 
be a reality when I saw it, the prospect was 
truly extremely pleasing to see our troops 
paraded in the best order, and to see march by 
as prisoners, after they had laid down their 
arms, those who but a few days before had pre- 
tended to despise us (although at the same time 
I believe they did not think so lightly as they 
pretended). I can but mention the good order 
observed by our troops on seeing them march 
by, no laughing or marks of exultation were to 
be seen among them, nothing more than a 
manly joy appeared on the countenances of our 

] Contributed by Lida C. Tulloch, Washington, D.C. 



jSo 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



troops, which showed that they had fortitude of 
mind to bear prosperity without being too much 
elated, as well as to encounter the greatest 
hardships and dangers. It has likewise been 
observed to me by several of the British officers 
that they did not expect to be received in so 
polite a manner, and that they never saw troops 
behave with more decency, or a better spirit on 
such an occasion. 

We have. I think, for the present, restored 
peace in the northern quarter, and, although 
for a little time past viewed the evacuation of 
Ticonderoga as a misfortune, we may now see 
it has proved a means of destroying this enemy. 

Gen. Clinton has of late made an attempt 
to come up the river, and has destroyed several 
places in order to make a diversion in favor of 
Gen. Burgoyne, but he was too late. We ex- 
pect orders to strike our tents every day, as we 
have been under marching orders these three 
days, and part of the army are gone. I know 
not where we are to march to, but suppose it to 
be down the river, when if we can get between 
the enemy and their ships, we shall endeavor to 
convince them that they are not to proceed in 
the way they have done, of destroying the 
property of our fellow-countrymen. Please to 
give my best regards to Mr. Gray and family, 
and all friends, and I shall be happy to have a 
line from you. 

I am, dear sir, 
Your most obedient, humble servant, 
Dudley Colman. 

To Col. Moses Little, member of the House 
of Representatives." 

" How we Lose our History " — 
Under this caption a Charleston journal 
raises a cry of distress over the neglect 
to secure valuable documents relating to 
the history of the State of South Caro- 
lina, manifested by its own citizens, as 
contrasted with the commendable appre- 
ciation of these on the part of citizens 
of other States. It says: 

" It appears that our historian and 
novelist, William Gilmore Simms, in 



1 868, broken in fortune by the results 
of the war, and unable even with his 
brilliant pen to avert the res angusti 
domi, was compelled to part with his 
collection of letters and manuscripts, 
the labor of many years and the fruit 
of unremitting study and investigation. 
Messrs. J. Carson Brevoort, H. E. 
Pierrepont, and sixteen other gentle- 
men of New York contributed the sum 
of $1,500, which was paid Dr. Simms in 
1868 for his invaluable manuscripts, now 
to be found in the archives of the Long 
Island Historical Society. An idea of 
the character and value of the collec- 
tion is fully set forth in a report of the 
society." 

The application of the homily then 
follows, and should find an echo in every 
community that must plead guilty to the 
same inexcusable indifference. 

" Only a Carolinian with a dead soul 
would not feel a pang of deep mortifica- 
tion and regret at reading such a state- 
ment, and yet it is gratifying to know 
that citizens of other States have not 
shown the same apathy and neglect 
which, with a few rare exceptions, have 
characterized our people for many years, 
and which it is the endeavor of the 
trustees of the Charleston Library to 
remedy. 

" There are now scattered throughout 
the State, in private hands, numbers of 
letters and manuscripts which should, at 
least, be carefully preserved for publica- 
tion in after times, if sufficient funds 
cannot be raised for their publication 
now. But there must be an institution, 
be it a library, historical society, State 
bureau of historical information, or what 
not, founded on so solid a financial basis 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



J. Si 



as will permit no doubts as to its safety 
and stability, in which their owners 
could deposit such documents for pres- 
ervation. Otherwise, many valuable 
records may suffer the fate of ten boxes 
of the archives of the Confederate 
States which were burned in the resi- 
dence of a gentleman in one of the 
upper counties of South Carolina some 
years ago; or may be fished out of a 
heap of old papers and rags in a junk 
shop, mutilated and almost entirely 
illegible, as was the case with a manu- 
script diary of a Confederate naval officer 
who served in Charleston harbor during 
the war." 

A Story of a Brave Deed Brave- 
ly Told. — The article on Texas in the 
present number leads us to note that 
Mr. Richard Harding Davis, in The 
West from a Car Window, relates in 
his first chapter the story of the brave 
defense of the Alamo, in Texas. He 
approaches the subject with becoming 
modesty, it being, as he says, " more 
than a thrice-told " tale ; but, neverthe- 
less, he does not spoil it in telling it 
again, as he fears he will. We select 
some passages from his spirited account: 

" On the 23d of February, 1836, Gen- 
eral Santa Anna himself, with four 
thousand Mexican soldiers, marched 
into the town of San Antonio. In the 
old mission of the Alamo were the 
town's only defenders, one hundred 
and forty-five men, under Captain 
Travis, a young man twenty-eight years 
old. With him were Davy Crockett, 
who had crossed over from his own 
State to help those who were freeing 
theirs, and Colonel Bowie (who gave his 



name to a knife, which name our gov- 
ernment gave later to a fort), who was 
wounded and lying on a cot. . . . On 
the 3d of March, 1836, there was a ces- 
sation in the bombardment, and Captain 
Travis drew his men up into single rank 
and takes his place in front of them 
Captain Travis tells them that all that 
remains to them is the choice of their 
death, and that they have but to decide 
in which manner of dying they will best 
serve their country. They can surren- 
der and be shot down mercilessly, they 
can make a sortie and be butchered 
before they have gained twenty yards, 
or they can die fighting to the last, 
and killing their enemies until that last 
comes. He gives them their choice, and 
then stooping, draws a line with the point 
of his sword in the ground from the left 
to the right of the rank. ' And now,' 
he says, ' every man who is determined 
to remain here and to die with me will 
come to me across that line." Tapley 
Holland was the first to cross. He 
jumped it with a bound, as though it 
were a Rubicon. ' I am ready to die 
for my country,' he said. And then all 
but one man, named Rose, marched 
over to the other side. Colonel Bowie, 
lying wounded in his cot, raised himself 
on his elbow. ■ Boys,' he said, 'don't 
leave me. Won't some of you carry me 
across ? ' And those of the sick who 
could walk rose from the bunks and tot- 
tered across the line ; and those who 
could not walk were carried. Rose, who 
could speak Spanish, trusted to this 
chance to escape, and scaling the wall 
of the Alamo, dropped into a ditch 
on the other side, and crawled, hidden 
by the cactus, into a place of safety. 



282 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



Through him we know what happened 
before that final day came. He had his 
reward. 

" Three days after this, on the morning 
of the 6th of March, Santa Anna brought 
forward all of his infantry, supported by 
his cavalry, and stormed the fortress. 
The infantry came up on every side at 
once in long black solid rows, bearing 
the scaling-ladders before them, and en- 
couraged by the press of great numbers 
about them. ... At the third trial 
the ladders are planted, and Mexicans 
after Mexicans scale them, and jump 
down into the pit inside, hundreds and 
hundreds of them, to be met with bullets 
and then by bayonet-thrusts, and at last 
with desperate swinging of the butt, 
until the little band grows smaller and 
weaker, and is driven up and about and 
beaten down and stamped beneath the 
weight of overwhelming and unending 
numbers. They die fighting on their 
knees, hacking up desperately as they 
are beaten and pinned down by a dozen 
bayonets, Bowie leaning on his elbow 
and shooting from his cot, Crockett 
fighting like a panther in the angle of 
the church wall, and Travis with his 
back against the wall to the west. The 
one hundred and seventy-two men who 
had held four thousand men at bay for 
two sleepless weeks are swept away as a 
dam goes that has held back a flood, and 
the Mexicans open the church doors 
from the inside and let in their comrades 
and the sunshine that shows them horrid 
heaps of five hundred and twenty-two 
dead Mexicans, and five hundred more 
wounded. There are no wounded among 
the Texans ; of the one hundred and 
seventy two who were in the Alamo 



there are one hundred and seventy-two 
dead. 

" With an example like this to follow, 
it was not difficult to gain the indepen- 
dence of Texas, and whenever Sam 
Houston rode before his men crying, 
' Remember the Alamo ! ' the battle was 
already half won." 

First Suggestion of Lincoln's 
Name — In Mount Vernon, Ohio, there 
died not long ago Mr. Israel Green. He 
had built up a comfortable drug business 
at Findlay, Ohio, in the early fifties of 
this century, but was a keen observer of 
political events, as well as a capable 
judge of their drift and significance. 
He was not a politician himself, and not 
an office-holder except to the extent of 
being a member of the State legislature 
for one term. He was a man of inde- 
pendent mind, and had given himself 
heart and soul to the anti-slavery cause. 
He had watched with eager zest the 
famous debates between Lincoln and 
Douglas, and had come to the conclu- 
sion that Abraham Lincoln was a man 
not only of alertness and ability in con- 
troversy, but possessed of the more 
solid qualities of the statesman, and en- 
dued with the unflinching moral courage 
of the reformer. Mr. Green, there- 
fore, became strongly convinced that 
Lincoln was the man to lead the hosts 
of anti-slavery to victory in the ap- 
proaching presidential campaign. Ac- 
cordingly, on November 6, 1858, he 
wrote to the Cincinnati Gazette, suggest- 
ing the name of Abraham Lincoln as 
presidential candidate. The letter was 
published in that journal, and appeared 
in its columns as follows : 



HISTORY IN BRIEF 



283 



A TICKET FOR i860. 

Correspondence of the Cincinnati Gazette. 
FlNDLAY, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1858. — Permit a daily 
reader of your valuable paper, residing in the 
Northwest, to suggest to the consideration of the 
triumphant and united opposition, the names of 
the following distinguished and patriotic states- 
men as standard bearers in the approaching pres- 
idential election : 

For President, 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 

of Illinois. 
Vice President, 

JOHN P. KENNEDY, 

of Maryland. 

There, sir, is a ticket that can command and 
receive the united support of the entire opposi- 
tion. With the above ticket in the field, with a 
banner on which shall be inscribed union and 
harmony ; protection to American capital and 
American labor, skill and enterprise ; improve- 
ments of Western rivers and harbors ; free labor 
and unrelenting opposition to the interference of 
the general government in favor of the spread 
of slavery ; opposition to any further acquisition 
of foreign territory ; to humbug squatter sover- 
eignty ; to the principles involved in the Dred 
Scott decision. Let us oppose the appointment 
to offices of profit members of either branch of 
Congress during the term for which they shall 
be elected ; oppose extravagance and favoritism 
in the public expenses, and favor a return to the 
early principles and practices of the founders of 
our government. Let us preserve the elective 
franchise pure and untarnished. 

With such standard bearers and such a plat- 
form the great opposition or American Repub- 
lican party can go before the people of the nation 
in i860 with the full assurance of a triumphant 
victory over the present pro-slavery filibustering, 
border ruffian Democracy. 

(Signed) 
A Member of the Philadelphia Convention 

in 1856. 



This is believed to have been the first 
public suggestion of President Lincoln's 
name. Newspapers and politicians every- 
where took it up, with the result that in 
i860 the nomination of the head of the 
ticket at least, was made. Mr. Green 
deserves to be remembered with grati- 
tude. 

Resolutions Passed by the So- 
ciety of Colonial Dames of America 
on the Death of Mrs. Martha J. 
Lamb. 

Whereas, Mrs. Martha J. Lamb has 
been, in the Providence of God, called 
from life ; and whereas, she was one of 
the founders of the Society of Colonial 
Dames of America, and was among 
those to whom the members are partic- 
ularly indebted for the organization and 
inspiration at the start ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That this society hereby ex- 
press its sense of loss and sorrow in the 
removal of this eminent and valued mem- 
ber ; and 

Resolved, That we do hereby formally 
express our appreciation and admiration 
of her as conspicuous in the literary 
world, profound and painstaking and 
accurate as an historian, so illustrious as 
the writer of the history of our city and 
country, so widely and respectfully re- 
garded both at home and abroad, so 
affectionately held by those admitted to 
her friendship ; and 

Resolved, That we record this action 
in our minutes. 



QUERIES 



House occupied by lafayette — August 14, 16 14, preserved among the 

Either while recovering from his wound archives at the Hague. As I do not 

received at the battle of the Brandywine, find such document among Brodhead's 

or during some other sickness, Lafayette collection of papers published by the 



occupied a farmhouse in a New Jersey 
village, not far from the Delaware. Can 
any of your readers state the exact loca- 
tion of this house, and whether it is still 
in existence ? P. Q. W. 



state, will some one of your readers inform 
me whether such document is now at the 
Hague, or whether Mrs. Lamb was mis- 
informed as to its existence ? R. B. S. 



David Crockett — Was not an auto- 
biography of David Crockett published ? 
Can a copy be had, or is the work out of 

print ? 



Burning of the tiger — Mrs. Lamb, 
in her History of New York City, states 
that an account of the burning of this 
vessel in New York bay, in the winter of 
1613-14, is found in a document dated 



The first place of worship on 
Manhattan island — When Peter Min- 
uit came over (in 1626) to establish 
colonial government in New Nether- 
land, he brought with him two lay read- 
ers, and worship was conducted by 
them, and afterwards by Dominie Jonas 
Michaelius, from 1628 to 1633, in the 
loft of a " horse-mill." Can any of your 
readers tell just where that mill stood ? 

Clericus 



REPLIES 



First college periodical [xxviii. 
No. 4] — In reply to inquiry about col- 
lege journalism, allow me to say that 
The Literary Cabinet was founded at 
Yale, 1806. The Harvard Lyceum was 
started at Harvard, 1810, and Edward 
Everett was one of the editors. Before 
either of these, The Gazette was started 
at Dartmouth, and as Daniel Webster 
was one of the principal contributors, 
and he graduated in the class of 1801, 
it was almost undoubtedly a product of 
the last century. 

So The North Carolina University 
Magazine of 1844 is decidedly not " the 
first college periodical in the United 
States." 

W. Armitage Beardslee 

Yonkers, New York 



Oldest dwelling house erected 
in new york state [xxix. 185] — It 
may be that the house in Southampton, 
L. I., built in 1648, is the oldest house in 
the sense that it has been preserved in- 
tact since it was built. But the writer 
will not claim surely that it was the first 
house erected within the bounds of the 
state. It may be permitted to mention 
in this connection that there are portions 
of the foundations still extant of the 
city tavern built by Director Kieft in 
1642, which became the city hall in 
1653, and was used as such until 1700. 
It is still in order, however, for some one 
to indicate if there be any dwelling-house 
in complete preservation, older than the 
Southampton house of 1648. 

J. G. G. 



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ll»IMl 



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Alabama — A colored Literary and 
Historical Society was organized on 
January 2, 1893, at Birmingham, and a 
paper appointed to be read at the first 
regular meeting on " The Nature, Neces- 
sity, and Object of such Society." 



California — The California Histor- 
ical Society held its seventh annual 
meeting for the election p£ a board of 
directors, and a committee on publica- 
tion, on January 10, 1893. A paper was 
read, entitled " Early California Schools 
and the Primitive Modes Employed in 
the Pre- American Era." 

— The Historical Society of South- 
ern California, Los Angeles — Perhaps 
the most valuable property owned by 
this association from a historical stand- 
point is the complete files of Southern 
California newspapers from 1850 to 
the present day. Great pains are taken 
to authenticate all documents coming to 
the society, so that when they pass 
upon its shelves they can be accepted 
with confidence by any Hume, Mac- 
aulay, or Carlyle who may happen to 
crop up to write a history for Southern 
California. 



Connecticut. — The Connecticut 
Historical Society of Hartford at a recent 
meeting voted not to allow out of its 
possession the tape printed with Professor 
Morse's first telegraphic message, which 
is requested by the Western Union 
Telegraph company for its museum. 
The society will permit it to be photo- 
graphed. The society has also in its 
possession the identical United States 
flag that General B. F. Butler raised over 
the New Orleans custom house after the 
first flag was pulled down and torn to 
shreds by the people of New Orleans, on 
the occupation of the city by federal 
troops. It was in relation to this flag 
and the threats of the women of New 
Orleans to insult it, that. Butler's famous 
order was issued for the arrest and pros- 
ecution of every woman found on the 
streets of the city after seven o'clock in 
the evening. The flag is a large, hand- 
some silk one of regulation style, and 
shows no signs of wear or injury. After 
the war the flag was given to Gideon 
Welles, Lincoln's secretary of the navy, 
and by him was presented to the Histor- 
ical Society. 

— At the last regular meeting of the 
Fairfield County Historical Society, at 
Bridgeport, it was reported that the con- 



Note. — This department aims to present such notes of the proceedings of historical societies 
throughout the country as are of general historical interest, with such items of a local nature as 
will serve to stimulate the formation of new societies, or to encourage the activities of those 
already established. Thus we hope to furnish a comprehensive survey of the character of the 
actual historical work done by these organizations, and to indicate the growth everywhere of 
the historical spirit. 



286 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



tributions of books during the month 
include fifty volumes of the New Eng- 
ender, by Rev. C. R. Palmer. They 
form a consecutive series from 1843 to 
the present time. Mr. Palmer also do- 
nated various other volumes, including 
one year of the London Spectator, which 
completes a set from many years back to 
the present. 



District of Columbia — At a recent 
meeting of the Ladies' Historical So- 
ciety of Washington, the attention of the 
members was given to various treatments 
of Scandinavian history and mythology. 

— There has been some talk among 
those interested in the Georgetown of 
years gone by, of forming an historical 
society, whose main object will be to 
secure from the towns throughout Mary- 
land and Virginia, and wherever they 
may exist, the scattered records, old 
maps, early newspapers, and other things 
of a historical nature relating to the 
town, and to preserve them in the rooms 
of the society with other historical docu- 
ments that from time to time will make 
their appearance. Local relics of all 
descriptions will be collected, and officers 
periodically chosen to care for them. It 
is urged that such a society would re- 
ceive earnest support from the best peo- 
ple of the place. It is said many of the 
documents which would be gathered to- 
gether are now in possession of people 
residing at and in the vicinity of Hagers- 
town, Rockville, Frederick, Baltimore, 
and Alexandria. 



cured, through the liberality of Mr. 
Marshall Field, a valuable collection of 
historical documents. They are eight 
large volumes of letters of James Madi- 
son ; one large volume of letters of 
General James Armstrong, minister to 
France under Jefferson, and secretary of 
war during the war of 181 2 ; also let- 
ters of Joseph Jones, Washington's col- 
league in the constitutional convention ; 
and of Edmund Randolph, attorney- 
general of the United States under 
Washington. They were purchased by 
J. C. McGuire of Washington, several 
years ago, from a member of Madison's 
family ; at one time the state depart- 
ment offered a thousand dollars for 
them, which was refused. Mr. Field 
paid the price at which they are now 
held, seventy-five hundred dollars, and 
generously presented them to the Chi- 
cago society. 



Illinois — The Chicago Historical 
Society is fortunate in having just se- 



Kansas — The eighth biennial report 
of the Kansas Historical Society, just 
issued, shows the work of the society 
and the condition of its library and col- 
lections up to November 15 last. There 
have been added to the library of the 
society during the two years, 2,183 vol- 
umes of books ; unbound volumes and 
pamphlets, 7,710; volumes of news- 
papers and periodicals, 2,499 5 single 
newspapers containing matter of special 
historical interest, 734 ; maps, atlases, 
and charts, 3,253 ; manuscripts, 556 ; 
pictures and other works of art, 183 ; 
scrip, currency, and coin, 81 ; war relics, 
23 ; miscellaneous contributions, 443. 
Hon. George T. Pierce of Goodrich, 
Kansas, has given the society a copy of 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



287 



a pamphlet containing a satirical poem 
on De Witt Clinton, who was a presi- 
dential candidate in 181 2 ; also a pam- 
phlet containing a political lampoon on 
John Hancock, the bold signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, who was 
at the time of this publication, 1789, 
a candidate for governor of Massachu- 
setts. 



Louisiana — There was a meeting at 
Tulane university in January last, for 
the purpose of forming in New Orleans 
a society whose aim will be to collect 
historical literature and relics of any his- 
torical significance, so as to preserve 
them for reference. This meeting will 
be about the first of its kind in the 
south, but it is in line with the organi- 
zation in New York known as the 
" Daughters of 1776 and 1812." 



Maine — At the last meeting of the 
Maine Historical Society a paper was 
read on " Pre-Columbian Discovery." 
The members of the Society were greatly 
interested and delighted in the witty 
and sarcastic comments made in the 
paper on the theories of the " Norse 
maniacs." Yet the reader regarded the 
sagas as legitimate and valuable sources 
of proof of Norse discoveries in America, 
but thought they should be supplement- 
ed, not by unauthenticated relics such as 
towers and mythical cities, but by study 
of the ancient records. 



Maryland — Friday, January 27, was 
the 49th anniversary of the organization 
of the Maryland Historical Society. On 



the corresponding day of the month of 
January, 1844, some eighteen or twenty 
gentlemen assembled in the office of the 
Maryland Colonization Society to organ- 
ize an institution " for the purpose 
of collecting the scattered materials 
of the early history of this state and 
for other collateral objects." A stimu- 
lus was immediately given to literary 
taste in Baltimore by the establishment 
of the society. The first record of mem- 
bership published in 1844 shows that 
there was hardly a gentleman in pro- 
fessional or mercantile life noted for 
cultivation who did not join the organi- 
zation. 

— Recently the Frederick County His- 
torical Society was organized, and this 
was made the occasion for the following 
sensible observations on the part of the 
Baltimore News : " The organization of 
the Frederick County Historical Society 
is a matter that calls for more than pass- 
ing note. Such bodies are urgently 
needed in each county in the state to 
preserve the local traditions and records 
which go to make up the story of its 
life. For years the Maryland Historical 
Society, located in this city, has been 
doing a great work, and one which future 
generations will richly appreciate ; but 
even its efforts have been hampered to 
an incalculable extent by the almost en- 
tire lack of interest taken in historical 
research by residents of the counties. 
Otherwise well-informed and intelli- 
gent people in the state are lamentably 
deficient in knowledge concerning 
past events of their localities and of 
the individuals who have figured there- 
in." 



288 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



Massachusetts — At a regular meet- 
ing of the New England Historical Ge- 
nealogical Society held in November, 
Protessor John Fiske read a paper on 
" Charles Lee, the Soldier of Fortune." 
Professor Fiske reviewed at length Lee's 
well-known treachery to the American 
cause, and shed some additional light 
upon it ; and his subsequent incapable 
conduct at the battle of Monmouth, re- 
sulting, as it did, in one of Washington's 
few recorded bursts of anger, was vividly 
narrated. He drew an instructive moral 
from the petulant and unprovoked out- 
break which ultimately severed his rela- 
tion with the army for the last time, 
although he had deserved cashiering in 
much more aggravated instances often 
before. At the January meeting the an- 
nual election of officers took place, ex- 
Governor William Claflin being re-elected 
president. 

— Charles Francis Adams has offered 
to erect a memorial to Miles Standish if 
the Weymouth Historical Society will 
secure a site in the Wessagussett settle- 
ment, where Standish fought his decisive 
conflict with the Indians, April 6, 1623. 

— At the annual meeting of the pro- 
prietors of the Nantucket Athenaeum 
initiatory steps were taken to secure the 
establishment of an Historical Genea- 
logical Society. 

— The Old Colony Historical Society 
met at Taunton, in January, and listened 
to a paper by Rev. P. W. Lyman of Fall 
River, on " The Shay's Rebellion in Mas- 
sachusetts." One or two interesting epi- 
sodes of that alarming affair, which seri- 



ously threatened the foundations of the 
newly established government, occurred 
in Taunton, to which the speaker paid 
especial attention. The librarian re- 
ported a number of documents received 
during the year, among them a " History 
of Fall River for One Hundred and Sixty 
Years to 1841, by Rev. Orrin Fowler, 
M. C." ; also the " Brown University 
Alumni of Fall River ; Sketches by Hon. 
John S. Bray ton in 1888 " — from the 
latter. The present number of members 
is five hundred and thirty-seven. Captain 
George A. Washburn presented an old 
subscription paper, bearing the names of 
prominent citizens of Taunton who had 
subscribed various sums for the benefit 
of the families of the Taunton Light 
Guard when they were called away at 
the outbreak of the rebellion. The 
society has recently come into posses- 
sion of an ancient document of local 
interest, being a sermon preached by 
Elder Hinds of Middleboro in 1758. 
The manuscript was very well preserved. 

— The annual meeting of the Fitch- 
burg Historical Society was held in Jan- 
uary last. A letter written in 1776, and 
signed by the selectmen of Fitchburg, 
was presented to the society. The let- 
ter was addressed to the " Committee of 
Clothing for the Colony of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay," and asked pay of the 
colony for the benefit of the heirs of 
John Gibson of Fitchburg, who was 
killed at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

— A new society was organized in Bos- 
ton last January by a number of gentle- 
men interested in preserving and per- 
petuating the historical records of this 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



289 



commonwealth, to be known as " The 
Massachusetts Society." The aims and 
object of the society are announced to 
be "to collect and preserve mementos 
of our colonial ancestors ; to propagate 
knowledge of their lives and deeds by 
the publication of ancient documents 
and records ; to cultivate an interest in 
the history of our country, and more 
especially of the colonies of Plymouth 
and the Massachusetts Bay ; to encour- 
age individual research into the part 
taken by our forefathers in the building 
of our nation ; to promote intelligent 
discussion of events in which the people 
of our commonwealth have been con- 
cerned, in order that justice may be 
done to participants and false claims 
silenced ; and to inspire among our 
members a spirit of fellowship based 
upon a proper appreciation of our com- 
mon ancestry." 

— The Watertown Historical Society 
held its regular monthly meeting in Jan- 
uary. Mr. O. W. Dimick, principal of 
Wells School, Boston, delivered an ad- 
dress on " Marco Polo and his Book." 
This paper was prepared for the Old 
South lectures, and was considered so 
excellent that the author was invited to 
deliver it before the Brooklyn Institute 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. Miss Ellen M. 
Crafts, secretary of the society, read 
Joel Barlow's " Vision of Columbus." 
The evening was termed " Columbus 
night," and " Columbus " was the topic 
of discussion. 

— The Roxbury Military Historical 
Society, Colonel Horace T. Rockwell 
president, held its annual dinner in Bos- 

VOL. XXIX.-NO. 3.-19 



ton, January 26. Several prominent 
gentlemen interested in historical mat- 
ters were present on the occasion. This 
society has already reached a member- 
ship of over three hundred, composed 
of the residents of the Roxbury district, 
and will soon commence the publication 
of interesting reminiscences connected 
with the military, political, and literary 
celebrities of Old Roxbury. The society 
is specially interested in furthering the 
proposition for the erection of a statue 
to Major-General Joseph Warren. 



Minnesota — The monthly meeting 
of the State Historical Society was held 
at the capitol last night. The erection 
of a commodious building in which to 
house the society's treasures was recom- 
mended, and will be presented for leg- 
islative action. In the library and 
museum there are twenty-five thousand 
bound volumes, twenty-nine thousand 
unbound volumes, one hundred and 
forty-eight framed pictures, two hundred 
and eighty-two curios, one thousand 
manuscripts, and five hundred coins. 
In case the legislature does not provide 
funds for the erection of a new capitol 
building, it will be asked to make an 
appropriation of one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a fire-proof build- 
ing for the society. 



Nebraska — The annual meeting of 
the State Historical Society was held 
January 10 and 11, 1893, in the chapel 
of the State university, Lincoln. The 
sessions were of more than ordinary in- 
terest, and there will be an effort to get 



290 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



the recognition from the legislature this 
winter that will be more commensurate 
with the importance of the objects of 
the association. The older settlers are 
beginning to see the need of gathering 
up the threads of their earlier history 
before the sources of the best informa- 
tion are silenced in the grave. 



New Jersey — The forty -eighth annual 
meeting of the New Jersey Historical 
Society was held in January at the state 
house, Trenton, with Judge Clement of 
the court of errors and appeals in the 
chair as president. One of the most in- 
teresting features was the reading of a 
paper, by corresponding secretary Wil- 
liam Nelson, on " The Indians of New 
Jersey: Their Origin and Development ; 
Their Language, Religion, and Govern- 
ment." Mr. Nelson said that while 
there was not a society in America for 
the purpose of studying this subject, 
there was one in Paris, the Societe 
Americain ; and of the international so- 
ciety organized for the same purpose — 
the Congres International des Ameri- 
canistes — about half of the six hundred 
members were Frenchmen, and only 
about twenty-five residents of the United 
States. 



New York— The Jefferson County 
Historical Society has addressed itself 
to the task of trying to erect a building. 
Pledge papers are to be circulated in 
Watertown and other places. The ob- 
ject is heartily commended by the press 
of the county. 



— The Long Island Historical Society 
has entered upon its records testimony 
of the high esteem in whic*h its mem- 
bers held Abiel Abbott Low, who died 
on January 7, and Samuel McLean, who 
died on January 10. Mr. Low was a 
member of the board of directors of the 
society from the year of its organization, 
1863, until his death. He was always 
active in its councils and gave much 
material assistance to it. Mr. McLean 
became a member of the board of 
directors in 1876. He had supervision 
of the erection of the society's present 
handsome home. 

— The Onondaga Historical Associa- 
tion held its regular annual meeting at 
Syracuse, on January 3, for the election 
of officers and the annual organization 
of the board of directors. There was a 
large attendance of new members, and 
they were given representatives on the 
board for the ensuing year. Of the 
eighteen directors of the board six re- 
tire each year. President Kirkpatrick 
brought before the board the idea of 
noticing by some resolution or memorial 
the recent death of Martha J. Lamb, 
editor of the Magazine of American 
History, and a woman who has done 
much in the way of historical research 
throughout the state. A committee 
was appointed to make a report on the 
suggestion. 

— The Buffalo Historical Society held 
its annual meeting, in its rooms in the 
library building, January 10. Two be- 
quests were made to the society, one of 
five thousand dollars from the estate 
of the late Jonathan Scoville, and one of 



NOTES FROM TIIK HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



29I 



five hundred dollars from the estate 
of the late William Moffatt. The retir- 
ing president in his address said among 
other things : " A gift of rare value to 
the people of the western counties of 
this state from the Hon. Henry F. Glo- 
wacki of Batavia was the original title 
deeds, surveys, field notes, maps, a 
voluminous correspondence, and other 
interesting details of the celebrated 
' Holland Land Company's ' purchase 
of several million acres of land in the 
territory now known as the counties of 
Erie, Niagara, Genesee, Chautauqua, 
Cattaraugus, Allegheny, Wyoming, and 
Orleans. These records supplemented 
by those previously in possession of this 
society are of inestimable value in de- 
termining vexed questions regarding 
original titles and boundaries of farm 
lands, and even of village and city lots, 
within the limits of the above named 
counties." 

— The Oneida Historical Society, 
which has its headquarters in Utica, is 
planning to erect a monument to Gen- 
eral Nicholas Herkimer, the hero of the 
battle of Oriskany. The grave of 
General Herkimer is in the town of 
Danube, Herkimer county, within sight 
of the railroads running along the Mo- 
hawk, and all travelers would see the 
monument and be reminded of the scenes 
enacted in that valley in the early days 
of the country. The battle-ground at 
Oriskany already bears a monument, 
and it is only fitting that the hero of the 
conflict should be similarly honored. 
The brave soldier's last resting place is 
by no means wholly neglected, but the 
modest headstone which marks the grave 



of the famous fighter is not befitting his 
services to his country and to his native 
valley. The Herkimer house stands 
close by the general's grave, and 
measures for the restoration and preser- 
vation of this home merit the attention 
of every citizen of the Mohawk valley. 
The Herkimer house is one of the finest 
specimens of colonial architecture. 

— The Rochester Historical Society 
arranged for a historical exhibition, rep- 
resenting scenes in the early history of 
the city, which were given in the 
Lyceum theatre on the evenings of 
January 23 and 24. See editorial 
notes. 



Ohio — The Ohio State Archaeological 
and Historical Society, Wednesday of 
last week, presented its eighth annual 
report to the governor. Among other 
things, it says on the subject of Fort 
Ancient : " This ancient fortification is 
the largest and most prominent work of 
the kind in America. Were it in Europe 
it would long before this time have been 
under the control of a society or state, 
and would have been restored to its 
ancient condition and carefully pre- 
served." A model of Fort Ancient 
park in papier mache has been made by 
the National world's fair commission 
for exhibition there, at a cost of two 
thousand dollars. This model will be 
retained in Chicago at the close of the 
exposition. 

— The New Century Historical Society 
of Columbus, at its annual meeting on 
January 9 last, took occasion to cele- 



! 9 2 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



brate the day as being the one hundred 
and fourth anniversary of the signing of 
the treaty at Fort Harmer between the 
United States and the Indians of the Six 
Nations, in i 789. 



Pennsylvania — On February n the 
Wyoming Historical and Genealogical 
Society dedicated its handsome new 
building at Wilkesbarre. 

— The Pennsylvania Historical So- 
ciety has been making photographic 
copies of ancient wills, including those 
of five colonial mayors of Philadelphia, 
Lloyd, Morray, Shippen, Hudson, and 
Logan. They are to be inserted in 
some forthcoming publications of the 
societv. 



Rhode Island — The annual meeting 
of the Rhode Island Historical Society 
met at Providence in January last. In 
the president's address mention was 
made of the members of the society 
who had died since the previous annual 
meeting ; among whom was Mrs. Martha 
J. Lamb, editor of the Magazine of 
American History, a corresponding- 
member of the society. A matter taken 
into serious consideration was that the 
society publish all papers read before it 
concerning Rhode Island history. 

— The Rhode Island Veteran Citi- 
zens' Historical Association at their 
meeting in January listened to a paper 
on "The Valley of the Taunton River." 
The settlement and development of 
the various towns in this valley, and the 



historic interest attached thereto, were 
discussed at length by the speaker, as 
also were the manufacturing industries 
so closely connected with Taunton. 

— The annual meeting of the Rhode 
Island Soldiers' and Sailors' Historical 
Society occurred in January last. A 
feature of special interest was the reading 
of a paper by William H. Badlam of 
Dorchester, Mass., late second assistant 
engineer, United States navy, on " The 
Cruise of the Kearsarge and her Fight 
with the Alabama." During this engage- 
ment Mr. Badlam was in charge of the 
engines, his chief being ill. In reply to 
a question as to the alleged firing of the 
Kearsarge into the Alabama after she 
surrendered, Mr. Badlam said that being 
at his post, he could not, of course, see 
what transpired outside the vessel, but 
he always understood that as the latter 
vessel swung around, after her flag was 
struck, the battery of the opposite side 
was brought to bear on the Kearsarge. 
Two guns chanced to be loaded and 
were fired by the sailors. Captain Wins- 
low at once concluded he was the victim 
of trickery, and three broadsides were 
returned before a white flag could be 
displayed by the rebel cruiser. 



Tennessee — The Tennessee Histor- 
ical Society met at Nashville in January 
last. The following donations were re- 
ported : a copy of National Banner and 
Nashville Whig, Nashville, Tennessee, 
July 13, 1832; specimens of yellow wood, 
Virgilia Lutea ; proceedings of the State 
Association of Confederate Veterans at 
their annual meeting at Franklin, Ten- 



NOTES FROM THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



293 



nessee ; receipts from the Nashville 
Building Association from 1854 to 1861 ; 
also confederate and federal passports 
from 1 86 1 to 1865. 



Vermont — The Bennington Histor- 
ical Society met in January last. The 
directors of the Bennington Battle Mon- 
ument Association, whose corporators 
are elected by the society, informed the 
meeting that the monument was in good 
condition and fully completed ; that 
over three thousand visitors had paid for 
admittance to it the past year, and that 
the sum thus obtained has been sufficient 
to care for the property. 



Virginia — In January, a number of 
prominent gentlemen of Richmond met 
to organize the Richmond Literary and 
Historical Association. It is the hope 
of the originators of this movement " to 
perfect a literary, scientific, and historical 
society which will be the medium of 
elevating the great masses of the people 
to higher plane of intellectual life." A 
special object of this new society will be 
to collect materials which shall serve to 
illustrate the history of the negro in this 
country. 



Washington — The recent organiza- 
tion of the Thurston County Histori- 
cal Society at Olympia is awakening 
considerable interest among the early 
settlers of that distant portion of our 
Union. To these people the society 
has earnestly addressed itself. Pioneers 
are asked not to wait to have informa- 
tion drawn from them, but to visit the 



secretary and voluntarily contribute any 
knowledge of past events they may have. 
Regular meetings will be held from time 
to time, when papers will be read on 
past events. 

West Virginia — The governor in 
his message takes occasion to commend 
the West Virginia Historical and Anti- 
quarian Society for its praiseworthy 
efforts, and the great success which has 
attended them, in elucidating the his- 
tory of the State. He advises the leg- 
islature to give them suitable aid, and 
to erect the society into a state institu- 
tion. 



Wisconsin — The fortieth annual 
meeting of the Wisconsin Historical So- 
ciety was held in January. The occa- 
sion was celebrated with great enthusi- 
asm. The secretary's report, among 
several matters of interest, contains one 
point of especial importance ; viz., the 
bibliography of Wisconsin authors. 
There is no similar bibliography of the 
writers of any American state, and the 
publication will be unique of its kind. 
The volume will contain about three 
hundred and fifty pages, the names of 
some nine hundred authors, and in the 
neighborhood of four thousand seven 
hundred titles of books, pamphlets, and 
magazine articles, written by Wisconsin 
people since 1836. " It will," says the 
secretary, " show to the world that a 
raw, western State, whose people have 
chiefly been employed in seeking for the 
material things of life, has in a little 
over half a century contributed in no 
small degree to the mass, as well as to 
the wealth, of American literature." 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



We desire to state that General James 
Grant Wilson, having edited the Febru- 
ary number of the Magazine of Ameri- 
can History in the emergency of the 
sudden change of proprietorship, has 
found it impossible to continue as edi- 
tor, owing to the pressure of other liter- 
ary engagements. 

* 

We continue to notice, in various con- 
temporary journals of all parts of the 
country, words of kindly appreciation of 
the worth and ability of the late lamented 
editor of the Magazine of American 
History. One such remarks : "It 
will be many, very many, years before 
the literary world will enjoy the presence 
and reap the fruits of such an accom- 
plished, patient, industrious, and pains- 
taking student and writer as was Mrs. 
Martha J. Lamb. With her the truth was 
the thing desired, and she never faltered 
in her efforts nor did she grow weary in 
its pursuit." 

The Rochester (New York) Historical 
Society has undertaken a most unique 
project, which was carried to complete 
success in the latter part of January last. 
It was proposed to present a number of 
tableaux, some in pantomime and some 
with appropriate dialogues, illustrating 
the early history of the city. 

The scenes presented were : " The 
Phelps and Gorham Purchase, 1788," in 
which a large number of Indians and 
settlers participated ; " Purchase of the 
One-hundred-acre Tract ; " " The First 
Post-office, 1813," "The War of 1812- 
1814," representing the parley between 



the thirty-two Americans and the Brit- 
ish forces, and the withdrawal of the 
latter; "Visit of Lafayette, 1825," in 
which the scene of his reception on 
the banks of the Erie by the people was 
enacted ; " The Quilting Party, 1830," 
during which the ladies arrived in gor- 
geous raiment, talked the latest gossip 
while busy with their needles, took tea 
when the men arrived, discussed the inno- 
vation of using napkins at the table, and 
a hornpipe was danced, to the eminent 
satisfaction of the audience ; " The Sing- 
ing School, 1830," full of humor ; " The 
Bachelors' Ball, 1845," notable for the 
large number of young women who ap- 
peared in the monnie musk ; " The Fire 
Scene, 1845," which showed the old 
methods of " running with the machine" 
and the working of the same, and the 
way the firemen had of putting a jeering 
citizen to work. The first school and 
the first church-choir were also repre- 
sented in character. For the school the 
stage was set to reproduce as nearly as 
possible the interior of the first school- 
house. 






Senator Hoar of Massachusetts, in 
speaking recently of his newly elected 
colleague, Mr. Henry Cabot Lodge, took 
occasion to mention in terms of high 
praise his work on George Washington, 
which forms the subject of the book-essay 
in our present number. He said : " His 
life of George Washington seems to me the 
best portraiture of Washington in litera- 
ture. I think it is a masterpiece of com- 
pact, yet ample, biography. I think it 
will grow in favor as time goes on, and is 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



29? 



likely to be the standard life of Washing- 
ton for American youth for centuries to 
come." 

* 
The publication is announced of an 
important work, to appear within a few 
weeks. It is entitled : Historical Regis- 
ter of Officers of the Continental Army 
during the War of the Revolution, com- 
piled by F. B. Heitman, of the war 
department at Washington, D. C. This 
work embraces information arranged as 
follows : First, general officers of the 
continental army, arranged according to 
rank, with dates of service of each. 
Second, list of military secretaries and 
aids-de-camp to General Washington, 
with dates of service as such. Third, 
chronological list of field officers of the 
line in successive order, arranged by 
states and regiments. Fourth, alpha- 
betical list of officers of the continental 
army, including many officers of the 
militia, showing date of rank in each 
grade, all brevet commissions, all cases 
in which thanks, swords, or honors were 
conferred by congress, information as to 
dates and localities when and where 
officers were killed, wounded, captured, 
and exchanged, and in many cases dates 
of death of officers after leaving the serv- 
ice. Fifth, chronological and alpha- 
betical list of battles, actions, etc. In 
the opinion of competent critics, who 
have examined advance sheets of this 
work, it will prove to be an important 
contribution to the literature of the 
Revolution, its value being especially 
enhanced by its accuracy. 

* 
We have just received the first num- 
ber of the fourth volume of the Dedham 



Historical Register, published by the 
Dedham (Massachusetts) Historical So- 
ciety. There are few societies in the 
country in more flourishing condition, as 
is evinced alone by this handsome peri- 
odical ; few, excepting state societies, 
having either the courage or the finan- 
cial ability to issue such at all. A 
beautiful engraving of the old 'court- 
house, built in 1827, illustrates an article 
on the history of this building and its 
predecessors. Other papers and de- 
partments indicate the variety and inter- 
est of the labors undertaken by the 
members of this society. The board 
of editors has an equal representation 
of ladies and gentlemen. 






We are pleased to observe with how 
much eagerness in certain quarters, and 
with what general interest among all 
classes, the question is discussed in New 
York as to the disposal to be made of 
the city hall building, which dates from 
1807, and is one of the most perfect 
types of architecture either the city or 
the country possesses. Whatever may 
be done with the structure, it is certain 
that no one thinks of merely demolish- 
ing it, a matter which would not have 
been greatly objected to at some other 
periods in American history. A similar 
question faces the citizens of Philadel- 
phia. There it is not proposed to de- 
molish or remove any notable building. 
But there is a project to clear away the 
surroundings of Independence hall, in 
order to emphasize, as it were, the im- 
portance of the latter. The historic 
spirit revolts, however, at the extent to 
which this work is to be carried, and 
pleads for the retention of some of the 



2C)6 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



houses on Independence square, not for 
their beauty, but tor their being historic- 
ally as well as architecturally in keeping 
with the hall. It is very gratifying to 
notice, by these evidences, to what an 
encouraging degree the people of this 
republic have grown to love and esteem 
the things that are old — that have a 
history. 

* 
The " Hymn of the Alamo," of which 
a facsimile of the original copy from the 
author's hand appears in the present 
number, leads us to say that some inter- 
esting facts in regard to it will be fur- 
nished in a subsequent number. At 
present we do not possess all the data, 
but they have been promised. 

The Huguenot Society of America, at 
an executive meeting, passed the follow- 
ing appreciative resolution : 

Resolved, That this committee most 



deeply feels the sudden and grievous 
loss sustained by the Huguenot Society 
of America in the unexpected death of 
one of its most esteemed, active, and 
energetic members, the late Mrs. Martha 
J. Lamb, who passed from earth in this 
city on the second day of January, 1893 ; 
that this committee itself more espe- 
cially grieves for the death of its fellow- 
member, who was ever most efficient in 
her services, regular in attendance on its 
meetings, and prudent, wise, and court- 
eous in her advice and suggestions. As 
gentle, refined, and retiring as she was 
brilliant and intellectual, she will ever 
remain a model for those of her sex who 
shall enter the paths of literature. 

The opening article of the present 
number, on " New York in the Civil 
War," by General Rodenbough, is con- 
densed from advance sheets of the third 
volume of the Memorial History of New 
York City. 



MISCELLANEA 



There are two people who get their 
mail from the Santa Clara (California) 
post-office whose names were a house- 
hold word during the war of the rebel- 
lion. They are Mrs. Winchester, widow 
of the inventor of the famous Winchester 
rifle, a weapon that did such deadly and 
effective work during the stormy days of 
the sixties. The other is Miss Sarah 
Brown, daughter of " Old John Brown" 
of Harper's Ferry fame, " whose soul 
goes marching on." Both of these ladies 
are well known in Santa Clara, being 
seen on the streets almost daily. 



We learn from the Pittsburgh Despatch 
that in 1803 the ship Louisiana, built at 
Elizabeth, on the Monongahela, for the 
ocean trade, left Pittsburgh for the Gulf 
of Mexico ballasted with bituminous 
coal. This it took clear around the 
coast to Philadelphia, readily disposing 
of it there for thirty-seven and one-half 
cents per bushel, or ten and one-half 
dollars per ton. The inhabitants of 
Pittsburgh bought window glass from 
the celebrated Hon. Albert Gallatin's 
factory, at New Geneva, on the Mo- 
nongahela, in 1797, paying him for it 
from fourteen dollars to twenty dollars 
per box. These big profits were against 
Mr. Gallatin's best judgment, however. 
His financial foresight, which won him 
such a reputation as secretary of the 
United States treasury, was well dis- 
played here. He reasoned with his 
partners in the glass factory, that those 
high prices would attract competition 
very soon, whereas if it was reduced to 



four dollars and fifty cents per box they 
would earn a reasonable margin and 
prevent temptation to other capitalists at 
Pittsburgh. His advice was overruled. 
Window glass made in 1801 at Denny & 
Beelen's factory in Pittsburgh sold for 
twelve dollars per box of one hundred 
feet, but the size is not given. 



In the death of Professor Horsford, Leif 
Erikson has lost a persistent and able 
defender as a claimant for the honor 
of discovering America. The famous 
chemist was fully convinced of the his- 
torical certainty of Leif's priority as a 
world discoverer, and he gave frequent 
evidence of the enthusiasm which he 
felt on the subject. Nevertheless, the 
discussion of this matter possesses com- 
paratively little interest for the general 
public. It would, of course, be inter- 
esting to certainly know whether Leif 
or some adventurous explorer before 
him really did get aground on Cape 
Cod or rowed up the Charles ; but, if 
it were so, mankind's stock of geo- 
graphical knowledge gained little if 
anything from such experiences. 



One of the most interesting relics of 
the late civil war is a piece of white tow- 
eling that was used as a flag of truce 
when the Confederate army surren- 
dered to General Grant at Appomattox. 
It is owned by General E. W. Whit- 
aker, who was a member of General 
Custer's staff, and who received it from 
Captain Sims, of Longstreet's staff, on 



298 



MISCELLANEA 



the morning oi April 9, 1865. General 
Whitaker has treasured it during all 
these years. He was induced to part 
with a portion of it several years ago, 
when he gave half of it to his old com- 
mander, the late General Custer. Mrs. 
Custer afterward gave the fragment to 
the museum at West Point. On the 
small piece of the toweling appears the 
following statement, sworn to by Gen- 
eral Whitaker before a notary public. 
" This is a piece of the cloth cut from 
the identical flag of truce which was 
used under orders of General R. E. 
Lee to ask a cessation of hostilities 
of the Federal army at 9 o'clock a. m., 
April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court 
House, Virginia. This flag of truce, a 
large white towel, was in the hands 
of Captain Sims, of Longstreet's staff, 
when he met Custer's cavalry charge. 
It was used by me in the rebel lines at 
the request of Generals Longstreet and 
Gordon to announce the surrender of 
Lee to the infantry line of battle and 
also the cavalry." 



The Boston Advertiser calls attention 
to the fact that as soon as Mr. Stevenson 
takes the oath of office as Vice-President 
he will be the possessor of a room that is 
both beautiful and historic. This is the 
room just off from the senate chamber 
which is used as the office of the Vice- 
President. In the senate wing of the cap- 
itol there are two rooms set apart, one for 
the President and one for the Vice-Presi- 
dent. The former is but seldom used, 
while the latter is used daily as an office 
and contains some very interesting relics. 
On one of the walls of the room is a 



painting of George Washington, and this 
painting is considered the best of Wash- 
ington in existence. It was executed by 
Rembrandt Peale in 1795. Peale had 
three sittings of Washington. At that 
time dentistry was not practiced as 
scientifically as it is at the present day, 
and it is a historical fact that at each of 
these sittings Washington used raw cot- 
ton as a substitute for false teeth, so as 
to fill out the mouth and cheeks. This 
gives his face a very determined look, 
and not the peaceful expression with 
which he is generally credited in por- 
traits. 



Stored away in the archives of the 
state department is a collection of his- 
torical papers, the most valuable, in all 
probability, in the United States. They 
include the letters, diaries, books, and 
other memoranda from the founders of 
the republic, and are constantly in de- 
mand by students and writers of his- 
tory. The frequent handlings which 
they have received have seriously dam- 
aged some of them ; and that they may 
be preserved for the use and information 
of succeeding generations of investi- 
gators, the department has for several 
years been engaged in the work of 
arranging, indexing, and binding them. 
When this work is finished (it will re- 
quire another decade at least, unless the 
force is increased) the manuscripts will 
be in such a condition that they may be 
conveniently handled by the investi- 
gator without harm to the documents 
themselves, and any particular paper 
may be readily found. First in im- 
portance and value of all the papers in 
the department, the librarian places the 



MISCELLANEA 



299 



records of the continental congress, 
which came to it by inheritance. Al- 
though the art of verbatim reporting 
was not exercised in those days, the 
records contain not a little of what was 
said by the fathers and founders of the 
country, and a complete transcript of all 
the business proposed and transacted. 
The magnitude of the state depart- 
ment's collection of Jefferson papers 
may be inferred from the fact that 
twenty-five thousand titles have been 
written for the new index of them, a 
number representing but two-thirds of 
the whole collection. Thomas Jefferson 
certainly made his mark. 



A document preserved by a gentleman 
of Goshen, New York, gives us an inter- 
esting glimpse of the status of the Revo- 
lutionary army at the time negotiations 
of peace were pending. The soldiers 
were only conditionally discharged, as 
there might be serious business on hand 
again. 

" By His Excellency 
George Washington, Esq ; 
General and Commander in Chief of the 
Forces of the United States of America. 

These are to Certify that the Bearer here- 
of John Miller, Private in the Second New 
York Regiment, having faithfully served the 
United States three years and six months and 
being inlisted for the War only, is hereby Dis- 
charged from the American Army. 

Given at Head-Quarters, 
G. Washington. 
By His Excellency's Command, 

J. Turnbull, Ad. Sy. 

Registered in the Books of the Regiment, 
Christ'e Hilton, Lt & Adjutant." 



The reverse side of the document 
contains the following : 

" Head-Quarters, June Seventh, 1783. 
The within Certificate shall not avail the Bearer 
as a Discharge, until the Ratification of the de- 
finitive Treaty of Peace ; previous to which Time, 
and until Proclamation thereof shall be made, 
He is to be considered as being on Furlough. 
George Washington." 



"The word ' Missouri ' properly means 
* wooden canoe,'" says the St. Louis 
Republic. " Among the Abenakis, or 
Indians of Maine, a boat or canoe was 
called ' A-ma-sui.' With the Narragan- 
setts it was ' Me-shu-e ; ' with the Dela- 
wares it was ' Ma-sho-la ; ' with the 
Miamis about Lake Michigan it was 
' Missola ; ' with the Illinois tribe it was 
' Wicwes-Missuri ' for a birch-bark canoe, 
and ' We-Mis-su-re,' or ' We-Mes-su-re,' 
for a wooden canoe or canoe fashioned 
from a log of wood. The name Missouri 
was originally applied by the Illinois and 
other Indians of the Lake Michigan 
region to the tribe of Indians living west 
of the Mississippi and along the great 
Muddy River. The term, liberally inter- 
preted, meant ' the wooden canoe peo- 
ple,' or, ' the people who use wooden 
canoes.' The Lake Michigan Indians 
uniformly used birch-bark canoes, while 
the Indians on the Muddy River used 
Caunoes dug out of logs. The turbulent 
stream (the Missouri) was not adapted 
to frail bark vessels, and the use of log 
canoes was to the lake Indians such a 
peculiarity that they named the tribe or 
people using them from this character- 
istic." 



WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS. By William 
P. Trent. Boston and New York : Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 1892. (American Men of 
Letters Series.) 

The present volume, in literary ability and ex- 
cellence of treatment, is fully up to those of 
the series heretofore published. Pausing a mo- 
ment to consider its style, we would remark that 
Professor Trent's manner is exceedingly attract- 
ive. He chats somewhat familiarly with his 
reader occasionally, and even with some pleas- 
antry, yet we cannot say that he at all becomes 
undignified, even here. In explaining the very 
happy and apposite title of one of his chapters : 
"Romantic Dreams and Political Nightmares" 
(treating of Simms' s sympathy with and advocacy 
of secession principles), the author observes : 
"During the twelve years from 1850 to 1861 
inclusive, Simms lived in two very different 
worlds. In both he dreamed dreams and saw 
visions, the difference between which has been 
briefly indicated in the heading of this chapter. 
As a bad beginning makes a good end- 
ing, it may be as well to begin with the night- 
mares ; and if the reader wonders how any good 
can come out of nightmares, he is requested to 
preserve his patience for a while." 

We would have no occasion to consider this 
book at all, were it not that, in the first place, 
Simms, besides being a poet and a novelist, was 
also a historian. Yet the infusion of this char- 
acter was so exceedingly faint that his biographer 
wisely makes very little of it. He wrote and 
edited biographies of Marion and Greene, to 
which Professor Trent devotes a few sentences. 
He wrote, also, a History of South Carolina, of 
which our author says nothing at all except in 
the bibliography of Simms. He is entitled to 
more credit as a writer of novels treating of 
revolutionary times ; but the literary quality of 
these (which we ought hardly to discuss here) is 
so dangerously near the level of the multiple- 
initialed Mrs. Southworth and Sylvan us Cobb of 
New York Ledger fame, that possibly it might 
not do to press them too strongly upon the 
notice of historical students. 

The real claim of this delightful little book to 
our attention here, lies in the historical value of 
the treatment itself. The author gives us clear 
and interesting views of the condition of things 
at the South long preceding and immediately 
preceding the violent outbreak of the civil war. 
Speaking of Charleston and its significance, Pro- 
fessor Trent says: "What Boston has been to 



New England, that has Charleston been to South 
Carolina, one may almost say, to the southern 
states. Indeed, it would be nearer the mark, if 
one may compare small things with great, to say 
that Charleston is to South Carolina as London 
is to England. . . . Just as London has 
been the literary, social, and political centre of 
England, so has Charleston, since its founding, 
been the literary, social, and political centre of 
South Carolina." 

The explanation of southern society, of its 
faults as of its virtues, our author finds in a 
survival of feudalism, which was encouraged by 
the system of slavery, and the interaction of 
these two things upon each other: "If there 
be one fact that stands out before the student 
of antebellum southern history, it is that the 
southern people, down to 1861, were living a 
primitive life, a life full of survivals. 
The southern people were descendants, in the 
main, of that ' portion of the English people 
who,' to quote Professor Shaler, ' had been least 
modernized, who still retained a large element 
of the feudal notion.' . . . Feudal-minded 
cavaliers were the people of all others to 
whom over-lordship would be natural and 
grateful. What wonder, then, that slavery 
struck its roots deep, or that the tree over 
which it spread its poisonous tendrils should 
soon show signs of decay? Slavery helped feu- 
dalism and feudalism helped slavery, and the 
southern people were largely the outcome of 
the interaction of these two formative princi- 
ples." 

The true position of slavery as a political force 
is brought out by Professor Trent. It was the 
bond of union, the welding power that alone 
made the southern states one in any conflict they 
might have to endure: "In the south there 
was only one thing that knit the several states 
together, and that was slavery. Virginia, in- 
deed, helped to populate some of her more 
southerly sisters, and was therefore somewhat 
venerated by them ; and the best families in 
each state knew one another, and sometimes 
intermarried. Still, as a rule, each state cared 
for itself and thought no great deal of its neigh- 
bor. Even now there are abundant traces of 
this insular feeling to be discovered, although it 
does not often get into print." And the author 
then goes on to indicate the unhappy influ- 
ence of this only bond of union : " Yet states 
knit together by slavery could not develop a 
true national feeling ; for that there must be 
a consciousness of progress, a desire to share 



RECENT HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 



301 



in and further a common civilization. But prog- 
ress and slavery are natural enemies, and the 
south had no great desire to progress except in 
her own way, which was really retrogression." 

In this connection it is, of course, of peculiar 
interest to get a glimpse of Simms's own view of 
slavery, as a thoroughly representative southern 
thinker : " We beg, once for all, to say to our 
northern readers, writers, and publishers, that, 
in the south, we hold slavery to be an especially 
and wisely devised institution of heaven, de- 
vised for the benefit, the improvement, and 
safety, morally, socially, and physically, of a 
barbarous and inferior race, who would other- 
wise perish by famine or by filth, by the sword, 
by disease, by waste, and destinies forever gnaw- 
ing, consuming, and finally destroying." 

Perhaps we can do no better than to close 
this necessarily brief and inadequate notice, 
with a citation which, in a quaint and pleasant 
way, throws a flood of light upon the advance 
of modern historical writing over the uncritical 
practices of earlier times. Let not the sober- 
minded reader look upon either Professor Trent, 
or upon us in quoting him, as dealing in trivial- 
ities, in illustrating so great a subject by so 
homely an allusion : for a straw can show which 
way the wind blows. Speaking of a visit of 
Simms to New York city, our author remarks : 
" The southerner was true to his nature in pay- 
ing delicate attentions to more than one fair 
maiden of Gotham. He probably wrote in their 
albums, and he certainly promised to send them 
barrels of peanuts on his return home. An 
aesthetically inclined biographer of the old 
school might have been tempted to write ' flow- 
ers ' for ' peanuts ' in the above sentence, but 
nowadays one must go by the record." 



ADMIRAL FARRAGUT. By Captain A. 
T. Mahan, U. S. N. With portrait and 
maps. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 
1892. (Great Commanders Series.) 
This book has already been briefly noticed in 
the January number of this magazine, and the 
"series" to which it belongs properly indi- 
cated. A few additional observations will not 
be out of place, however, being warranted by 
the importance of the subject. They will refer 
particularly to some of the suggestive points in 
the great career described. It was, indeed, an 
extraordinary career ; unusual in its length of 
service, exceeding a half-century — in fact, reach- 
ing threescore years, for he died in active serv- 
ice, before it was necessary for him to retire. 
The boy midshipman was early inured to hard- 
ships, and was well seasoned to actual warfare 
and the sight of dire carnage, by his experiences 
on the long cruise of the Essex during the war of 
181 2. Then there was a long interval without 
dangerous action, except in the pursuit of the 



pirates of the Caribbean sea. when Farragut 
served under the elder Pinter, who was his 
adopted father. H e gradually rose from mid- 
shipman to the rank of captain. But the oth< r 
unusual feature of his career reminds us some- 
-what of that of Moltke's. Not till he had 
passed the threshold of the sixties did the 
opportunity arise for the display of the qualities 
of a great naval commander. This was, of 
course, the outbreak of the civil war. 

It is greatly to the credit of his sincerity and 
disinterested devotion as a patriot that at the 
outbreak of this conflict Farragut was found on 
the Union side. He was born in New Orleans, 
and though in early boyhood and young man- 
hood (on those brief occasions when he was in 
the United States) he was brought up at Chester, 
Pennsylvania, yet he had married twice into 
families of Norfolk, Virginia, and his residence 
was there when on shore. He was anxiously 
watching the course his state would pursue, but 
when it decided on secession he, unlike Robert 
E. Lee, still clung to the Union, and forthwith 
broke up his home. " He at once went to his 
house and told his wife the time had come for 
her to decide whether she would remain with 
her own kinsfolk or follow him north. Her 
choice was as instant as his own, and that even- 
ing they, with their only son, left Norfolk, 
never to return to it as their home." Neither 
was it a pleasure-trip for the devoted family. 
From Baltimore, " Farragut and his party had to 
take passage to Philadelphia in a canal-boat, on 
which were crowded some three hundred passen- 
gers, many of them refugees like themselves. 
It is a curious illustration of the hardships 
attending a flight under such exigency, even in 
so rich a country as our own, that a baby in the 
company had to be fed on biscuit steeped in 
brandy, for want of proper nourishment." 

As the author carefully delineates, at the very 
beginning of the war an eye was cast upon the 
scene of Farragut's first great achievement. 
"The necessity of controlling the Mississippi 
valley," he says, "had been early realized by 
the United States government. In its hands 
the great stream would become an impassable 
barrier between two large sections cf the 
southern confederacy; whereas, in the posses- 
sion of the latter, it remained a link binding 
together all the regions through which it flowed 
or which were penetrated by any of its numer- 
ous tributaries." Hence the scheme was de- 
vised of running the forts below New Orleans. 
Next the man to carry it out was thought of, 
and Farragut selected. His southern ante- 
cedents, in spite of his removal and sacrifices, 
made the authorities hesitate at first. But he 
was charged with the work, and the world to- 
day knows how well he did it. Vivid and clear 
descriptions are given of the three or four great 
similar actions carried to success by Farragut. 



102 



RECENT HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 



And the author calls attention to the fact that, 
in the midst of the glory which these brave 
deeds brought him, the instinct of the seaman 
within Farragul made him really envy the 
achievement of the Kearsarge. His work had 
been merely to run by forts on land. A real 
out-and-out engagement at sea, vessels op- 
posed to vessels, would have suited the old tar 
much better. 

Since we are all interested in our " new 
navy"' at present, one or two hints by our 
author should not be passed over without good 
heed. The one regards the importance of the 
navy itself. '" Despite the extensive sea coast 
of the United States, and the large maritime 
commerce possessed by it at the opening of the 
war, the navy had never, except for short and 
passing intervals, been regarded with the in- 
terest its importance deserved." Even at the 
beginning of the war the navy " became simply 
a division of the land forces. From this sub- 
ordinate position it was soon raised by its own 



intrinsic value and the logic of facts ; but the 
transient experience is noteworthy, because il- 
lustrating the general ignorance of the country 
as to the powers of the priceless weapon which 
lay ready, though unnoticed, to its hand.'' 

The other hint has respect to a useful policy 
within the navy, affecting its personnel. Far- 
ragut obtained responsible command when but 
about eighteen years of age. His own com- 
ment on this fact was this: " I consider it a 
great advantage to obtain command young, hav- 
ing observed, as a general rule, that persons 
who come into authority late in life shrink 
from responsibility, and often break down un- 
der its weight." Upon which Captain Mahan 
comments in turn as follows: " This last sen- 
tence, coming from a man of such extensive 
observation, and who bore in his day the respon- 
sibility of such weighty decisions, deserves 
most serious consideration now, when command 
rank is reached so very late in the United States 
navy." 



PRIZE COMPETITION DEPARTMENT 



To the more inexperienced of those 
who may be intending to compete for 
the prizes we offer, a word of advice 
may not be inappropriate. Any writer 
who is preparing an historical article on 
any theme should bear in mind that 
it is of the utmost importance that he 
should be perfectly accurate in any facts 
cited. It is the custom of the best his- 
torical scholarship to indicate in foot- 
notes the authorities to which the writer 
is indebted for his main facts. It is a 
good practice, in such cases, even to 
cite, with the name of the work quoted, 
the date of publication, and page on 
which the citation occurs. The date of 
publication generally identifies the edi- 
tion of the book which has been used, 
while the citation of page references re- 
duces to a minimum the labor of any 
reader who wishes to substantiate the 
statements of the writer by following 
him in his original sources. 

In an historical article, as a rule, every 
important direct quotation should be re- 
ferred to its source in a foot-note. And 
even statements which are couched in 
one's own language, but which rest for 
their substantiation upon some particular 
authority, are frequently made more con- 
clusive by means of the reference. Of 
course, it remains that even the use of 
foot-notes can be easily overdone. A 
little study of historical authorities will 
enlighten the beginner as to the proper 
middle course which it is best to pursue. 

The competition for the historical 
ballad and sonnet, which closes on May 
i st, next, gives the shortest time of any 
class. Every person possessed of a genu- 



ine touch of the poet's fire ought to 
make an attempt here. There are 
many persons, events, principles, ideas, 
or sentiments connected with Ameri- 
can history which might inspire a son- 
net ; and the stirring scenes which yet 
await the pen of the balladist are quite 
innumerable. It is not so easy a mat- 
ter as it looks, however, to write a 
worthy ballad. It requires just the 
proper blending of enthusiasm, dignity, 
and simplicity in narrative, and it is 
quite impossible to tell any one how 
to be successful. The peculiar spirit 
of true poetry eludes criticism. The 
poet is a law unto himself. It is far 
easier to pronounce upon the merits of 
a given example of poetry than it is to 
define in the abstract what the true 
poetical spirit is. 

Persons intending to compete in the 
class of the historical novel will be in- 
terested in a special critical and descrip- 
tive article on " The Historical Novel 
and American History," which will ap- 
pear in the April number of the Mag- 
azine of American History. The 
author will bring under discussion a 
half-dozen or more examples of the 
latest issues of historical fiction. Stand- 
ish of Standish, a story of the Pilgrims ; 
My Lady Pocahontas, a quaint tale of 
Virginia ; The Lady of St. John, an 
Acadian romance ; Zachary Phipps, the 
story of a typical American boy, who is 
brought through many of the most stir- 
ring events of our national history, during 
the early part of the present century ; 
and four or five volumes in the series 
of Columbus Novels, comprise the books 



3°4 



PRIZE COMPETITION DEPARTMENT 



treated. Their comparative merits will 
be carefully weighed. 

Any one interested, who will take the 
rime to read one or more of the books 
discussed, of the above list, during the 
present month, will of course be much 
better able to appreciate, or take issue 
with, the criticism offered. It will be bet- 
ter still to give attention to some of the 
famous standard productions of Walter 
Scott, for the general subject of the his- 
torical novel ; or the excellent and at- 
tractive stories of our own Cooper, or 
Hawthorne, for the study of historical 
fiction in the field of American his- 
tory. A lecture or article on the place 
of historical fiction in American litera- 
ture by William Gilmore Simms, the 
Southern novelist, should be consulted, 
as his criticisms of our most prominent 
authors in this sphere of literary work 
were highly commended by so eminent 
an authority as the poet William Cullen 
Bryant. 

A large part of the article to appear 
in the April number will be devoted 
to a general discussion of the theme, 
having under consideration some of 
the famous types of historical fiction. 
The value and richness of the field of 
American history as a basis for the 
novel is also discussed at length. This 
part of the paper will perhaps be found 
its most valuable and instructive feat- 
ure. 

We invite any suggestions or criticisms 
appropriate to this department from 
those who are interested in it, either on 



their own part, or in behalf of students 
under their care. 

Close of Competitions. — Following 
is a recapitulation in the order of clos- 
ing the respective contests : 

7 th Class. Ballad and Sonnet. Closes 
May 1, 1893. 

6th Class. History for Young People. 
Closes July 1, 1893. 

3d Class. Historical Short Story. 
Closes August 1, 1893. 

5th Class. Legend and Tradition. 
Closes September 1, 1893. 

4th Class. Minor Heroes. Closes 
October 1, 1893. 

2d Class. General Historical Article. 
Closes November 15, 1893. 

1st Class. Historical Serial Novel. 
Closes January 1, 1894. 

Every manuscript must be received 
on or before the above date, in the respec- 
tive class in which it is entered. This 
rule is imperative, and authors should 
see that all manuscripts are forwarded 
in time to avoid the possibility of exclu- 
sion on these grounds. 

It is also very desirable, and will indi- 
cate as well that the writer is endeavoring 
to work in the spirit of genuine historical 
research, to accompany each article with 
a brief summary or catalogue of the vari- 
ous books, periodicals, or manuscripts 
that have been examined in the prepara- 
tion of the article submitted in competi- 
tion. It will be found that nothing is 
so potent an educative factor in making 
one skilled in historical work as this care- 
fulness concerning authenticity. 




cT^rrvts ^M-trru 



AS' HE APPEARED IN 1854. 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXIX APRIL, 1893 Xo. 4 

NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

1 783-1 789 
By Henry P. Johnston 

UPON the evacuation of New York by the British forces, November 
25, 1783, the city entered upon the third and modern period of its 
history. Successively Dutch and English, it was now to put on its dis- 
tinctively American exterior, and shape its course along new lines denned 
by new conditions. Not all the original features, however, were to disap- 
pear. Elements of the old stock survived, and fundamental characteristics 
left their traces. If, politically, the transitions from one power to another 
have been violent, socially, and to a greater extent institutionally, a certain 
continuity has been preserved. Derived from a common Teutonic ances- 
try, each group of inhabitants has perpetuated its predecessor in whole 
or in part, while each change has effected little more than to introduce or 
evolve a new phase of Teutonic life. The quiet invasion of the city in 
later days, under the guise of a vast immigration from the Old World, 
encouraged by the opportunity and responding to the spirit of the age, has 
fastened a cosmopolitan character upon us; but the family identity is 
retained. Cosmopolitan New York continues, by absorption, to be essen- 
tially American. It is marked, unmistakably, by the inherited brand. 

In the development of events interest attaches to what appear to be 
beginnings — to the new order of things. One may sometimes see inspira- 
tion at work here. As against the hardships, struggles, distractions, and 
quarrels inevitable in the changes and movements of communities, the 
underlying resolution and confidence are bound to assert themselves; and 
these attract. The first years of the city's American career are an illustra- 
tion ; discouragement and comparatively slow advance will be succeeded 
by great strides forward. In 1784 the " plant" consisted of a partially 
ruined town, straitened resources, an unsettled foreign trade, debts, and 
hampered enterprises. In 1789 the city was on its feet and conscious of 
future unlimited expansion. 



Vol. XXIX.— No. 



3o6 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



The work in hand for this initial period was not so much a work of 
reconstruction as one of restoration — restoration under a new impulse. 
We can follow the process and appreciate the results. First of all, the pop- 
ulation — who were the first American New Yorkers, what their numbers, 
affiliations, quality, sympathies? Then the municipal government — its 
reestablishment, the extent and source of its powers, its new personnel, its 
agency in lifting the city out of the depths. Then all the activities — the 
revival of trade and manufactures, the growth of industries, the status of 
the professions, education, religion, societies, and the general life of the 
city. And, finally, the local politics of the time, and the larger question of 
a national constitution, with the influence which the metropolis will have 
in securing the adoption of that famous instrument. By following out 
these lines, the old city of a century ago will come into view, in perspec- 
tive at least, as the new growth of that day and the true foundation of 
modern New York. It was the latest prototype of what is, and so far its 
history becomes a piece of domestic reminiscence. 

How far did the Revolutionary war affect the number and composition 
of the city's population? That it suffered a 
material loss, and a loss mainly on the side of 
the original patrician stock, is a well-known fact. 
The population of 1784 and after was less old 
English and Dutch than it had been in 1775. 
While the middle, industrial classes changed to a 
certain extent, the decrease was felt most sen- 
sibly among the conservative, loyalist, highly 
respectable, and what may be called the churchly 
families of the city. In the rush of the new life 
that set in after the first interval of depression, 
the population assumed more of the " Young American " character, with 
its nervous activity and practical bent, and rapidly pushed the city along 
toward its destined preeminence. 

The transformation produced during the war was succeeded by another 
at its close. The passions excited by the protracted struggle became 
responsible for the loss to America of a large and valuable element among 
her people. Neighbors who had sought to destroy each other for seven 
years could not remain neighbors. The victorious party was bound to 
indulge its triumph in a demand for justice or retribution upon those who 
had so long been the " unnatural " enemies of the country, and the latter 
dared not remain. Thousands of loyalists, exaggerating their alarms and 
fears, left their old homes or their refuge in New York and went " beyond 




GREAT SEAL OF NEW YORK. 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



307 



sea," wherever they could find shelter, protection, and the promise of an 
opportunity to recover themselves. They dispersed in families and com- 
panies, and were furnished with transportation by Sir Guy Carleton, the 
last British commander-in-chief in New York, who assured them of lands 
and temporary support by the home government. They settled at Annap- 
olis Royal, 'Nova Scotia, at St. John's, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, and 
other points in the Dominion. Some went to the Bermudas and Bahamas, 
some to the West Indies, and many more to the mother-country. Numer- 
ous descendants of these old colonial Ameri- 
cans, who opposed the Revolution and went 
into exile, may be found to-day at these dis- 
tant points. In Nova Scotia they appeared 
in the role of settlers, building up new com- 
munities for that province, which so im- 
pressed Carleton that in an unpublished let- 
ter to Lord North, dated at New York, 
October 5, 1783, he trusts that " liberal meas- 
ures of sound policy will be immediately 
adopted and steadily pursued " in their in- 
terest. Above all, he believed that they 
should be granted an " explicit exemption 

from all taxation, except by their own legislature " — a clear recognition 
on his part of the effect our Revolution would inevitably work on Eng- 
land's restrictive colonial system. 

As the Tories withdrew from New York, the newly baptized American, 
the man of the Revolution, who had been patiently anticipating the occa- 
sion, proudly marched in to reoccupy and possess the old city. In reality, 
the transfer had been going on by mutual agreement for some months 
before the formal evacuation of November 25. Permission was granted 
by the British authorities to Americans to enter the place for business 
purposes, or to prove title to property belonging to them before the 
war. There was accordingly much going back and forth during 1783. 
But not all the old American population could return. It had suffered 
from the experiences of the war no less than the loyalists. With the aban- 
donment of the city in 1776, the " rebel " inhabitants had dispersed in 
every direction. Many retired to the upper counties of New York, and 




THE ROYAL SAVAGE. 1 



1 Among the papers of General Philip Schuyler there was preserved a water-color sketch of the 
American sloop-of-war of the above name. It is of importance as settling the mooted question 
respecting the device of the continental flag raised at the camp opposite Boston, in January, 1776, 
while the American forces were besieging that city. 



308 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

scattered through the towns and villages. The families of the men who 
entered the service were cared for by local committees, while others 
attempted self-support as they could. Not a few found their way into 
New England, especially into western and central Connecticut, or into 
New Jersey among the hills. The exodus entailed ruin of fortunes, loss 
oi occupation, separation of families, and seven years of distress. "You 
can have no idea," writes an elderly lady in 1782, " of the sufferings of 
main- who from affluence are reduced to the most abject poverty, and 
others who die in obscurity." Obviously, now that New York was again 
open to them, comparatively few could return immediately, if at all. The 
limited number who owned lands and houses in the city went back, and 
others who possessed the ready means followed ; but the mass of those 
who had formerly paid rents and carried on the minor trades found it 
impossible to change their situation again. Their places were eventually 
taken by strangers. 

When New York, accordingly, passed into American hands, toward 
the close of 1783, we find its population greatly diminished and changed 
as compared with that of 1775. For the six months following it could not 
have exceeded twelve thousand. Three years later it had risen to twenty- 
four thousand. The twelve thousand represented that portion of the 
Tory, British, mercantile, and lukewarm element that had resolved to 
remain, and the incoming Americans. At first the former outnumbered 
the latter. " The loyalists are more numerous and much wealthier than 
the poor, despicable Whigs," says a Tory writer in December, 1783, not a 
month after the evacuation. But the Whigs were masters. Altogether 
it was a changed and sorry representation of ante-war New York. Old 
and well-known families were missing and missed on both sides. "Ah!" 
wrote Jay to his former friend, Van Schaack, at this time, "if I ever 
see New York again I expect to meet with the shade of many a departed 
joy; my heart bleeds to think of it." Among prominent expatriated 
royalists, former residents of the city, were such men as William Smith, 
the historian and chief justice of the province, and Rev. Dr. Charles 
Inglis, rector of Trinity church. 

Passing to the municipal government of New York for this period, we 
shall find the old colonial forms preserved and continued. There was 
simply a transfer of authority from English to American hands; and this 
was effected without friction or disorder. The original charter under 
which the city had been governed since 1686, or, in its amended form, 
since 1730, had been disturbed by neither party during the war, except so 
far as British military rule prevailed, and it was still operative in all 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



309 



its parts. Its revision upon the basis of the advanced political theories of 
the colonists was yet to be agitated, and upon the entry of the Americans 
it only remained to rehabilitate the corporation through some authorized 
agency. The occasion had been provided for. As early as October 23, 
1779, by act of the state legislature, a body was created known as the 
council for the southern district of New York, which was charged with the 
duty of assuming control of the city and neighboring counties immediately 
upon the withdrawal of the enemy. It 
was empowered to preserve order; to 
prevent the monopoly of the necessaries 
of life ; to impress fuel, forage, horses, 
teams, and drivers into its service ; to 
supply the markets with provisions and 
regulate prices ; and to superintend the 
election of members of the legislature 
and city officers, at which disaffected 
persons were not to be allowed to vote 
or stand as candidates. The members 
consisted of the governor, George Clin- 
ton ; the lieutenant-governor, Pierre Van 
Cortlandt ; the chancellor, Robert R. 
Livingston ; Judges Robert Yates and 
John Sloss Hobart, of the state supreme 
court ; John Morin Scott, secretary of 
state; Egbert Benson, attorney-general; 
the state senators of the southern coun- 
ties, Stephen Ward, Isaac Stoutenburgh, 
James Duane, and William Smith, and the assemblymen of the same 
district. The judges of the district were also to serve, but none had been 
appointed. Seven members of the council, of whom the governor was 
always to be one, constituted a quorum. For the city's guardianship, 
temporary or permanent, the most punctilious community could not have 
made a more noteworthy selection. On Evacuation Day they rode into 




1 The Rev. Charles Inglis was a native of Ireland. He came to America as a missionary in 
1759, and in 1765 he became assistant minister of Trinity church, this city. He was in violent 
opposition to the revolutionary sentiments of the colonists, and a pamphlet written against 
Paine's Common Sense was burned by the Sons of Liberty. He persisted in retaining the clauses 
in the prayers which mentioned the king and royal family. He left New York in 1776, but 
was rector of Trinity during the British occupation. At the evacuation he retired to Halifax, 
became bishop of Nova Scotia in 1787, and died in 1816. He was succeeded as bishop by his 
son John. 



uo 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



the city four abreast, and next in order after Washington and the 
governor at the head of the procession. 

Occupying the council-chamber in the old City Hall in Wall street, this 
provisional body, with James M. Hughes as secretary, entered at once upon 
its duties. The original records of its proceedings have disappeared, but 
from certain of its published ordinances, and from references in the papers 

of the day, the features of its admin- 
istration can be outlined. Protec- 
tion and relief for the daily increas- 
ing population were the first care. 
With the aid of the light infantry 
battalion of the continental army, 
which remained in the city under 
General Knox and Major Sumner 
for some weeks after the evacua- 
tion, order was maintained and the 
necessary regulations enforced. 

The first steps toward the res- 
toration of the regular city govern- 
ment were taken early in Decem- 
ber, when the council authorized an 
election of ward officers or board 
of aldermen. The election occurred 
on the 15th of the month, under 
the old viva voce method — the ballot 
not being introduced until 1804 — and seven aldermen, one from each ward, 
were chosen, and assistant aldermen were doubtless elected at the same 
time. This incomplete body — incomplete so far as no mayor had been 
appointed — organized with John Broome as president, and assumed the 
government of the city under the title of the aldermen and common 
council. The provisional council still continued its functions, as, by the 
terms of the act of 1779, it was required to do for sixty days after 
the evacuation, but the details of city management were clearly left to 
the new body. Seven weeks later the organization of the government 
was completed. The common council and many citizens petitioned the 
governor to appoint James Duane mayor of the city, and on February 7 
the appointment was made — the governor and board of appointment, 
authorized by the state constitution, exercising in this case the right of 
nomination vested in the colonial governors and their councils. On 
February 9 Duane was formally installed as mayor, at a special meeting of 




NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 311 

the city council held at the house of " Mr. Simmons " — John Simmons, 
innkeeper, in Wall street, near the City Hall— where he took the oath of 
office in the presence of that body, and of the governor and lieutenant- 
governor of the state, representing the state provisional council, whose 
duties now ceased. 

In its outward forms the city government reflected its English deriva- 
tion. The conditions of citizenship also remained the same for many 
years, and so far presented a contradiction. The citizen of the state of 
New York was politically a freer man than the citizen of the city of New 
York. Suffrage rights were not the same for each. Under the new state 
constitution of 1777, while the property qualification required of voters 
for state officers varied, for assemblymen it was moderate. The voter 
must pay assessments and a nominal house rent of five dollars. To enjoy 
municipal privileges, to be able to vote and to stand as a candidate for the 
office of alderman, it was necessary to be either a " freeholder " or a 
" freeman " in the ancient English sense. The " freeholder " was a real- 
estate owner; he must possess land of the annual value of at least forty 
shillings. Ordinary tenants, rent-payers, could not vote; and these 
restrictions limited the voters of this class to a small number. The cen- 
sus of 1790 shows that out of a population of thirty thousand there were 
but 1,209 freeholders of £100 valuation or over; 1,221 of ,£20, and 2,661 
"forty-shilling" holders. Property interests — something like a landed 
aristocracy — controlled municipal elections. The inconsistency of this 
system with the general leveling principles on which the Revolution had 
been fought out was occasionally referred to. As early as March 31, 
1785, some one writes to the New York Packet'. " If you look into the 
corporation you will find men whom you both feed and clothe, that you 
have no power to elect. Is this right or wrong? Common sense gives the 
answer." The agitation will wax warm about 1800, and in 1 804 the char- 
ter will be so amended that all New Yorkers paying twenty-five dollars 
rent per year and taxes may vote for aldermen ; but it will not be until 
1833 that they secure the right to elect their own mayor. 

The " freemen," who were not so numerous as the " freeholders," were 
likewise a relic of the Old World municipal system. They represented 
residents not owning real property, who, nevertheless, as merchants, 
traders, artisans, and workmen, contributed to the .wealth of the city, and 
on whom the city corporation conferred the rights of citizenship on the 
payment of fixed fees. Such persons were made " free of the city." 
Among the Dutch they had been called " burghers " of the lesser right. 
During Mayor Duane's term a considerable number of " freemen " were 



312 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

admitted to the suffrage, including laborers, bakers, shoemakers, car- 
penters, tailors, weavers, tanners, blacksmiths, butchers, grocers, cabinet- 
makers, cartmen, ironmongers, and tradesmen generally. When admitted 
to this privilege, merchants paid five pounds, and others twenty shillings, 
to the corporation, and fees ranging from one to eight shillings to the 
mayor, recorder, clerk, and bell-ringer of the mayor's court. They also 
took oath that they would be " obeisant and obedient " to the city offi- 
cials. " maintain and keep the said city harmless," and report and hinder 
all "unlawful gatherings, assemblies, and conspiracies" against the peace 
of the good people of the state. 

This custom of creating " freemen " died out early in the present cen- 
tury, and was formally abolished in 1815, except so far as the honorary 
right was conferred. Distinguished persons were presented with the free- 
dom of the city dow r n to a recent date, the roll being adorned with the 
names of Washington, Lafayette, Jay, Clinton, Steuben, Gates, Hamilton, 
the naval heroes of the 1812 war, and representatives of the war for the 
Union. The " freedom " in such cases was presented in the form of an 
address from the corporation, enclosed in an elegant gold box. In Wash- 
ington's reply to the address transmitted to him in December, 1784, it is 
possible that we have the origin of the title New York enjoys as the 
" Empire State." His words were sympathetic and hopeful : " I pray that 
Heaven may bestow its choicest blessings on your City; that the devasta- 
tions of war in whTch you found it may soon be without a trace ; that a 
well regulated and beneficial commerce may enrich your citizens; and 
that your State (at present the seat of the Empire) may set such examples 
of wisdom and liberality as shall have a tendency to strengthen and give 
permanency to the Union at home, and credit and respectability to it 
abroad." 

The interior life of the new city had its interesting phases. In the 
general activities an earnest start was made, although fortune failed to 
smile on every initial effort. The Chamber of Commerce, organized in 
1768, and kept up by the British and resident merchants during the war, 
was incorporated by the New York legislature, April 13, 1784. Its first 
president under the new charter was John Alsop. The influence which 
this body, with its growing membership, exerted upon the affairs of the 
city, and especially in shaping its policy during the constitutional period, 
will be seen to have been quite marked. Most of the mercantile houses 
and offices, with the docks and shipping, were to be found on the east 
side of the town, near and along the East River. About 1788, as many 
as one hundred vessels might be seen at any one time discharging or 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



313 



taking in cargoes, but not all flying the American flag. The first Ameri- 
can merchantman bound for Canton was the Empress of China, Captain 
Green, which left port February 22, 1784, and reached her destination 
August 30. She returned May II, 1785, after having made a paying 
venture. Congress passed a resolution expressing satisfaction at this 
successful attempt to establish a direct trade with China. The ship 
Betsy sailed about the same time for Madras. Packet-ships, American, 
British, and French, kept up communication between New York and 
European ports. There was but one bank in the city during this period 
— the bank of New York, established 
early in 1784, largely through the 
efforts of William Duer and General 
Alexander McDougall, who was its 
first president until his death on June 
8, 1786. Isaac Roosevelt became its 
president in 1789. In April, 1787, a 
Mutual Fire Assurance Company 
made its appearance, which John Pin- 
tard, afterward prominent in many 
enterprises, had been chiefly instru- 
mental in organizing ; he was its first 
secretary. The General Society of 
Mechanics and Tradesmen was estab- 
lished August 4, 1785, with the object 
of promoting mutual fellowship and 
confidence among all mechanics, pre- 
venting litigation between them, ex- 
tending mechanical knowledge, and affording relief to distressed mem- 
bers. Anthony Post was chairman. There were societies for promoting 
useful knowledge, for the relief of distressed debtors, and for manufactur- 
ing purposes. The social organizations, or the societies of St. Andrew, 
St. George, and St. Patrick, with a German and musical society and 
Masonic lodges, all had an existence or their beginning in those early 
years. The New York branch of the Cincinnati Society of Revolutionary 
Officers maintained an active life, and regularly celebrated Independence 
Day with an oration, a dinner, and toasts. General McDougall and Baron 
Steuben were its first two presidents. The Society for the Manumission 
of Slaves, organized in 1785, held its first quarterly meeting on May 12 of 
that year at the Coffee House, when John Jay was elected president, Sam- 
uel Franklin vice-president, John Murray, Jr., treasurer, and John Keese 




<YCrfrrt <vo€^/?-&src/ 



314 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



secretary. Its members advocated the gradual emancipation of slaves, and 
their protection as freedmen. Some set their slaves free " at proper ages," 
and denounced the separation of families by exportation of individuals 
for sale in the southern states. In June, 1788, Jay wrote to Granville 
Sharp, the English philanthropist : " By the laws of this state, masters 
ma\' now liberate healthy slaves of a proper age without giving security 
that the}- shall not become a parish charge ; and the exportation as well 
as importation of them is prohibited. The state has also manumitted 
such as became its property by confiscation ; and we have reason to 
expect that the maxim that every man, of whatever color, is to be 
presumed to be free until the contrary be shown, will prevail in our courts 
of justice. Manumissions daily become more common among us, and the 




Sfe^ii StS 



THE LISPENARD MEADOWS. 



treatment which slaves in general meet with in this state is very little 
different from that of other servants." 

The professions were revived under the new auspices, but without 
material change in practice and methods. Lawyers were numerous, and 
the deranged state of things after the war made litigation lucrative. 

As to educational institutions, it is interesting to note that steps were 
taken, very soon after the evacuation, to put King's college, now Columbia 
—the only college in the state — on a good working basis again. During 
the war the building had been used as a hospital by the British, who had 
rifled its library. The president, the Rev. Dr. Benjamin Moore, had given 
instructions in a private house, and a nominal faculty was continued, but 

1 This representation of Lispenard's Meadows was drawn by Dr. Alexander Andersen in 
1785, and was taken from the site of the St. Nicholas Hotel, which formerly stood in Broadway, 
corner of Spring street, a few blocks above Canal street. 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 315 

little appears to have been accomplished. On May 1, 1784, the legislature 
passed an act altering the charter of the institution and placing it under 
the state board of regents provided for at the same time. The last pro- 
vision of the act reads : " That the College within the City of New-York, 
heretofore called King's College, be forever hereafter called and known by 
the name- of Columbia College. " Young De Witt Clinton was the first 
student who entered under its new name. A faculty of professors carried 
out the curriculum until 1787, when William Samuel Johnson, son of the 
first president, was elected to the presidency. The first commencement 
was held April II, 1786, after " a lamented interval of many years ; " and 
on this occasion congress and both houses of the state legislature adjourned 
to attend the exercises. College place of to-day — Barclay, Church, and 
Murray streets — marks the site of the original structure, which was long 
and wide, three stories high, built of freestone, with a very high fence 
around it. Private schools also appeared, but it cannot be said that any 
special interest was taken by the public in the cause of education at this 
date. The religious denominations remained of nearly the same relative 
strength as before the war. 

On its strictly social side, New York life had always been attractive. 
Less provincialism existed here than at any other centre in the colonies. 
Strangers and foreigners alike remarked on the hospitality of the people. 
What with the state legislature meeting in the city, and congress following 
early in 1785, with foreign ministers, consuls, and merchants entertaining 
handsomely, society established itself in full feather. Distinguished men 
and old families gave tone to it. More than one member of congress from 
other states found their future partners within the charmed circle. James 
Monroe, the future President, married the daughter of Lawrence Kort- 
wright ; Rufus King of Boston, the daughter of John Alsop ; and Elbridge 
Gerry, the daughter of James Thompson, who is flatteringly referred to as 
" the most beautiful woman in the United States." A visitor at Colonel 
William Duer's house states that he lived in the style of a nobleman, 
and had fifteen different sorts of wine at dinner. His wife, Lady Kitty, 
daughter of General Lord Stirling, late of the continental army, and a 
person of most accomplished manners, was observed to wait upon the 
table from her end of it, with two servants in livery at her back. But it 
has been estimated that less than three hundred families affected society 
life at this time, and these were of different grades. 

This sumptuous tendency did not escape criticism. As a whole, the 
town was hard pushed for a living during these early years. The item of 
house-rent alone was claimed to be out of all proportion to the condition 



3i6 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



of business and the average of incomes. Before the war the highest rental 
was one hundred pounds; now nearly double that sum was demanded. 
Seventy pounds and taxes was the figure for a moderate house in Wall 
street in 1786. House-owners, then as now, held on for a rise, and declined 

to let houses at lower rates even when assured 
that they would stand empty a good part of 
the year. Rent-day proved distressing beyond 
its proverbial reputation. Money was scarce. 
" Cash ! Cash ! O Cash ! " exclaims a writer 
to the press, " why hast thou deserted the 
Standard of Liberty! and made poverty and 
dissipation our distinguishing characteristic?" 
The inability of the congress of the confedera- 
tion to regulate commerce accounted largely 
for the slow financial recovery which marked 
the period. 

These straitened lines presented a contrast 
to society drift and rebuked it. Luxuries, 
pleasures, and amusements were coming into 
favor more and more, disturbing the peace of 
mind of sensitive, frugal, hard-worked people, 
and shocking church society. The tendency 
was unmistakable, but hardly unnatural or ex- 
travagant. It had developed alarmingly in 
Philadelphia during the later years of the war, 
and New York was now feeling something of the 
same reaction without faring worse. Society 
and fashion, like everything else, were simply reinstating themselves after 
the wreck of the war. John Jay, who had seen enough of high life abroad 
for four years, was not especially depressed by the signs at home, when he 
could discourage Lafayette's wife from coming to America in 1785, as she 
proposed, by informing her that we had few amusements here to relieve 
travelers of the monotony of a visit. " Our men for the most part," he 
assures her, " mind their business and our women their families ; and if 
our wives succeed (as most of them do) in ' making home man's best 
delight,' gallantry seldom draws their husbands from them. Our customs, 
in many respects, differ from yours, and you know that, whether with or 
without reason, we usually prefer those which education and habit recom- 
mend. The pleasures of Paris and the pomp of Versailles are unknown in 
this country." No doubt of this; but people, nevertheless, said, and 




1ea75£?J& 



z>*-&r~ 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 317 

printed it in the papers, that the ton of New York ought to set simpler 
habits and fashions to the public. 

The question of extravagance and amusements seems to have stirred 
public feeling very generally when, in the fall of 1785, it was proposed to 
revive the theatre in the city. The theatre building of colonial times 
still stood'on John street, a short distance east of Broadway, where before 
the war Lewis Hallam, a popular actor of the old American company, 
who afterward was also its manager, drew respectable audiences. It was a 
quaint wooden affair, with a gallery and a double row of boxes in addition 
to the pit. As congress had recommended the closing of places of amuse- 
ment during the contest, and Washington had issued orders threatening 
dismissal upon all officers who engaged in theatrical entertainments, 
Hallam and his troupe went to the island of Jamaica and amused its 
inhabitants until the peace opened the door for his return to America. 
His return, however, was far from welcomed by the element which had 
been harboring anxiety over the moral health of New York. It protested 
against the revival of the drama, and succeeded 
in giving the city a temporary sensation. The 
controversy entered the newspapers, and the 
theatre became the talk of the town. What was 
said on both sides can be readily imagined, but 
of more special interest to the modern reader are 
the glimpses afforded here and there in the dis- 
cussion of certain phases in the social status. 

1 SLEIGH OF 1788. 

Thus an appeal against the revival, published by 

some reformer through the Packet, is quite in point : " Are the families in 
this city," he asks, " of whatever rank, as rich now as they were before the 
war? Are there not many who have advanced a great part of their 
estates to their bleeding country during the contest, who are not yet 
repaid ? Have not many of our most respectable families, to maintain 
the credit of our continental money, which was then supporting our army 
against the Britons, received all their outstanding debts in that money, 
and thereby become nearly ruined? And do not many of them, besides 
their losses, owe large sums upon debts they contracted before the war? 
Have not repairs and entering anew into some line of business exhausted 
their deranged finances, and proved an exertion almost beyond their 
strength? And are gentlemen in such a situation fit to indulge them- 
selves, their wives or children, in expensive amusements ? Have not 
some hundreds of citizens had their houses burned down while the British 
army lay in New York? Are not multitudes obliged to take up money 




IS 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



upon interest to build a little hut, or else pay rent superior to their earn- 
ings? Is there not a general complaint of the unhappy situation of our 
merchants, of the distress attending our commerce, and of the balance of 
trade being heavily against us— heavily in importations not only of 
necessaries, but also of articles of luxury, and scarce anything to make a 
remittance with? And is a play-house proper for a city in such a situa- 
tion? Are our taxes paid up? Are not the wheels of government 
clogged for want of money? Have you a single ship of war to guard your 
coasts or even defend your city from the insults of one armed vessel?" 

And in all this there is much to 
read between the lines. The 
theatre, nevertheless, was rees- 
tablished. Of course there were 
the usual jugglers, mountebanks, 
wax-works, and harlequin farces 
about town to amuse shilling 
sight-seers. 

In its exterior appearance 
the city steadily improved upon 
the condition in which the Brit- 
ish left it in 1783. The burned 
districts, the ruined churches 
and public buildings, the dilapi- 
dated residences, stores, and 
docks, and the wretched streets, 
were for months a constant eye- 
sore. By 1786 much had been 
done in the way of clearing up, 
<?-co4^ //c^c^u>r^ repairing, and building ; much 

more by 1789. Noah Webster 
tells us that in 1786 not many houses remained " built after the old Dutch 
style." The new houses going up were frame or brick ; or, as the insurance 
statements represent, most of them were " framed buildings, with brick 
or stone fronts, and the sides rilled in with brick." Water privileges were 
limited. "Most of the people," says Webster, "are supplied everyday 
with fresh water conveyed to their doors in casks from a pump near the 
head of Queen street, which receives it from a pond almost a mile from 
the city." This pond was the " Collect," long since rilled in, and on the 
site of which now stands the Tombs. 

Public buildings were few. The City Hall stood on the northeast 




&7/C<&?£e>7~ 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 3 19 

corner of Wall and Nassau streets, having been erected in 1700. When 
congress assembled in New York in 1785, the city authorities gave up the 
use of the greater part of it to that body. The main hall, or " congress 
chamber," was at the east end of the second floor. On an elevated plat- 
form on the southern side stood the President's chair, lined with red 
damask silk, and over it a curious canopy fringed with silk, with damask 
curtains falling to the floor and gathered with silken cords. The chairs for 
the members were mahogany, richly carved, and trimmed with red morocco 
leather. In front of each chair stood " a small bureau table." The walls 
were hung with the portraits of Washington and the king and queen of 
France. The mayor's office was on the first floor, the common council 
chamber at the west end of the second floor. Upon the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution by the several states, or in the fall of 1788, the " city 
fathers " resolved to appropriate the entire building to the use of the new 
government, and Major L'Enfant, a French engineer, was intrusted with 
the work of remodeling it. Thereafter it was known as the " New Federal 
Hall," and passed criticism as the most imposing structure in the country. 
It cost about sixty-five thousand dollars. 

The first American post-office in the city opened November 28, 1783, 
at No. 38 Smith street, in the house formerly occupied by Judge Hors- 
manden. William Bedlow was postmaster, being a deputy under Post- 
master-General Ebenezer Hazard, then at Philadelphia. The first Amer- 
ican newspapers were the New York Weekly Journal, published by John 
Holt, who returned with his paper to the city in the fall of 1783, and was 
succeeded by Thomas Greenleaf; the semi-weekly Packet, published by 
Thomas Loudon, January, 1784 ; the Daily Advertiser, by Francis Childs, 
begun in the spring of 1785. In January, 1788, Noah Webster established 
his monthly American Magazine, devoted to essays on all subjects, " par- 
ticularly such as relate to this country." 

From fires, crime, and the negligence of officials the city was only 
passably protected. There were some fourteen or fifteen old-style fire- 
engines, each pumped by about a dozen men, while citizens with buckets 
supplied the water from wells. Watchmen patrolled the streets at night, 
but robberies and knock-downs were not uncommon, and, in the absence 
also of good lamps, there was not much passing at late hours. The 
ordinary city force was inadequate to cope with, a mob, as appeared in the 
case of the "doctors' riot," which suddenly broke out on April 13, 1788, 
when the militia and citizens alone could restore quiet. The mob had 
been excited to violence by a boy's report that he had seen physicians or 
medical students dissecting dead bodies in the hospital, a practice which 



320 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

stirred up a general revulsion. Several persons were killed or wounded 
during the riot, among the latter John Jay, who with others endeavored 
to quell the disturbance. 

Our earliest local political disputes in the American period were the 
immediate outgrowth of the war. It was a case where feelings and sensi- 
bilities were keenly touched, and, as time sooner or later softens human 
nature in this regard, the issue did not long continue. Plainly stated, 
it was a question whether the Tories who remained in the city had any 
rights the Whigs were bound to respect. Chancellor Livingston clearly 
denned the parties as they stood in January, 1784. First, the Tories 
themselves, who " still hope for power under the idea that the remem- 
brance of the past should be lost, though they daily keep it up by their 
avowed attachment to Great Britain." Second, the violent Whigs, who 
were for " expelling all Tories from the state, in hopes by that means to 
preserve the power in their own hands." Third, those who wish " to sup- 
press all violences, to. soften the rigor of the laws against the loyalists, 
and not to banish them from that social intercourse which may, by degrees, 
obliterate the remembrance of past misdeeds ; but who, at the same time, 
are not willing to shock the feelings of the virtuous citizens that have 
at every expense and hazard fulfilled their duty " to the country in the 
recent struggle. The more determined Whigs organized a " Whig 
Society," whose object was to urge the removal of certain influential, 
offensive Tories from the state. The society's president was Lewis 
Morris, and its secretary John Pintard. Outspoken views, public meet- 
ings, and petitions to the legislature followed, but the status of the Tories 
was not eventually disturbed. The measure which affected them most 
seriously was the trespass act, by which all Whigs who had been obliged 
to fly from their homes in consequence of the enemy's invasion could 
bring an action of trespass against those who may have entered and occu- 
pied their houses under the enemy's protection. Many Tories had done 
this, and were held to be liable. In one case, however, that of Elizabeth 
Rutgers against Joshua Waddington, a wealthy Tory, a decision was ren- 
dered in favor of the latter in the mayor's court, on the general ground 
that the state act was in violation of the provisions of the treaty of peace, 
under which Tories were protected in property rights. This caused great 
excitement, especially as Waddington's counsel was none other than 
Alexander Hamilton, who, as a distinguished officer in the continental 
army, could be supposed to have none but the most pronounced Whig 
sympathies. But with Hamilton the war was over, and he discounte- 
nanced harsh measures toward those who would in time assimilate with and 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 32 1 

be lost in the mass of the people. This position he maintained in some 
able articles contributed by him to the press, over the signature of 
"Phocion," and to which Isaac Ledyard replied over the signature of 
" Mentor." Hamilton's broad, statesmanlike views left their impression, 
though his professional course excited the anger of his opponents. 
So bitter w.ere the feelings of some of the more violent among them, that 
they secretly determined to challenge him one by one to a duel until he 
fell. When Ledyard heard of this, he immediately prevented the execu- 
tion of the scheme. This extreme hostility to the Tories died out in the 
course of a year or two, and soon disappeared in the greater question of 
the national Constitution which was beginning to engage public attention. 
State issues or politics were yet to become prominent. The war 
governor Clinton had held office for eight years, and opposition interests 
were bound to show their strength in time. The first attempt was quietly 
made in 1785, when General Schuyler sounded John Jay as to his willing- 
ness to run against Clinton for the governorship at the next election. 
The general charged that Clinton was striving to maintain his popularity 
" at the expense of good government," and that reform demanded a 
change in the office. "But who," he asks, "is to be the person? It is 
agreed that none have a chance of succeeding but you, the chancellor, or 
myself. The second, on account of the prejudices against his family 
name, it is-believed, would fail. ... I am so little known in the south- 
ern part of the state that I should fail there." Jay was accordingly the 
only available candidate, and Schuyler believed he would secure the elec- 
tion by " a great majority." But Jay declined. That he was then the 
most distinguished citizen in New York would have been conceded. The 
many services he had rendered the state as a member of conventions and 
committees; in the wider sphere of the continental congress, of which he 
was once "president ; his diplomatic labors abroad as minister to Spain and 
as one of the commissioners to conclude the treaty of peace in 1783; his 
present position as the secretary for foreign affairs of congress — all com- 
bined to put the state under a special obligation to him as a public 
character. At this juncture, however, he stood aloof from local or state 
controversies, and thereby rendered another service in not precipitating a 
party issue which would have worked unfavorably upon the constitutional 
problem of the near future. " If the circumstances of the state were 
pressing," he replied to Schuyler, " if real disgust and discontent had 
spread through the country, if a change had in the general opinion 
become not only advisable but necessary, and the good expected from 
that change depended on me, then my present objections would imme- 

VOL. XXIX.-NO. 4.-21 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



diately yield." He was not impressed with the necessity in the case,. 
and furthermore felt that it was his duty to continue in the service of 
congress at that time. At a later date the governorship will be his. 

In the larger field of national politics or of national reorganization, 
the city played a conspicuous part and exercised a decisive influence. It 
will ever be to her honor that in the emergency through which our Federal 
Constitution passed at its adoption, New York kept the state true to its 
best interests by powerfully assisting in bringing its unwilling convention 

to ratify that instrument and insure the 
formation of our " more perfect " union. 

The issue in New York, at its culmina- 
tion in 1788, took a sectional turn. The 
city and its environs favored concentration 
of authority in a strong national govern- 
ment ; the state at large preferred the con- 
federation, with such amendments or revis- 
ion as immediate exigencies demanded. 
In the contest for the new Constitution 
as finally presented, the city triumphed 
by converting the state ; she triumphed 
through the wise and well-directed action 
of her merchants, through the superior 
ability, persistence, and unremitting zeal 
of her delegates, and through the moral 
support of both on the part of a large ma- 
jority of her citizens. One of the toasts 
offered at the first public dinner in the 
city after the war — that given by Gover- 
nor Clinton on Evacuation day — seemed 
to serve as the key-note of local sentiment 
through the following years: "May a 
close Union of the states guard the temple they have erected to Liberty." 
The history of the national movement in this state may be traced to 
the action of the legislature on July 21, 1782, when, in response to a reso- 
lution of congress of May 22 preceding, it gave expression to certain 
decided views and convictions on " the state of the nation." It resolved 
that the general situation respecting foreign and financial matters was " in 
a peculiar manner " critical, threatening the subversion of public credit 
and exposing the common cause to "a precarious issue." It resolved 
further that " the radical source of most of our embarrassments is the 




NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



323 



want of sufficient power in congress to effectuate that ready and perfect 
cooperation of the different states, on which their immediate safety and 
future happiness depend ; " and it proposed to congress "to recommend, 
and to each state to adopt the measure of assembling a general conven- 
tion of the states, specially authorized to revise and amend the Con- 
federation, 'reserving a right to the respective legislatures to ratify their 
determinations." Congress postponed action upon this recommendation, 
which operated unfortunately in New York; for during the next five years 
delegations and opinions underwent a change throughout the state, and 
it was only by the most strenuous efforts that it was kept true to its first 
professions. Those were the gloomy, distracting years after the war, 
when the weakness of the Confederation made it impossible to regulate 
trade and commerce, and its defects opened up the question of the recon- 
struction of the Union under circumstances which made it difficult to 
discuss it dispassionately. The situation was not an unnatural one. It 
was a transitional period. The states had 
been living together for seven years on a 
war basis ; peace, with its new require- 
ments, now called for a readjustment of 
the supports, and this could not be done 
without a disturbing effort. In New York 
a variety of influences combined to com- 
plicate the difficulties in the case. A 
strong state pride developed as the ques- 
tion of surrendering further powers to the 
Union was agitated ; jealousy and fear of 
such a Union increased ; persons and par- 
ties in power held tenaciously to the sov- 
ereignty which they were enjoying in a 
practically independent state; and the 

state's legislation looked toward autonomy. All this was more or less 
true of every state. In New York it was marked. Not that any such 
thing as a disunion sentiment found expression ; but, in the absence of 
a binding national tie, local predilections governed. 

For this state of feeling the governor, George Clinton, and his large 
body of friends and supporters were mainly responsible. The governor 
himself was a strong character. A partisan in one sense, he was emi- 
nently public spirited in another. He was loyal to the Union and the 
Confederation, but his hopes and his pride centred on his state. To 
make that great and prosperous was his first ambition ; and his policy and 




COLONEL LAMBS MANSION. 



5-4 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

wishes were reflected in the proceedings of the state legislature. By the 
year 1788 New York was exercising all but national sovereignty. She 
had a well-organized militia ; she appointed boundary commissions ; she 
issued a paper currency ; she levied duties ; she maintained custom- 
houses. Under the act of November 18, 1784, one custom-house was 
established at the port of New York, and another at Sag Harbor on Long 
Island. Collectors, surveyors, gaugers, weighers, and tide-waiters were 
appointed. The first collector for New York was Colonel John Lamb, 
who commanded the first regiment of continental artillery during the 
war; and the surveyor was Colonel John Lasher, of one of the early 
city regiments of levies. Under the impost act of the same date, many 
articles were made dutiable. Sixpence duty was levied on every gallon 
of Madeira wine brought into the state, and threepence on other wines ; 
twopence on every gallon of rum, brandy, or other spirits, if imported 
in vessels owned by citizens of any of the United States, but a double 
duty for vessels with British registers. There were duties on carriages, 
chariots, sulkies, gold and silver watches, scythes, saddles, hollow iron- 
ware, women's leather or stuff shoes, starch, hair-powder, cocoa, teas, 
coals, bricks, wools, furs, and similar importations. 

But this system had serious defects — defects that were the most sensi- 
bly felt by the commercial element throughout the country. A prosper- 
ous trade was wanting. There was no power to regulate it. Congress 
might propose treaties of commerce with foreign powers, but lacked abil- 
ity to enforce them. No uniform system of duties could be imposed 
when each state was devising a tariff of its own. New York might draw 
up an elaborate schedule, but this did not establish the New York mer- 
chant's credit in London ; it failed to open the West India ports to his 
vessels. The one remedy in the case was to confer the necessary powers 
upon congress — " let congress, and congress alone, regulate foreign trade 
and commerce." 

It is here that New York city followed the course that reflects so 
creditably upon her. As between the policy which the state as such was 
pursuing, and the policy which the general government should be em- 
powered to pursue, she set herself in line with the latter. Her merchants 
and her distinguished lawyers and statesmen were the salvation of both 
city and state. The merchants agitated trade requirements. There was 
an abundance, indeed a surplus, of foreign goods in town during those 
early years from 1784 to 1787; but they were largely the importation or 
consignments of British merchants of ample means, who could wait for a 
market. The American Whig merchant, entering mercantile life anew, 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 325 

found himself at a disadvantage, and he saw little relief under the exist- 
ing system. The merchants in Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Charleston were in the same predicament, and all expressed themselves 
alike. By the spring of 1785 the situation had become all but unen- 
durable. On March 7 a memorial was published, to be signed by resi- 
dents of New York, praying the legislature to pass the impost act of 
congress and to recommend the regulation of commerce by that body. 
Under the former act, which had been hanging fire since its passage in 
April, 1783, congress would have been able to pay the interest on the 
public debt. New York alone of all the states refused to approve it. 
Sentiment in the city favored the measure. On March 14 the Chamber 
of Commerce came forward with another and a more formal petition to the 
legislature, signed by its president John Alsop, calling attention to the 
failure of the individual states to regulate trade for the common benefit. 
They could not possibly so regulate it, because, in the words of the 
petition or memorial, " 1st, not being enabled to form treaties, trade cannot 
in their hands be made the basis of commercial compacts ; 2d, because no 
regular system can be adopted by thirteen different legislatures pursuing 
different objects, and seeing the same object in different lights ; and 3d, 
because if it even were to be presumed that they would at all times and 
in every circumstance sacrifice partial interests to the general good, yet 
the want of harmony in their measures and a common force, would forever 
defeat their best intentions." In consequence of this loose system, the mer- 
chants observed with concern that trade, " the great spring of agriculture 
and manufactures," was languishing " under fatal obstructions " and daily 
on the decline. The legislature made no recommendations on these 
petitions; but public opinion continued to assert itself. In the following 
May, Boston voted, in town meeting, that, as peace had not brought 
plenty, and foreign merchants were monopolizing commerce by crushing 
out the American carrying-trade, congress should be invested with power 
competent to the wants of the country. In Philadelphia a committee of 
thirteen merchants was appointed to stir up the state authorities to the 
same end. The Boston people went further, as in early war days, and 
invited the cooperation of the New York merchants ; whereupon the 
Chamber of Commerce and " many other citizens," following up their 
March memorials, called a meeting of merchants and " other inhabitants" 
at the Exchange, June 15, at which Alderman John Broome presided. 
Their former sentiments and views were reiterated in a body of resolu- 
tions, and a committee was appointed to correspond with the several 
counties in the state and with committees in other states, in the hope 



326 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

that " a free and reciprocal communication of opinions" would rouse the 
country to action. The committee was composed of the most prominent 
merchants in the city. To the committees in other states it was proposed 
that they should severally take measures to induce their respective legis- 
latures to confer the necessary powers on congress, "Our union," said 
the New York committee, " is the basis of our grandeur and our power." 
To the counties of the state the committee represented that if commerce 
languished, agriculture would feel a corresponding effect. " By the union 
of the farmer, the merchant, and mechanic," they wrote, "we have, in the 
most dangerous crisis, been able to withstand the open force of our 
enemies ; and, if this spirit still actuates us, we shall soon convince them 
that their insidious politics in peace are of as little effect." The farmer 
was accordingly urged to send assemblymen with federal views to the 
next legislature. 

What effect these appeals produced at large it would be difficult to 
determine, but they kept the subject uppermost in popular discussions 
and clearly strengthened sentiment in New York. The papers of the city, 
notably the Packet and the Journal, published the effusions of correspond- 
ents at intervals, which indicated the interest felt. "What is to be done?" 
ino x uires " Consideration " in March, 1785; and answers, " All the states 
must give congress ample powers to regulate trade, . . . likewise all 
other powers necessary for an active and firm continental government." 
But " Rough Hewer, Jr.," who was known to be Abraham Yates, a pithy 
writer on the other side, declared that history had established the fact 
that republicanism can flourish in small states only, and expressed a dread 
of " a mighty continental legislature," which in time would merge and 
swallow 7 up the rights of the states. " Unitas " called for assemblymen 
who could discern with precision " in what particular a local must give way 
to a more general advantage," and could appreciate the benefits of a gen- 
eral union. " The chain," he exclaims, " should be of adamant, indissoluble, 
eternal! Should this chain ever be broken, good God ! what scenes of 
death and misery lurk under the dreadful event." " Sydney," on the 
other hand, saw nothing but despotism and an oligarchy in a congress 
which could control a revenue exacted from the states by its own agents : 
" If you put the sword and the purse into the hands of the supreme 
power, be the constitution of that power what it may, you render it 
absolute. Congress already have the sword vested in them; the single 
power wanting to make them absolute is that of levying money them- 
selves. When this is compassed, adieu to liberty!" Such contributions 
to the press, however, appeared too infrequently to enable us to judge 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 327 

•of the strength of parties at this date. The discussion went on in the 
coffee-houses and clubs, and two years later the fruits will be seen in test 
elections. 

In the following year (1786) the situation improved so far as agitation 
led to action. Virginia came forward with her proposition for a conven- 
tion at Annapolis, Maryland, "to consider how far a uniform system in 
their commercial regulations may be necessary to the common interest 
and permanent harmony " of the states. The convention met on Septem- 
ber 11, with commissioners present from but five states — Virginia, Dela- 
ware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Their action resulted in 
the assemblage of the famous constitutional convention at Philadelphia 
in the following year. In each of these bodies New York city found its 
representation in the person of Alexander Hamilton ; or, while being a 
representative of the state, he more nearly reflected the sentiment of the 
city, which was largely coincident with, and influenced by, his own. The 
possibilities that lay in the Virginia call immediately absorbed his atten- 
tion. His own proposition for a convention, broached as early as 1780, 
was a sufficient assurance that all his sympathies would be aroused by any 
movement that might be utilized for national ends; and the present 
opportunity was not to be lost. The Annapolis proposition came in 
January, 1786. Hamilton then determined to make one more effort to 
induce the state to accede to the impost act of congress, which would be 
an entering wedge toward granting general powers to the government ; or 
failing in this he hoped to secure the appointment of commissioners to the 
Annapolis convention. One of his intimate friends was Colonel Robert 
Troup, formerly aid to General Gates, at this date a rising lawyer in the 
city, and later judge of the United States district court of New York. He 
seconded Hamilton's efforts. " In pursuance of the latter's plan," says 
Troup at a subsequent date, " the late Mr. Duer, the late Colonel Malcolm, 
and myself were sent to the state legislature as part of the city delega- 
tion, and we were to make every possible effort to accomplish Hamilton's 
objects. Duer was a man of commanding eloquence. We went to the 
legislature and pressed totis viribus the grant of the impost agreeably to 
the requisition of congress. We failed in obtaining it. The resolutions 
of Virginia were communicated by Governor Clinton the 14th of March. 
We went all our strength in the appointment of commissioners to attend 
the commercial convention, in which we were successful. The commis- 
sioners were instructed to report their proceedings to the next legislature. 
Hamilton was appointed one of them. Thus it was that he was the 
principal instrument to turn this state to a course of policy that saved our 



328 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

Country from incalculable mischiefs, if not from total ruin." 1 The other 
commissioner was Egbert Benson, then attorney-general of the state, who 
was in perfect sympathy with the objects of the proposed convention, and 
who turned his business before the supreme court at Albany over to a 
friend, to hurry on with Hamilton to Annapolis. 

The outcome of the brief convention at Annapolis was an urgent 
recommendation for the meeting of a more representative body at Phila- 
delphia in the following spring. Hamilton, as Benson tells us, was the 
author of the address to this effect sent to congress and the individual 
states. The work of the Philadelphia convention is a matter of history. 
The delegates to that body from New York state were Judge Robert 
Yates, John Lansing, Jr., and again Hamilton. By the withdrawal of the 
two former from the convention, on the ground that it was proposed to 
formulate a new constitution instead of revising the existing one, Hamilton 
remained alone as the state's representative. The measure of his influence 
in the convention may be seen in the national character of the Constitution. 

There yet remained the problem of the adoption of the new instrument 
by the states ; and here, so far as New York is concerned, the value of 
the labors of distinguished men of the city appears to highest advantage. 
The struggle for the Constitution in the state convention was not less 
earnest and critical than the effort at its framing. Whatever the situation 
might have been elsewhere, it was well known that in New York ratifica- 
tion could not be secured without a close and determined contest. " True 
it is," wrote Gouverneur Morris to Jay, October 30, 1786, "that this city 
and its neighborhood are enthusiastic in the [federal] cause, but I dread 
the cold and sour temper of the back counties." This sour temper was 
in reality the Clintonian disposition to resist centralization in the general 
government. There still survived what Morris called the old " colonial 
oppositions of opinion," the strong, inherited local feeling, which it was 
necessary to overcome ; and the men of the new order of things set to 
work to overcome it. The first work in hand was to parry the adverse 
criticisms upon the proposed constitution, which appeared soon after 
the adjournment of the Philadelphia convention. The anti-federalist 
Journal for a while abounded with them, over the signatures of " Cato," 
" Brutus," " Old Whig," " Centinel," " Cincinnatus," and the like. A 
" Son of Liberty," writing from Orange county, denounced the Phila- 
delphia outcome as " a preposterous and new-fangled system." Some saw 
in it the loss of state independence, others the ascendency and control of 

1 John C. Hamilton's Life of Hamilton. 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 329 

a government class, others a menace to privileges and personal liberty in 
the absence of a bill of rights. 

It was at this juncture that Hamilton and his associates appeared in 
the field with their great defense and exposition of the Constitution in the 
Federalist papers. It is to the local controversy in the city and state 
that we owe that lucid and authoritative commentary on our fundamental 
law. Of the eighty-five numbers of the work that were published, all of 
them over the signature " Publius," Hamilton wrote sixty-three, Jay five, 
Madison (then a member of congress in New York) thirteen, and three 
were the joint production of Hamilton and Madison. The first number 
was printed in the Independent Journal, or Weekly Advertiser, on October 
27, 1787, and thereafter the articles appeared, sometimes two in the same 
issue, in the Packet and other papers, continuing through the summer of 
1788. 

The New York state convention had been called to meet at Pough- 
keepsie on June 17, 1788. Delegates were nominated in the counties 
early in April, and representative men were put forward. All felt the 
importance of the discussion and the decision. It was at abou-t this 
time that John Jay reinforced the Federalist papers with An Address to 
the People of the State of New York, which he issued anonymously in 
pamphlet form. It had its effect in strengthening federal views, and, 
according to a contemporary letter, would doubtless have converted many 
an honest anti-federalist in the upper counties had it appeared earlier. 
" The proposed government is to be the government of the people," he 
wrote ; and in 1793 he reiterated this sentiment as chief justice of the 
United States, in his opinion on the suability of the state : " The people, 
in their collective and national capacity, established the present Constitu- 
tion." Two sets of delegates for the state convention were nominated 
for the city and county of New York. Jay and Hamilton appeared on 
both tickets. 

The Federalist ticket was elected with a clean sweep. Jay received 
the highest number of votes, or only one hundred and one less than 
the total cast — two thousand seven hundred and thirty-five out of two 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-six. Hamilton, Morris, Hobart, and 
Livingston were less than thirty votes behind. The highest anti-federal 
vote was but one hundred and thirty-four. But the upper counties were 
overwhelmingly anti-federalist ; and when the convention met, their 
majority out of fifty-seven members was found to range from twenty-five 
to thirty. When the convention adjourned, July 26, after deliberating 
forty days, this majority had been reduced to a minority. The conven- 



350 NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 

tion adopted the Constitution by a majority of three votes — a result due 
almost wholly to the abilities, character, personal force, and effective appeal 
of the delegates from New York city. Hamilton, Jay, and Livingston 
bore the honors of the debate. In dealing with this whole question of a 
stronger government, from the Annapolis to the Poughkeepsie convention, 
Hamilton's services were the most conspicuous. 

Although the Poughkeepsie convention had adopted the Constitution 
in a certain sense provisionally, and called for its amendment by a new 
national convention, the final ratification was binding, and the state 
joined the circle as the " eleventh pillar" of the Union. This result was 
in itself a triumph for the federalists, and when the news reached the city, 
on Saturday evening, July 26, great was the rejoicing. Men cheered, 
bells were rung, and impromptu processions were formed which marched 
to the houses of the several delegates to cheer again. When the dele- 
gates themselves returned to town, they were personally complimented in 
the same way, with the addition of a salute of eleven guns for each mem- 
ber. " In short," says the Packet, " a general joy ran through the whole 
city, and several of those who were of different sentiments drank freely of 
the Federal Bowl and declared that they were now perfectly reconciled to 
the new Constitution." The result was received in Philadelphia with " a 
glorious peal from Christ church bells." 

A feature and expression of the intense interest felt throughout the 
country in the fate of the Constitution were the popular federal proces- 
sions held at different places, notably Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, 
and New York. The New York procession was the last and grandest. It 
was held July 23, in honor of the adoption of the Constitution by ten 
States, and exceeded all previous demonstrations in the country. There 
were over six thousand men in the line, representing all degrees, profes- 
sions, trades, and interests. Each one of the ten divisions included repre- 
sentations, flags, designs, and emblems of commerce and labor. There 
were foresters, plowmen, farmers, gardeners, millers, bakers, brewers, dis- 
tillers ; coopers, butchers, tanners, cordwainers ; carpenters, farriers, 
perukte-makers and hair-dressers ; whitesmiths, blacksmiths, cutlers, masons, 
bricklayers, painters, glaziers, cabinet-makers, upholsterers, civil engineers; 
shipwrights, joiners, boat-builders, sailmakers, riggers; printers, binders, 
cartmen, coachmakers, pewterers, goldsmiths and silversmiths, tobacco- 
nists, chocolate-makers; saddlers, harness-makers, founders; lawyers, 
physicians, professors, students, societies, the Cincinnati, merchants, and 
clergymen. Near the centre of the procession the full-rigged man-of-war 
or " federal ship " Hamilton, carrying thirty-two guns, with a crew of 



NEW YORK AFTER THE REVOLUTION 



331 



thirty men, complete in all its appointments, and drawn by twelve horses, 
attracted a continuous gaze of admiration from the. throngs along the 
streets. Commodore Nicholson commanded. The costumes, dress, imple- 
ments, and general paraphernalia of the exhibitors and participants made 
the whole immensely pleasing and imposing. The entire day was given 
up to the festivities ; for, after the parade had passed from the common 
down Broadway and around through the streets on the east side, it moved 
out into the Bowery to Bayard's grounds, where a temporary building, 




PROCESSION IN HONOR OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. 



consisting of three grand pavilions, had been erected for a civic and 
popular feast. Tables were set for five thousand persons. We are told, 
in the carefully prepared account of the procession published later, that, 
*' as this splendid, novel, and interesting exhibition moved along, an unex- 
pected silence reigned throughout the city, which gave a solemnity to the 
whole transaction suited to the singular importance of the cause. No 
noise was heard but the deep rumbling of carriage-wheels, with the neces- 
sary salutes and signals. A glad serenity enlivened every countenance, 
while the joyous expectation of national prosperity triumphed in every 
bosom." 



SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANYS PRIOR 

TO 1776 

By G. C. Broadhead 

At a meeting of the American Historical Society in Washington 
December 31, 1889, a statement is reported to have been made that there 
were no white settlements west of the Alleghanys when the Revolutionary 
war began. And Theodore Roosevelt, in Winning of the West, makes 
the statement, that " when the fight at Lexington took place they [the 
Americans] had no settlements beyond the mountain chain on our western 
border. It took them a century and a half to spread from the Atlantic to 
the Alleghanys. In the next three-fourths of a century they had spread 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific." 

We find that in 1673 certain priests established a mission at San 
Antonio, Texas 1 — now a very important town — and not long after they 
erected the Alamo, within which was enacted that sad tragedy in 1837, 
when Crockett, Travis, Bowie, and other heroes consecrated the soil with 
their hearts' blood, soon destined to germinate and mature as the Lone 
Star Republic. In 1640 Santa Fe was the capital of New Mexico. In 
1668 the mission of St. Mary's on Lake Superior was founded. 2 In 1673 
Marquette was on the headwaters of the Mississippi and visited the 
Arkansas. In 1680 La Salle built Fort Crevecceur on the Illinois river, near 
the site of the present town of Peoria. After journeying back and forth 
to and from Canada, in 1682 he discovered the mouth of the Mississippi. 
In 1684 La Salle with four vessels sailed from France for America. After 
experiencing much disaster in seeking to enter the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, he finally landed in Matagorda bay, Texas, early in 1685. Here a 
fort was built. Of the original two hundred and eighty-five men only 
one hundred and fifty remained. Seeds were planted but few sprouted. 
Some of the men deserted. Reverses were met with which, on March 17, 
1687, culminated in the murder of La Salle by one of his own men while 
en route to seek aid from a station on the Mississippi. 3 In 1683 Father 
Gravier founded Kaskaskia, and about 1693 began a mission among the 
Illinois, and soon after another mission was started at Cahokia. 4 

1 Encyclopedia Britannica. 2 Western Annals. 

" Switzler's History; also Western Annals. 4 Western Annals. 



SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANYS PRIOR TO 1 776 333 

Between 1695 and 1702 several attempts were made by the French to 
open copper mines near the upper Mississippi, but they were kept off by 
the warlike attitude of the Indians. 1 In 1701 the French explored the 
Missouri to the mouth of the Kansas. Between 1700 and 1710 D'lbber- 
ville built several temporary forts on the lower Mississippi and in the 
direction of Mobile bay. De la Motte de Cadillac in 1701 laid the founda- 
tion for forts at Detroit; and the first land grants at Detroit were made 
in 1707. Between the years 1700 and 1 7 16, St. Denis explored the coun- 
try towards the head of the Red, the Washita, and the Rio Grande below 
El Paso, and in 1703 he began a settlement on the Washita, keeping his 
headquarters at Natchitoches. 2 In 17 19 La Harpe built a fort on Red 
river. 3 Spain disputed with France the right to the coast from Pensacola 
to the Rio Grande. In 1714 the French built Fort Rosalie, within the 
territory of the Natchez Indians, and afterwards proceeded to treat the 
Indians with increasing contempt, until they even went so far as to 
demand that the natives should abandon their chief town. The wrongs 
of their injured brethren coming to the .ears of the Cherokees, they coun- 
selled revenge, and on November 28, 1729, every Frenchman in that colony 
was slaughtered excepting two, and the women and children. Two 
months later the French and Choctaws retaliated, and in two years* time 
scarcely a soul was left of the ill-fated Natchez. 

Without dwelling on the continued warfare for ten years between the 
French and Chickasaws, we proceed to the detail of other settlements. 
French explorers journeyed westward into the country of the Osages, the 
Pawnees, and the Missouri Indians. 4 These efforts at possession aroused 
the jealousy of the Spaniards, and a caravan left Santa Fe in 1720, and 
marched in search of the Pawnee villages. The intention of the Spaniards 
was to surprise, if possible, the nation of the Missouris, who at that time 
dwelt not far from the Kansas river; to conquer them, and to establish a 
settlement within their territory. At that time the Missouris were at war 
with the Pawnees, and the Spaniards purposed to join the Pawnees and 
war upon the Missouris. Instead of finding the Pawnee village, they 
unwittingly reached a Missouri village and were completely deceived, as 
the language of the two nations differed but little. The Spaniards were 
thus entirely thrown off their guard and freely divulged their plans. The 
Indians did not undeceive them, but requested time to assemble their 
warriors. Within forty-eight hours two thousand appeared under arms, 
and a grand feast was enjoyed by both parties. They then rested, but 
during the night the Indians arose and surprised the Spaniards, killing all 

1 Stoddard's Louisiana. 2 Ibid. 3 Western Annals. 4 Stoddard's Louisiana. 



334 SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANYS PRIOR TO 1 776 

excepting one priest. His life was saved, and he was made to instruct 
them in horsemanship, he selecting the best horse for his own use. After 
a certain number of days of instruction in riding, he set whip to his horse 
and escaped to Santa Fe, and told of the disaster. The exact spot where 
this took place is not certainly known. It may have been near Kansas 
city, or else in Saline county, Missouri. I have, in fact, seen an ancient 
fortified place in Saline county, four miles southwest from Miami. This 
old fortification seems to have covered twenty acres of ground, upon which 
now stand trees, some of which measure over three feet in diameter, the 
whole surrounded by three ditches, and walls showing three feet difference 
in elevation. Near this locality the Missouri Indians did at one time dwell, 
and were afterwards driven west by the Osages. 

After this occurrence the French, becoming somewhat alarmed, sent 
out De Bourgmont, who built a fort called Fort Orleans on an island in the 
[Missouri, not far below where the town of Brunswick now stands. This 
island has since been washed away. At that time the Missouri Indians 
also dwelt upon the north side of the Missouri river, and during the latter 
part of the last century were driven across, and for a while were established 
in Saline county, but were finally driven west by the Osages. Fort 
Orleans only existed five years. De Bourgmont brought about a peace 
with the various tribes in 1724, and soon after his fort was attacked and 
totally destroyed. 1 

Kaskaskia must have contained permanent settlements, for there are 
records of deeds to land there of date 1712, and in 1721 it contained a 
Jesuit college. In 1766 Kaskaskia contained one hundred families. Caho- 
kia was settled soon after Kaskaskia. Fort Chartres was built in 17 19, and 
rebuilt in 1754. Deeds are of record of lands at Fort Chartres and Cahokia 
of date 1722. Fort Chartres was for a while the seat of government of 
the Illinois country, and Colonel Pitman, a British officer who visited the 
country, says that the commandant or governor in 1756 had his head- 
quarters at Fort Chartres. Beck informs us 3 that after a flood in the river 
the headquarters of the government were moved to Kaskaskia in 1772. 
The Illinois country was ceded to the English in 1763, but was not really 
taken possession of until 1765. St. Ange de Bellerive then commanded 
at Fort Chartres as lieutenant-governor of the district of Illinois, and 
retreated to St. Louis in 1765. The first court of justice was held at Fort 
Chartres in 1768. Vivier, writing in 1750, says: "We have, in Illinois, near 
Kaskaskia, whites, negroes, Indians, and half-breeds. In the five French 

'Beck: Gazetteer of Missouri, and. Western Annals. 
2 Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri. 



SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANYS PRIOR TO I 776 335 

villages within twenty-one miles are perhaps one thousand one hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks, sixty Indians. Most of the French till the 
soil ; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs, and horses, and live like princes." 1 

Up to 1763 the country on both sides of the Mississippi above the 
mouth of the Ohio was called the country of the Illinois. When the east 
side was turned over to the British in 1765, the country on the west was 
called upper Louisiana, and St. Louis was the headquarters, or capital. 
The records show that wheat was raised in Illinois in 1720, and in that 
year De la Motte opened the mines in Missouri still known by his name, and 
La Renault opened other mines in Washington county from 1721 to 1743, 
and in 1763 Francis Burton discovered the mines of Potosi. 2 Beck :] informs 
us of the early settlements of St. Genevieve and New Bourbon (a few 
miles south), and they have authenticated traditions of settlements in 1735 ; 
and the St. Gens family have records of transfer of property in the post of 
St. Genevieve of the Illinois dated in 1854. The flood of 1875 destroyed 
the old town of St. Genevieve, and the present town was built near the 
bluffs. 

Kaskaskia furnished supplies to the smaller towns, including Fort 
Chartres, St. Genevieve, and New Bourbon, and the citizens spoke 
derisively of these places, applying the term misere to St. Genevieve, 
pain court (short of bread) to St. Louis, vide pocJie to Carondelet, and 
pouilleux (lousy) to Kaskaskia. In 1784 Kaskaskia and Cahokia 4 had a 
population of four hundred and forty. In 1750 New Orleans had one 
thousand two hundred inhabitants, and ten miles up the river was a 
German settlement, where tobacco of good quality was raised. In 1749 
the Ohio company obtained leave to settle on a grant of five hundred 
thousand acres on the Ohio river in the disputed territory. They 
employed Chris-Gist to explore it. He passed down the Ohio and up 
the Miami to the town of Twightees, one hundred and fifty miles above 
its mouth. On June 18, 1752, the treaty of Logstovvn was effected by 
the Virginia commissioners with the Northwest Indians, in which the 
Indians agreed not to disturb any settlements southeast of the Ohio 
river. Gist then proceeded to lay out a town a little below Pittsburgh 
at Chartres creek. 

The governor of Canada directed the erection of forts at Presque Isle 
on Lake Erie, at the head of French creek at La Bceuf, and at the 
mouth of French creek Fort Venango was erected. General (then 
Major) Washington was sent by the governor of Virginia to remonstrate 
against these settlements. The after result was the war signalized at its 

1 Western Annals. 2 Schoolcraft. . 3 Gazetteer Missouri, 1823. 4 Roosevelt. 



02 



6 SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANYS PRIOR TO 1776 



beginning by Braddock's defeat at Point Coupee. In 1754 three hundred 
families left France for the purpose of settling around Vincennes. In 
1768, by the treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Iroquois relinquished all claims to 
territory south of the Ohio, and by this the other treaties of 1684 and 1726 
were confirmed. Sir William Johnson was present on the part of the Brit- 
ish colonies, and there were also representatives from New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Virginia, together with Delawares, Shawnees, and the Six 
Nations. In 1758 Dr. Thomas Walker of Albemarle county, Virginia, 
explored the mountain valleys of southwest Virginia, and east Tennes- 
see, and the upper portion of Kentucky, and gave a name to the Cum- 
berland river and to the Cumberland mountains. In 1769 Colonel Joseph 
Martin, also of Albemarle, Virginia, with others, took steps to form a 
settlement in Powell's valley. 1 

These explorers prepared the way for further progress westward ; for 
instance, Daniel Boone, in 1769, visited Kentucky, and in 1775 he again 
came and erected a fort, and began the settlements at Boonsboro. In 
1769 the first settlement was formed on the banks of the Watauga, then 
others on the Holston ; and in 1772 James Robertson and John Sevier 
adopted laws for the government of the colony. They next called a con- 
vention from that and neighboring settlements, including Nolichucky and 
Carter's valley, to meet at Watauga, and this may be considered the first 
assembly called together to establish laws for the government of colonies 
in the then new west. The Kentucky convention met several years 
later, and was the first that met entirely west of the mountains. Their 
legislative assemblies continued during six years, until 1778, when North 
Carolina organized the county of Washington, including all of Tennessee; 2 
Virginia claimed all west of Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and the Virginians 
(or long knives) were the only foe the red man feared. In 1768 a treaty 
was made at Stanwix with the Iroquois ; they relinquishing all title to the 
country between the Ohio and Tennessee. October 14, 1768, a treaty was 
effected at Hardlabor, South Carolina, with the Cherokees, confirmed by a 
second treaty, October 18, 1770, by which the right was confirmed to the 
Cherokees to hunt on certain territory. In 1772 Virginia made a treaty 
with the Cherokees, the latter to remain south of a line running west from 
White Top mountain, latitude 36 30'. The British agent being likely to 
cause trouble, Robertson and the settlers on the Watauga made a lease of 
lands, paying six thousand pounds sterling value in goods. A second 
treaty was made in 1776 by buying the same territory. 

In 1775 Henderson called together the colonists of Boonsboro, Harrods- 

1 Western Annals. 2 Roosevelt. 



SETTLEMENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGIIANVS PRIOR TO 1 776 337 

burgh, Boiling Spring, and St. Asaph's, for the purpose of forming some 
kind of government. The convention adjourned without accomplishing 
much, and did not again meet. At the earnest request of George Rogers 
Clark, in 1776, Virginia admitted Kentucky as one of her counties, with 
Harrodsburgh as county seat. In 1778 all the territory northwest of the 
Ohio was formed into one county called Illinois, with John Todd com- 
mandant ; and in 1781 Virginia ceded to congress all her claim to this ter- 
ritory. In 1780 Virginia made grants of land in Kentucky for educational 
purposes, 1 and in the same year the territory was divided into three 
counties — Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln. 2 In 1781 a territorial organi- 
zation of Kentucky was effected, and in 1786 Virginia agreed that 
Kentucky should form an independent organization. In 1785 Kentucky 
contained twelve thousand inhabitants. 

Thus far it seems to be proven that there were settlements west of the 
Alleghanys prior to 1776. A number of forts were established in the 
territory now included in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, 
Michigan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas. 
Mr. Roosevelt informs us that in 1769 a settlement was made in the 
Watauga valley between the prolongation of the Blue Ridge and the 
Cumberland mountains. He pays great tribute to the courage and in- 
domitable perseverance of the pioneer settler of the southwest from the 
Watauga to the Alamo. 

The early settlers were largely of Scotch or Irish descent, or a min- 
gling of the two, and were chiefly Presbyterians in religion. A few years 
later the Baptists came, and still later the Methodists. Classes of more 
aristocratic origin began to emigrate from Virginia to Kentucky about 
1783, but the pioneer element ruled up to 1796, when Benjamin Logan 
was defeated for governor. 

In Tennessee the Indian fighters continued to give tone to the social 
life in the state up to the time of their death. The first settlers were 
chiefly of stock originally Irish and Scotch, who drifted down the valley 
of Virginia, and thence west to Kentucky. To quote Roosevelt once 
more: "No Europeans could have held their own for a fortnight in 
Kentucky, 3 and the west could never have been conquered in the teeth of 
so formidable and ruthless a foe, had it not been for the personal prowess 
of the pioneers themselves." The land was really conquered not so much 
by the actual shock of battle between bodies of soldiers, as by continuous 
westward movement. 

1 Western Annals. 2 Mann Butler. 3 Viz., at Boonsboro. 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 4.-22 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 1 

By Leonard Irving 

The historical novel is still with us, as would abundantly appear from 
our list below. The reading public, however, has been more generously- 
supplied of late with other specimens of the novelist's cunning art. And 
such other specimens have come forward presumably because they were 
wanted. The society novel is one much welcomed ; people who move 
within its charmed circle like to read about the doings of the people who 
are like themselves and their associates. People who are without, but 
would like to be within, hail this opportunity of learning society's ways,, 
then to turn about and ape these ways in humbler spheres. And, finally, 
even people who cannot have the remotest expectation of entering 
society are fascinated by its whirl and splendor as depicted on the 
printed page. But there is great eagerness displayed nowadays too in 
the demand for the sensational novel, or that delineating the working of 
passions violent, fiery, even wicked, for we cannot stop short of these 
if passions come into play at all. And when we apply the canon of real- 
ism here, so much insisted on in other departments of genius, we get some 
very spicy material served up, which seems to be pretty generally liked. 
Again, there is the physico-psychological novel, wherewith Appleton's 
Dutch fiction series has lately made us acquainted, calling itself also the 
" impressionist " novel, and presenting characters whose passions are so 
worked upon that they become insane. By the side of all this kind of 
reading, the historical novel is apt to be regarded as rather tame ; there- 
fore there are instances in which it is made to partake of the characteris- 
tics of the novels now so greatly in demand. And if that demand is legit- 
imate, if it ask not for too overwrought a presentation of life, it may be 
well to make the historical novel run into the molds marked out by more 
modern canons of taste. Yet even then it is questionable whether the 

1 Standish pf Standish. A Story of the Pilgrims. By Jane G. Austin. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 
Boston and New York. 1892. 

My Lady Pokahontas. A True Relation of Virginia. Written by Anas Todkill, Puritan and 
Pilgrim. With Notes by John Esten Cooke. (Same publishers.) 1891. 

The Lady of Fort St. John. By Mary Hartwell Catherwood. (Same publishers.) 1892. 

Zachary Phips. By Edwin Lassetter Bynner. (Same publishers.) 1892. 

"The Columbian Historical Novels" {Columbia, Estevan, St. Augustine, Pocahontas). By 
John R. Musick. Illustrated. Funk & Wagnalls, New York. 1892. 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 339 

people who are devouring the intensely exciting society novels, the sensa- 
tional tales of every sort, will not revolt at the serious and sober element 
infused by the introduction of historical facts or personages. 

It is claimed that the historical novel has lately fallen somewhat into 
disfavor. If it has, the remarks preceding will furnish the hint as to one 
reason for this. With all its attempts to suit modern tastes, it will not quite 
come up to the measure of intoxication required by a great many. And 
on the other hand, while failing in the eyes of some as a fiction, it will fail 
in the eyes of others as history. This is a scientific age, in the writing of 
history as in the pursuit of the study of physical nature. We must be 
careful with our facts, we must clearly indicate our authorities. Unless 
we can go back to original sources, or unearth documents not hitherto 
published, or not even seen by other writers, we had better not presume 
to write history at all. And when we come to disputed points we must 
present all the pros and cons, and be very cautious about giving our own 
opinion, if we give any opinion at all — which perhaps we had better not 
do. And there are some injudicious persons, critics and others, who insist 
that the historical novel shall conform itself to all these particulars of 
historical criticism. 

This, of course, the historical novel cannot do. It does not take the 
place of history. Those persons make a great mistake who imagine that 
they can address themselves to the pleasant task of reading an indefinite 
amount of historical novels, thereby excusing themselves from the more 
laborious undertaking of wading through volumes of history. The histori- 
cal novel can never supplant historical reading or study. As an ingenious 
critic remarks : " A good three-fourths of all its admirers, one dare guess, 
are persons who have discovered in it an easy means of settling accounts 
with conscience. While sacrificing few or none of the delights of a tale, 
they are, they fancy, extracting from it all the riches of mining into the 
toughest history." 

For the historical novel does not properly teach history. It is not 
intended to give us a list of facts and dates. It does not deal with cir- 
cumstances and personages in order to make us acquainted with them for 
the first time. On the contrary, if it is properly utilized it will stimulate 
the study of history. It will send us back to our " history-books " to get 
a clear and cool understanding of the events or the persons about whom 
our profoundest interest and warmest sympathies were made to centre by 
the art of the novelist. So, in this sense, it will be an immense help in 
the teaching of history. But if the teaching has already taken place, 
if the reader comes to the novel with his mind full of the facts, it will be 



340 THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 

readily seen that he is in excellent position to enjoy the fiction. He will 
move among familiar things, but he will see them in a new light. For, 
in another sense, the historical novel is an aid in teaching history. The 
knowledge of history is not properly a mere collection of items — bat- 
tles, kings, dynasties, revolutions, years, months, days, patriots, tyrants, 
what not. It is a necessary adjunct to historical knowledge, that we 
possess some historical imagination, that this jumble of items and actors 
and dates have some significant inter-dependence or inter-relation among 
themselves. We must be able to transplant ourselves to these preceding 
times and circumstances. All those old saws of " History repeats itself," 
and " Human nature is always the same," mean a good deal. There 
always will be certain moral forces and intellectual movements abroad 
among men, whatever be the age, which will exert certain influences that 
can be calculated. Happy is the student of history who can appreciate 
the operation of these at different stages of the world's history. It will 
make every age alive for him with a human interest, and it will make him 
understand much better the bearings of events in his own age. But for 
this he needs to cultivate the faculty of historical imagination, to put 
himself in the place of people in other times. Now it is self-evident that 
for cultivating this necessary and useful faculty historical fiction will be a 
prime aid. An historical novel may make very free with the facts ; it may 
quite radically twist actual circumstances; it may even make some havoc 
among dates ; but it will be a poor production if it do not reflect faithfully 
the age to which it transports the thought, if it do not make us live over 
again the days of yore. It may send the reader for historical information 
to the school-books, and these may correct many a number or incident ; 
but the novel must guide with unerring hand the reader's historical imagi- 
nation. As some one wrote the other day: "A historical novel which 
merely paraphrased history would be a deplorable affair indeed. If simple 
narration of facts is all that we ask, we may well insist that we shall have 
them uncolored. But the true value of the historical novel is to be sought 
in its adequacy as a picture of the time." 

We notice, therefore, at once that the historical novel may come into 
conflict very often with an unreasonable demand for scientific historical 
accuracy and still be a very good historical novel. It cannot, from the 
very nature of the case, be a scientific treatise. How, for instance, could 
it deal with mooted points? Upon such, several weighty authorities may 
perhaps be brought forward, with opinions all differing. A novel writer 
may happen to have nice historic discrimination and judgment, and hit 
upon the best opinion, and conduct his whole plot, or turn some crisis or 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 341 

catastrophe, upon the assumption of that single view. But that would 
be a mere incident or accident of his fiction. Some view he must select, 
whether the best or not ; and whether he has duly weighed that selection 
or not, he cannot burden his pages with a discussion of the merits of the 
case. Let him only use his point of view skillfully for his tale, and faith- 
fully for his times and his persons, and we shall be content. We can then 
close the novel, and open some historical treatise if we wish to get at the 
exact or well-balanced decisions of various authorities. There is always 
enough undisputed history to be a secure guide to an understanding of any 
given period, and to enable the novelist to properly train his own or his 
reader's historical imagination. 

These observations lead us again to another obvious caution. That 
is, the novel must not be sunk or lost in the history — we must not have 
so much of the history that we forget all about the tale. The novelist 
should enlist our interest in the characters (both the historic ones and 
others) and in the plot. The novel, it is not to be forgotten, is a work 
of art. The Germans and the Dutch have a way of applying the word 
Dichter, poet, not only to the writer of poetry, but indifferently to the 
latter as much as to the inventor of tales written in prose. The poet is 
the maker, according to the Greeks (poien). He is the man who invents, 
devises, contrives {dichten), to the German. And on this score he stands 
side by side with the novelist. The historical novelist cannot escape the 
obligation of the artist. He must contrive, invent, devise ; he cannot main- 
tain his character and simply transfer what history has brought about 
to his pages without more ado. This applies to the fictitious persons 
as well as to the fictitious circumstances. We do not want these people 
thrown upon the pages of the historical novel as mere puppets, to off-set 
the historic characters, or to give them somebody to talk to or to be 
married to, if we do not know whom they were really married to. 

And right here we must be careful again that we do not overdo the 
reproduction of a former age by means of the personages of the story. 
By making them too exactly the persons of a distant age, we may get out 
of touch with them altogether, and therefore lose interest in the narrative, 
and thereby find the novel spoiled for us again. Taine complains of Scott 
in this wise: " And yet is this history? All these pictures of a distant 
age are false. Costumes, scenery, externals alone are exact ; actions, 
speech, sentiments — all the rest is civilized, embellished, arranged in 
modern guise." Well, we are glad it is. We can carry realism in art too 
far. The landscape upon the canvas cannot be the actual landscape of 
sky, and earth, and trees, and river, no matter how exactly reproduced. 



342 THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 

The cunning hand of the painter follows unconsciously, but inevitably, the 
idealizing, the thinking of his head. We could not understand the dialect 
of Ivanhoe, perhaps with difficulty even that of the Earl of Leicester, 
or of Nigel ; we certainly would be shocked out of measure if their speech 
were exactly transferred to that of our own day. Taine's complaint, while 
it has philosophy in it, and appeals to the scientific sense, cannot be well 
taken artistically. We want characters we can like ; they need to be a 
little nearer to ourselves, therefore, than they could have been one, two, 
three and more centuries ago. We do not mind how exact are the exter- 
nals — costumes, scenery, etc., but we are somewhat shy of the words and 
actions. We are glad that " Walter Scott pauses on the threshold of 
the soul, and in the vestibule of history, selects in the Renaissance and 
the middle age only the fit and agreeable, blots out plain-spoken words, 
licentious sensuality, bestial ferocity." We shall understand the spirit 
and force of former ages sufficiently without entering into the precise 
details of the latter characteristics. Actual history will help us out well 
enough in appreciating this grossness. We can afford to have it absent 
from the pages of our novels, where we have to listen to actual conversa- 
tions, and where we need to be shocked only at the language and acts 
of the villains. 

Now if there be any history fit for furnishing events and episodes upon 
which to exercise the inventive powers, that history is American history. 
What a rich field affords the whole age of the discovery, from the time 
of Columbus to that of Hudson ! How thrilling is it to follow the bare 
record of De Soto's wanderings, and to look with him for the first time 
upon the great " father of waters," the Mississippi ! Nor could our most 
artful inventor much improve upon the exciting adventures of a La Salle, 
who traveled along that mighty stream all the way to its mouth, and then 
back again and along the great lakes on his return to the St. Lawrence. 
What work of fiction could exceed the interest awakened by the exploit 
of Coronado in following up the course of the Colorado river far into the 
heart of the continent, which was then hardly suspected to be of such 
vast proportions ? And then come the times of the settlements of the 
various colonies. Tragedy, wildest adventure, noblest endurance, invinci- 
ble courage, steady perseverance, final success; treachery, meanness, 
cruelty, revenge — who shall enumerate the immense variety of potent 
qualities to make up the very best kind of a story, which come to the 
foreground in the history of all these colonial beginnings ? And then the 
gradual growth of the ideas and the sentiments of solidarity, of national 
being, of national unity — what materials here for narrative, for the skillful 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 343 

unfolding of character, for the noblest instructions in political philosophy! 
We scarcely need mention the many opportunities for apt story-telling 
which abound through all the dark and thrilling years of the Revolu- 
tionary war — what grand characters come to the foreground here ; what 
foolish selfishness, blind partisanship, suicidal injustice to a nation, con- 
trasted with* self-devotion, sacrifices, forbearance, and final acceptance of 
the dangerous challenge. If feeble resources, inadequate numbers, inex- 
perience, and untried powers, in contrast with might and prestige and 
boundless resource, make a heroic situation, surely here is a fine field for 
the genius of the " poet," the " Dichter" who puts forth his work in the 
shape of the novel. Nor is our subsequent history — the consolidation into 
federal union ; the marvelous growth in extent of territory, and in wealth 
and population ; the creeping of the black shadow over the fair horizon of 
our prosperity, bursting into the lightning and the havoc of civil war, and 
followed by the serene calm of a reunion firmer than ever — neither shall 
these years of the latest century of our American history be found void of 
intense interest for one who would immortalize them upon the pages of a 
work of inventive genius. 

We accordingly find that prominent names are already identified with 
this department of American literature. After Cooper, half in jest, half in 
earnest, had written his first novel, the failure of which only indicated 
another road to success, he gave to the world his story of The Spy, which 
takes us into the heart of the Revolution. When he was induced to try 
his hand at sea-tales, and to show that he was a better sailor than the 
4i great unknown " author of The Pirate, he wrote The Pilot, and it was 
our first naval hero, John Paul Jones, again of Revolutionary days, whose 
exploits were detailed, without the naming of his name. Once again the 
Revolutionary period was laid under contribution by Cooper, and in Lionel 
Lincoln we are carried along the road to Lexington and Concord, we see 
the British battalions mowed down at Bunker Hill, and are treated to the 
view of Dorchester Heights fortified by stealth and necessitating the 
evacuation of Boston. And thenceforth a constant stream of novels, very 
greatly varying in merit, proceeded from Cooper, touching in Mercedes of 
Castile the undertaking of Columbus; in Wept of the Wish-ton- Wish the 
settlement of Connecticut ; in Satanstoe and others the conditions of colo- 
nial life in the middle of the eighteenth century ; in Miles Wallingford 
and others the early days of federal government ; and in several more, 
phases of life at the middle of the present century. Indeed the famous 
" Leatherstocking Series" reach, in the lifetime of its chief character, from 
the days of the French and Indian war to the early movements in the 



544 THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 

development of the great West after the federal government had been 
firmly established. It has been the fashion to disparage Cooper some- 
what of late, to consider his stories as fit only for juvenile readers, and 
especially boys. But their standard is higher than that. While his 
characterization is very feeble ; while especially his heroines are all cast 
in the same oppressively correct mold of monotonous propriety, so that 
the tiresome young lady of Precaution is more or less of a piece with all 
those who follow her, yet Cooper is a master in narration, is no mean 
hand at a plot, is unsurpassed as a story-teller of the sea ; and, after all, 
he has succeeded in making one creation of his genius immortal, to-wit, 
old Leatherstocking himself. But the great merit of Cooper is his love 
of country, which is with him a passion, and so pervades and burns along 
his pages as to warm the heart of the coldest of his readers. No Ameri- 
can scholar then should be unfamiliar with these tales ; if we do not read 
them for the literature of them, we should do so to stimulate our patriot- 
ism. They will incite to a more loving perusal of our country's annals. 
And we can conceive no higher, no nobler result of the historical novel 
than to thus enlist the interest and the affection for national history. 

Even our great Hawthorne — a master of diction, a delineator of char- 
acter, a student of motive, as Cooper was not — has found it impossible to 
resist the fascination of American history. In his Scarlet Letter he intro- 
duces us to phases of early New England life. Yet we can hardly call it 
a historical novel. The powers of the author are exercised along their 
usual lines, not so much to depict historical situations, or to use them to 
carry on his story, as to show us the workings of the human conscience. 
In Septimius Felton, a work that was left in a state of incompleteness at 
his death, we get some vivid pictures of that earliest battle of the Revolu- 
tion at Concord and Lexington. But again its main use is to aid in the 
unfolding of psychical or ethical possibilities rather than to emphasize 
history. A specimen of a notable and useful class of novels is the Hoosier 
Schoolmaster. It is indeed more a novel of manners than of history. But 
in so far as such stories are true to the facts, and are intended to represent 
these facts as illustrating a state of affairs upon the frontiers that have 
since become almost the centre of population, they serve a very distinct 
and a very important historical purpose. 

With more or less direct reference to the foregoing remarks, it becomes 
time now to devote a few pages to the list of novels of recent publication 
which have given occasion to this article. 

Standish of Standish will remind the reader at once, by its very sound, 
of Longfellow's The Courtship of Miles Standish, and it treats indeed of 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 345 

the same period and persons. It furnishes a picture of the first settlement 
of Plymouth colony by the Pilgrims, beginning with the arrival of the 
Mayflower on these shores. Although the author's brother, John A. 
Goodwin, author of The Pilgrim Republic (1887) applies the cold scalpel of 
historical criticism to the singular mode of courting adopted by the 
doughty captain, and declares the whole incident absurdly improbable, it 
is too tempting a tradition for the story-teller's purposes, whether in prose 
or verse, and we find it duly served up for our delectation in the novel. 
Yet it must be said that it possesses more of probability as wrought over 
and presented by Mrs. Austin. It is indeed a very pleasing book. We 
find an illustration in it of one of our points made above, as to mooted 
historical facts. This lady adopts the notion that Captain Jones — or 
Joans, as Bradford puts it — was bribed by the Dutch to mislead the Pil- 
grims, calmly overlooking the fact proved by documents now printed that 
no bribing was necessary, as the States-General had openly forbidden the 
Pilgrims to settle on the Hudson river, for very sensible reasons of their 
own. But of course the novel had to accept one theory or the other, and 
on the theory of the bribing Jones is made to appear in rather an ugly 
light throughout, although Bradford is very mild in his allusions to him. 
The characters of this novel stand out vividly. We like the vivacious 
Priscilla, and it is well to remind us that she is really a French girl, 
brought up in Holland, else the demure Puritan maid we have been accus- 
tomed to look for in her would have been too violently dissipated. Mary 
Chilton, her friend, has more of that character. But yet we are compelled 
to say that this novel fails to place the Pilgrims before us as Pilgrims. 
These people are too worldly, too little of the flavor of religion is in their 
talk or actions to comport with the motive that brought them to America. 
Only one incident is characteristic of their known religiousness — Bradford's 
stopping ball-playing on Christmas — and really it sits somewhat unnatur- 
ally upon the rest of the tale. 

My Lady Pohakontas is an attempt at the archaic, an attempt to 
represent a writer contemporary with the events. It is a pleasant little 
story, not badly told, but the endeavor to reproduce the antiquated style 
is not very successful. The disguise is constantly broken through ; the 
pseudo-editor's notes betray too readily the hand of the author. Cer- 
tainly Anas Todkill is very little of either a Puritan or a Pilgrim ; and it is 
somewhat of a mystery how he could claim to be both, as there was a very 
conspicuous distinction between the two characters at the time he is sup- 
posed to have written. The Puritans before the days of Cromwell would 
have been loth to be classed among the Pilgrims. It is doubtful whether 



346 THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 

Smith at the age of thirty would have fallen in love with an Indian girl of 
twelve. It is all very pretty and pathetic to have him do so in the story, 
and for Pokahontas, when Mrs. Rolfe, to die of a broken heart when she 
finds Smith alive in England. Even if not true as history, it is the novel- 
ist's right to represent the case thus. But we wonder if it be this sup- 
posititious chronicle which the author of the Columbian Novels series has 
accepted as serious authority for giving the same turn to his story of 
Pocahontas. 

TJic Lady of Fort St. John takes us up to the Bay of Fundy, into the 
ancient Acadia, whose later history has given an incident to be immortal- 
ized by the pen of Longfellow. It has the charm of great brevity, but 
merits perusal for something more than that. It is a little difficult to see 
why the great Dutch colonial leader Van Corlaer is transferred so far 
away from his usual surroundings, and made to meet and to marry the 
lovely Mrs. Bronck there. But they are both presented in a light quite 
according with their characters and their history as learned elsewhere. 
The story has a tragic end, but the agony is not overwrought. The 
final catastrophe is not dwelt upon in all its revolting horror. It is sug- 
gested rather than described. The story gives occasion to enforce the 
general remark as to the historical novel, namely, that history may be 
deviated from. For instance, if it were a fact of history that the Lady of 
Fort St. John was really hung (and surely the wretch D'Aulnay was capa- 
ble of carrying out his threat), it yet was legitimate for the author to 
make her die a natural death before hanging, because in fiction our personal 
interest is appealed to more and is more deeply enlisted, and the novelist 
may deem it more necessary for artistic purposes to give relief to our 
feelings by a happy issue, than to work them to too high a pitch by the 
tragedy. 

Zachary Phips being introduced to us when a small boy, the writer 
is enabled to present several episodes of our history through a succession 
of many years. We first float down the Ohio and the Mississippi in com- 
pany with Aaron Burr's somewhat mysterious expedition. Next we are in 
the midst of the war of 1812, and upon the Constitution when she shows 
her heels to five ships of the enemy, and when, a little later, she immor- 
talizes herself in defeating the Guerriere. But we lose the day with 
Captain Lawrence in the Chesapeake, and, contrary to his dying order, 
we give up the ship. Another turn and we are in the Seminole country, 
"and get very indignant with Andrew Jackson for carrying things with so 
high a hand, taking Spanish forts and hanging English subjects with equal 
nonchalance. To then settle down in London as private secretary to 



THE HISTORICAL NOVEL AND AMERICAN HISTORY 347 

Minister Rush, from the United States, seems rather an anti-climax. But 
still, in spite of that and some other improbabilities — especially in the 
smooth course which true love is made to take between persons so unequal 
in stations and advantages— we enjoyed the story very much. It will 
answer the purpose of the historical novel on the subject of American, 
history — i.e., to stimulate the study of it, and promote the interest in it. 
" The Columbian Historical Novels " need detain us but for a few mo- 
ments. It is a little hazardous to announce that historical fiction will be 
done to order at such and such a rate of supply, and along a regularly laid 
out plan of work. That may do for almanacs or cyclopedias, but it can 
hardly be applied with success to works of genius. Hence we cannot be 
surprised that neither of the four stories before us evince the marks of 
genius. It cannot even be said that they reach the plane of serious litera- 
ture. One paragraph early in the first novel will dispose of their claims 
to this: ''This theory had puzzled older heads than Hernando's. The 
science of geography and natural forces were in their infancy, and laws of 
gravitation, now common with every schoolboy, almost wholly unknown." 
But these stories tell us a good deal of history in a pleasant way, that will, 
perhaps, be useful for boys. Yet even these will find that their interest 
and attention will be quite as absorbingly arrested by the pages of Irving. 
The accounts of the early explorers who followed closely after Columbus, 
such as Ojeda and Balboa, are transferred almost bodily from the pages 
of this historian — so far at least as the run of the incidents is concerned — 
as indeed could not very well be otherwise, upon the plan pursued by 
this author, who sets out to teach history rather than to produce fiction. 
The several stories are strung upon a thread of incidents connected with 
one person and his descendants. He is a boy on the ship with Columbus, 
reaches manhood when it is necessary to introduce us to Pizarro, Balboa, 
and Cortez ; his sons or grandsons are named Estevan and Stephens, 
according as they remain among Spaniards, or stray away among English- 
men of a century or so later. The illustrations add much to the attrac- 
tiveness of the volumes, and will be an additional recommendation to 
intelligent juveniles. But we cannot think it possible that the barrel in 
which Balboa placed himself was marked with the unmistakably English 
legend: Pork! The adventurer could hardly have foreseen so infallibly 
the use which would be made of his ingenious device by an American 
novel-writer of the present decade. 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON ? 

THE FAMOUS RAID AND ITS LOCALITIES 
By Robert Shackleton, Jr. 

John Brown is yet to be fully appreciated. It is not enough to believe 
that in his work he all blindly brought about the destruction of slavery; 
that had it not been for the far-reaching effect of his efforts slavery might, 
perhaps, even yet be in existence in this country. 

One who would justly estimate his career must admit that the attack 
at Harper's Ferry was a cool, considerate undertaking, well planned ; that 
it was not an ill-judged, poorly conceived scheme, which met with failure 
because nothing but failure could with reason have been expected. 

" It was among the best planned and executed conspiracies that ever 
failed," declared Vallandigham, after listening to and taking part in a 
lengthy examination of Brown immediately after his capture ; and the 
words but justly express the truth. 

" They are mistaken," said Governor Wise of Virginia, at almost the 
same time, " they are mistaken who take Brown to be a madman. He is 
a man of clear head. He is cool, collected, and indomitable." 

Exactly what were Brown's plans will never be known. " I do not 
know that I ought to reveal my plans," said he courteously, when pressed 
for fuller explanations while under arrest, nor did he ever fully explain 
them. To have done so would have involved in danger many who have 
never been suspected. " I will answer freely and faithfully about what 
concerns myself — I will answer anything I can with honor — but not about 
others." Such was his calm declaration, and it was a declaration which, 
when published throughout the land, stilled anxiety in many a distant 
man's heart. He never intended to carry out his plans with such force as 
was with him when he seized the arsenal and armory buildings. He relied 
upon prompt reinforcements, upon a speedy rallying about him of large 
numbers of ardent helpers. 

But he would not tell what he expected, and such of those who were 
with him, or might have known somewhat fully regarding his plans, were 
killed in the fight or afterward executed, or, if among the few who 
escaped, felt themselves bound in honor to follow the example of silence 
set by their leader. Those who were to have stood by him, but who, at 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 349 

the supreme moment, failed to do so, will certainly never tell. Rather 
will they join the cry about the rashness of the undertaking. Rather will 
they seek to discredit the practicability of the plan, even while constrained 
to praise the disinterested bravery of the leader whose life was a sacrifice 
to its failure. 

It must not be forgotten that Brown was far-sighted to a remarkable 
degree, and that he was able to coolly design the successful carrying out 
of daring plans. It is then extremely unlikely that he would, for a supreme 
effort at Harper's Ferry, project a movement that was sure to be inefficient. 
That he expected extensive reinforcements is certain. These were, to a 
great extent, to come from among the slaves themselves, but he depended 
upon much of trained white aid as well. When it was suggested to him, 
after his arrest, that no man in the possession of his senses could have 
expected to succeed with such a handful of men and backed only by 
negroes, he replied that he had had promises of ample assistance. In 
answer then, to a further inquiry, he spoke in an evasive way of slave 
assistance, and, seeming to think that he had said more than he ought, 
would not particularize regarding the other ample aid. 

To the master of the armory he made a most significant statement. 
" We are Abolitionists from the North," he said, " come to take and release 
your slaves. Our organization is large and must succeed." Brown was 
not a man who was given to idle boasting, and therefore his statement 
that the organization was large is worthy of careful consideration. 

There were with him when the blow was actually struck little more 
than twenty men, but the fact must not be overlooked that almost every 
one was an officer under his provisional government, and Brown was not 
the man to have a following of officers alone. It must have been intended 
that the officers should have privates under them, and, indeed, we find that 
Brown's general orders, issued but a few days before the attack, provided 
for the dividing of his force into battalions of two hundred and eighty- 
eight men each. 

We were very recently at Harper's Ferry, and went with intense 
interest about the localities associated with the incursion of Brown. We 
were fortunate, too, in finding a man, Jesse Graham by name, who was 
one of the prisoners held by Brown as hostages during the struggle. His 
narrative was clear and graphic, for he told only of what he saw and what 
he remembered, without any attempt at argument, although personally his 
feelings were with the anti-Brown faction and in the war he took part 
on the Confederate side. To his personal knowledge of the momentous 
events that occurred at Harper's Ferry he has not added by reading about 



3 50 WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 

thorn in hooks, and when such a man tells, in unconsciously graphic style, 
the plain story of his personal experiences, his statements should be 
listened to carefully and with a large measure of confidence. 

Without the slightest idea that such information could be of any special 
interest to us, he told how, at one time, Brown looked across the river and, 
seeing quite a party of armed men, in reality more of his enemies, hurrying 
onward along the road under Maryland Heights, exclaimed that there, at 
length, were some of his friends ; and this statement seemed to us to be of 
great importance. A few of his own men had been left in charge at what 
had been the headquarters, or the Kennedy farm, a few miles from the 
ferry, and had these few men tried to join him in the town they would 







HARPERS FERRY FROM MARYLAND HEIGHTS. 



have come by the road under Maryland Heights. It could not, however, 
have been that Brown believed the force that he saw to be those few men, 
for Graham distinctly states that the party consisted of a considerable 
number. It is clear, then, that Brown believed the force to be the first 
arrivals of the reinforcements so eagerly looked for. 

Graham states, too, that, in a lull of the firing, Brown remarked that 
he had a picket line established from there to the Mississippi river, and 
this remarkable statement throws new light upon the extent of the plot 
and the deep-laid plans of the one who conceived it. It need not, of 
course, be supposed that Brown had a literal line established, but it seems 
clear that friends and supporters, with whom he had a distinct understand- 
ing and upon whose active assistance he was justified in relying, were 
scattered in considerable numbers throughout the northern states. 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 35 I 

The attack upon the government buildings was made one week before 
the date first decided upon, and this fact will explain the necessary absence 
of some who could not, upon sudden notice, join the force at an earlier 
time than had been anticipated and arranged for. Brown himself was 
always ready, and made the mistake of supposing that his followers were 
always ready too. He had for years made no arrangements except such 
as might, on a moment's notice, be thrown aside should the one great aim 
of his life so demand, and he believed that his recruits were as unreservedly 
committed to the cause. The reason for the change of date is not known, 
but it is believed that Brown received some intimation of treachery, and 
that he had to face the alternative of earlier action than he had planned, 
or certain ruin through the disclosures of a traitor. 

Brown's plan was carefully devised. It was most needfully matured, 
with foresight and caution mingled with the daring. It was most bravely 
undertaken, and failed through circumstances which he could not control. 
He might, indeed, have escaped to the mountains before his enemies sur- 
rounded him in overwhelming force, but rapid retreat was not what he had 
planned, and he held to his indefensible position in the village in the vain 
hope that the looked-for help would surely come. Doubtless, in that pas- 
senger train which he stopped on the bridge, and which he after a little 
allowed to proceed on its way, were pale and frightened men who, led thus 
far by the promptings of honor and the promises upon which Brown relied, 
could not, when put to the final test, step from the train, and join the 
band who, defying the law and taking their lives in their hands, had 
actually begun a rebellion. 

Brown was so disappointed by the failure of reinforcements to come 
from any direction, that his wonderfully clear intellect seemed for a time 
to be dimmed, and even after his principal followers counseled retreat 
he still clung with tenacity to the plan of holding the buildings. When 
clearness of vision again came, he saw, with prophetic sagacity, that all was 
for the best, and that slavery was doomed. The hero of Harper's Ferry 
must be ranged by the side of the greatest men that our country has 
known, and the place itself must be considered one of the most pro- 
foundly important localities associated with American history. 

The town is situated in the midst of grandly impressive scenery. 
In its front, two dark lines of mountain heights converge grandly toward 
each other. The broad Potomac is shadowed by the'one. The beautiful 
Shenandoah, in alternate shallows and depths, glides at the base of the 
other. Just where the approaching mountains pause, leaving a rugged 
gap between, the two streams, there uniting into one, pour their waters 



50' 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 



through, with the lofty cliffs frowning" down on either side. Facing the 
gap is a high plateau, almost filling the space between the two rivers. 
It is girt at almost every point with abruptly precipitous banks, and 
on the narrow strip of low ground at its base is the main street of the 
town, bending about the rounding plateau point. A straggling street 
picks its way up the one part where the plateau may be thus scaled, while 
here and there houses are perched at isolated points along the sides. That 
John Brown loved mountains as he did, must have made Harper's Ferry 
seem a peculiarly fit place at which to make his great attempt. His home 
at North Elba was among mountains, and his admiration for them was 
intense and strong. When Thomas Wentworth Higginson went to Brown's 
home, to take Mrs. Brown with him to visit her husband in prison in Vir- 
ginia, he was assured by one of the family that John Brown loved the loca- 
tion of his home because of the romantic beauty of its surroundings. And 
on the way to the place of execution, with but a few minutes more to live, 
Brown glanced with admiring eyes over the dark line of the mountains and 
exclaimed that it was a beautiful country ! 

But dearly as he loved mountains for their splendid beauty, there 
was a still deeper cause. " God established the Alleghany mountains 
from the foundation of the world that they might one day be a refuge for 
fugitive slaves ! " he had once exclaimed ; while at another time he had 
said, with profound earnestness : " God has given the strength of the hills 
to freedom. They were placed here for the emancipation of the negro 
race." 

Brown was almost six feet in height, of slender, wiry build, and giving 
the impression of unusual strength. His gray hair stood up in a dense 
mass above his forehead. His eyes were keenly alert. His beard was long 
and full, but could not hide the immovable firmness of the jaw and mouth. 
He walked rapidly, making way for none, and others instinctively 
stepped from his path as he approached. Such was the man who, under 
the mild disguise of farmer and prospector, had rented a farm among the 
heights near Harper's Ferry, and there carefully completed his prepara- 
tions. None of his neighbors had suspected that he was other than what 
he seemed. He was reserved and self-possessed. He regularly attended 
church. He was ready to do acts of real kindness to those living about 
him, and his endeavors earned their gratitude. His name, so he said, was 
Isaac Smith, and none doubted it. 

He felt the supreme importance of his work, and with tremendous 
strength of belief considered himself a foreordained instrument. All that 
was done was exactly as had been planned countless ages before, and this 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON ? 353 

he believed, whether his plans failed or were successful. He did not plan 
to be captured and executed, and yet his clear vision saw beyond the 
temporary defeat to ultimate victory. He calmly realized, and said, 
that he would be worth much more dead than living, and thus he showed 
his prophetic insight into what was to come. 

Writing to a friend, from prison, regarding the fact that the slave- 
holders, through his failure, had learned the nature of his plans, and were 
thus forewarned against any similar attempt by others in the future, he 
said : " If Samson had not told Delilah wherein his great strength lay, 
he probably never would have pulled down the house." Thus clearly 
did he foresee that in his death he would indeed pull down the house of 
slavery. 

The story of Jesse Graham, told us as we sat with him at the door 
of his home in the village, brought vividly to mind John Brown and his 
great attempt. Roused from sleep by a commotion in the street, early 
in the morning of Monday, the 17th of October, 1859, Mrs. Graham 
hurried to a front window and saw a neighbor expostulating with several 
men who, armed with rifles, were taking him along with them. She hurried 
to her husband, telling him what she had seen, and he, naturally enough, 
thought that the neighbor must have been charged with some offense and 
that the armed men were officers sent to arrest him. Dressing himself, he 
hurried out into the street. 

" Halt ! " 

Close by his door (" Right there ! " as he pointed out to us) was a 
sentinel, grimly surveying him with rifle half raised. 

" Halt ! You are my prisoner! " 

" What for ? " 

" No matter. Here ! " (to another sentinel, a few rods off) " take this 
man to the guard-house ! " 

But Graham did not want to go. " Why must I ? " he insisted. 

" There's no time for words ! Hurry along ! " was the peremptory 
reply, whereupon, without further objection, he walked with the sentinel 
to the " guard-house," a little building within the armory grounds in which 
were kept the government fire engine and hose cart. Other residents 
were already there, and every few minutes more were brought in. None 
knew the cause, and all were in momentary fear of being killed. 

" Isaac Smith " was the leader of the lawless force ; and as he moved 
actively about from point to point the prisoners watched him in nervous 
apprehension, not knowing to what lengths he might proceed. 

"You don't know what you are doing! " cried one, warningly. 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 4.-23 



554 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 



"Oh, yes, I do; perfectly." 

u By whose authority is this?" 

" By my own." 

Before long there were skirmishing shots ; and Graham, looking out, 
could see men cautiously posting themselves here and there in position 
from which they could shoot at Smith and his followers. The firing was 
actively returned, but the assailants rapidly became so numerous that 
Smith was compelled to relinquish much of what he had originally planned 
to hold, and the little guard-house became a fort and his headquarters. 






., 




OLD ENGINE HOUSE — JOHN BROWNS FORT. 



"Captain, we can't hold the bridge any longer! " exclaimed one of his 
men, hurrying in. 

" All right," was the reply, made with the most complete calmness. 

Once, looking needfully out, Graham saw that a man was slowly 
moving along the railroad track which, on low trestle-work, overlooked the 
armory grounds. He could not see the man himself, he could see only 
his hat, and he watched its advance with eager curiosity. The hat ceased 
its motion. The muzzle of a rifle appeared. There was a shot. And a 
bullet whizzed past Smith's head, tore off some of his hair, and then struck 
another man on the knee. Smith, sitting on the tongue of the engine, 
just inside of the open door, merely turned slowly, and with superb cool- 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON ? 355 

ness, and as he shut the door, nonchalantly remarked that it was a pretty 
good shot. 

" Did you ever read of the battle of Pottawatomie?" said he, 
suddenly, in a lull of the firing. 

" No." 

"Then you haven't read much," was the blunt comment, and at this 
Graham nervously thought that he " remembered something about it." 

" Well, I'm Ossawatomie Brown ! " And the announcement of this 
dread name struck with a chill of terror to the hearts of the men who were 
held prisoners there at his mercy. 

One of the raiders, shot in the left breast, came in, pulled off his belt, 
put down his rifle, unbuttoned his coat, and lay down on the floor. 

" Where are you hurt? " said Brown, and the man feebly showed him. 
Graham then bent down to examine him, and found that the ball had 
struck a rib and glanced around the body, making a flesh wound only. 
" Have one of your friends cut it out with a sharp knife ! " he said. 

The wounded man felt the bullet, and as he did so he flushed deeply 
over neck and face. Then, without a word, he buttoned his coat, put on 
his belt, picked up his rifle, and went out, and, taking up a position 
behind a tall stone gateway pillar which is still standing, fired fifteen or 
twenty shots with steady aim, while Graham inwardly fumed at this result 
of his surgical examination. At length, however, the man was again 
wounded, and this time mortally, although he lingered in agony during 
that day and the ensuing night before death relieved him. 

Another wounded man moaned in pain. " Die like a man ! " said 
Brown, sternly, and the moaning ceased. 

Stephens was sent out with a flag of truce — the same Stephens of whom 
Annie Brown had said, " He tries the hardest to be good, of any man I 
ever saw " — but the flag of truce was not respected, and he was shot down 
and lay writhing on the ground. 

One of Brown's sons lay down and slowly died. " There will be 
buckets of blood for every drop of his!" said Brown, sternly, and again 
the prisoners trembled, fearing that he would demand life for life. 

At length the terrible day was over; night came on. Then United 
States troops arrived, and the garrison and prisoners, with wounded and 
dying and dead men about them, waited for the morning. 

Colonel Robert E. Lee, " a fine-looking man," as the narrator describes 
him, advanced to a point not far from the building, and sent one of his 
officers (the afterward famous J. E. B. Stuart, although Graham does not 
seem to know this) to demand unconditional surrender, promising to hand 



356 WHAT SUTPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON ? 

the men over to lawful authority, and to protect them against mob 
violence. But Brown would not accept the terms. He offered, instead, 
to give up the place if allowed to cross the river with his prisoners. There 
he would at once liberate them, and take his chances in the mountains. 
Stuart returned to Lee with this message, and Graham, closely watching, 
saw Lee shake his head in disapproval. Then Stuart came once more to 
Brown and repeated Lee's first proposition as being the most favorable 
terms that could be offered, whereupon Brown said briefly, "That settles 
it," and shut the door. 

And then came the attack of the regularly drilled troops. A heavy 
ladder was brought, and, used as a battering ram, soon broke through the 
door. An officer's voice sounded out sharply above all the din and con. 
fusion : " First man on the right, go in ! " 

A man's head and shoulders appeared ; there was a shot ; and the man 
fell, and was dragged quickly back. 

" First man on the left ! " 

Another head ; another shot ; a scream of pain ; and the gun dropped, 
and the man pressed his hand against his mouth, and blood ran through 
his fingers, and he too was dragged back. And then blinding smoke filled 
the room, and there were shouts and blows and groans, and Graham was 
fiercely grasped and dragged outside of the door. 

There, apparently dead, lay Brown. His head was gashed and bleed- 
ing, and the unconscious body was rolled on its face and then again on its 
back with careless roughness. 

One of Brown's followers, dying, looked full into the face of a man who 
was questioning him, and it was with a strange expression of peace and 
firmness and with wonderfully calm eyes. 

A shadow passed over his face. 

" He's dead ! " 

"No! no!" 

But he was, and his face still wore that expression of wonderful peace. 

Brown himself, however, was not dead, and recovered from his wounds 
sufficiently to be tried for his life for his daring attempt. He was con- 
victed and sentenced to death, and on the day of his execution wrote the 
following words : 

" I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land 
will never be purged away but with blood. I had, as I now think vainly, 
flattered myself that without very much bloodshed it might be done." 

His grave is in northern New York, among the wild mountains that 
encompassed his solitary home. It is but a few rods from the house, and 



WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON ? 



357 



e^ 



is close beside a great, massive bowlder, into which is deeply cut the 

inscription : 

"JOHN BROWN. 1859." 

Charlestown, where he was tried and executed, is a pleasant, quiet, not 
unattractive town, and yet with nothing distinctive to mark it out from 
many another. The court house is still pointed out, and yet it can 
scarcely be considered the same building, as the old structure, with the 
exception of a portion of the walls, was some years since destroyed, and 
the present building, therefore, is almost entirely 
new. 

Brown was executed in a field in the out- 
skirts of the town, and from the spot may be 
seen a wide-spreading view stretching over fields 
and undulating country, and hemmed in in the 
distance by the dark blue mountains, impres- 
sively grand and solemnly beautiful. What 
must have been his thoughts as he looked his 
last at the beautiful sky and 
those stretches of beautiful 
heights ! And what must 
have been his reflections of 
mingled joy and pain, as he 
gazed at the distant gap in 
the mountainswhich marked 
the site of Harper's Ferry! 
The arsenal building at Har- 
per's Ferry long since dis- 
appeared, and a hotel now 
stands upon its site. Across 
the street from the arsenal 
was the entrance to the in- 
closure in which stood most 

OI tne government WOrKS, charlestown courthouse, where john brown was tried. 

including musket factory, 

forge, and workshops. The inclosure was walled, and was about two 

hundred feet in width and one-third of a mile in length. 

These buildings long since disappeared, and where they stood is now 
a desolate scene. Even the engine house, Brown's fort, which, strangely 
enough, survived the alternate occupation of the town by rival armies that 
tried to excel each other in the destruction of public works, was recently 




358 WHAT SUPPORT DID JOHN BROWN RELY UPON? 

torn down, and its bricks were shipped to Chicago to be there rebuilt for 
exhibition at the coming World's Fair. The marks of its foundation walls 
may still be seen ; weeds and broken brick are all about the spot ; some 
stables are close by ; several saloons are near at hand ; some of the iron 
pickets which were on top of the wall which surrounded the inclosure have 
been most prosaically put to the use of constructing a pen for the keeping 
of pigs. The tall stone gateway pillars at the entrance to the inclosure 
are still standing. Close by Brown's fort once stood the paymaster's build- 
ing, and while it, like the other structures, has disappeared, some iron doors, 
once used to protect government treasure, are still standing erect among 
the ruins. 

On an old broken dam, which stretches in a long half-circular sweep 
across the stream, we one day crossed the Shenandoah toward Loudon 
Heights, and a dense mass of foliage met us on the farther side. Trees 
and bushes and vines grow in rich profusion right up the steep ascents, 
except where, in places, there are bare and precipitous stretches. And 
there, a little up the slope, and tucked oddly against the hillside, we found 
a log home, whitewashed and picturesque. No wagon road leads to it, 
and the little farming that the owner does is done by hand. A strangely 
isolated spot it is, although within plain sight of the town, but we found 
there something more than picturesqueness and solitude. 

" Would you like to see the grave of some of John Brown's men ? " said 
the owner, and then he led us to a small potato patch some little distance 
from the house. In the centre of the patch was a little space covered with 
tall weeds, and the owner, brushing these aside, showed us the little, 
rough, unmarked stone which he himself placed there to mark the resting- 
place of the buried men. 

The spot is directly across the river from the rifle factory, of which 
Kagi, one of Brown's most trusted followers, had with a few companions 
endeavored to hold possession, and when they saw the hopelessness of the 
effort and endeavored to escape to the farther side of the stream, they 
were shot or drowned. Then their bodies were buried together, in one 
grave, on that lonely mountain side, there to remain unheeded, except for 
the care of this man, who, a stranger to them all, assisted at the burial and 
still is the only one to in any way care for the grave. 

Within view of the town that they helped to capture; at the side of 
that river, rushing and surging onward among the rocks; and at the foot 
of those lofty heights, towering upward in splendid abruptness — could there 
be a more striking spot for the last resting-place of men who were killed 
in the momentous raid ? 



^^1^ iP /^m /tr*~4 






/ (y £/ 

/TLoOljCms- ; v Usfl,M~. WTr.'TLs £cjL.C4L>> (Jk"ht> M^t* Jjrvuu /ht<sC4 eOnsn* isyv 7%JL~ 

Note — The above letter of John Brown is indicative of the simplicity of his life and character. 
As it was written in 1854.it has a connection of peculiar value with the portrait forming our front- 
ispiece ; both placing him before us at a period when the plain farmer had not yet been revealed to 
the world as a hero and martyr. The facsimile is presented through the courtesy of Mr. Walter 
Romeyn Benjamin of 28 West Twenty-third street, New York. 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 

By Howard Alden Giddings 

" He said to his friend, ' If the British march 
By land or sea from the town to-night, 
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch 

Of the North Church tower as a signal light.' " 

Colonel Paul Revere's ride, commemorated by Longfellow in his 
famous poem, was but one of a series of momentous incidents in which as 
messenger and express to Portsmouth, New York, and Philadelphia, he 
carried intelligence on occasions of emergency. As a messenger he is said 
to have been steady, vigorous, sensible, and persevering, and he was the 
favorite courier of the continental congress. Revere was an ardent patriot, 
an associate of Hancock, Warren, Adams, and other leading patriots, and 
a chosen member of the Boston committee of correspondence, inspection, 
and safety. 

At the time that he was selected by Dr. Warren, the president of this 
committee, for the important service of arousing the country at the first 
hostile movement of the British, he was thirty-two years old, and is 
described as being a handsome young man with dark hair and eyes, and 
strong and expressive face. He filled many high military offices, and was 
one of the chief actors in that memorable event the " Boston tea party." 

Paul Revere in a letter to the Massachusetts Historical Society, dated 
January I, 1798, has given his own account of the events preceding that 
historic night, " the eighteenth of April in seventy-five," and his adventur- 
ous ride, in the following words : 

" In the fall of 1774 and the winter of 1775 I was one of upwards of 
thirty, chiefly mechanics, who formed ourselves into a committee for the 
purpose of watching the movements of the British soldiers and gaining 
every intelligence of the movements of the tories. 

" We held our meetings at the Green Dragon tavern. We were so 
careful that our meetings should be kept secret, that every time we met ? 
every person swore upon the Bible that he would not discover any of our 
transactions but to Messrs. Hancock, Adams, Warren, Church, and one 
or two more. 

44 In the winter, towards the spring, we frequently took turns, two and 
two, to watch the soldiers by patrolling the streets all night. 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 



361 



" The Saturday night preceding the 19th of April, about twelve o'clock 
at night, the boats belonging to the transports were all launched and 
carried under the sterns of the men-of-war. We likewise found that the 
grenadiers and light infantry were all taken off duty. From these move- 
ments we suspected something serious was to be transacted. 

" On Tuesday evening it was observed that a number of soldiers were 
marching toward Boston common. About ten o'clock Dr. Warren sent in 
great haste for me, begging that I would immediately set of! for Lexing- 
ton, where were Hancock and Adams, and acquaint them of the move- 




NEWS FROM LEXINGTON. 



ments, as it was thought they were the objects. On the Sunday before, I 
agreed with a Colonel Conant and some other gentlemen in Charlestown, 
that if the British went out by water, we should show two lanterns in the 
North church steeple, and if by land, one, as a signal ; for we appre- 
hended that it would be difficult to cross over the Charles river or get over 
Boston neck. 

" I left Dr. Warren, called upon a friend, and desired him to make the 
signal. I then went home [he lived in North square], took my boots and 
surtout, and went to the north part of the town, where I kept a boat. Two 
friends rowed me across the Charles river, a little to the eastward of where 



362 THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 

the Somerset lay. It was then young flood, the ship was winding, and the 
moon was rising. They landed me on the Charlestown shore." 

" Meanwhile his friend, through alley and street, 
Wanders and watches with eager ears." 

Captain John Pulling, a "high son of liberty," and an intimate friend 
of Paul Revere from boyhood, was entrusted with the arduous duty of 
making the signals when it should be certain whether the British went by 
land or sea. This was a critical and hazardous enterprise. Christ church, 
the place selected from which to display the signals, was the most north- 
erly church in Boston and had a very tall steeple, at that time one hundred 
and ninety-one feet high. Standing on high ground it formed the most 
conspicuous landmark for vessels entering the harbor, and was well known 
as the*' North church." The British soldiers patrolled the streets near the 
church, and not only was there risk of the signal light being observed in 
that quarter, but, as Pulling said, "he was afraid some old woman would 
see the light and scream fire." 

At half past ten that night Lieutenant-Colonel Smith with eight 
hundred grenadiers and light infantry embarked in long boats at the foot 
of Boston common. General Gage that evening told Lord Percy that 
he intended to send a detachment to seize the stores at Concord, under 
command of Colonel Smith, who knew he was to go, but not where. The 
object of the expedition was not yet known, and he begged Lord Percy to 
keep it a profound secret. As this nobleman was passing from the general's 
quarters home to his own, he perceived eight or ten men conversing 
together on the common. Approaching them, one of them said : " The 
British troops have marched, but will miss their aim." " What aim ? " 
said Lord Percy. "The cannon at Concord," the man replied. 

Captain John Pulling, as soon as he was certain the troops were embark- 
ing, ran to the house of the sexton of Christ church, in Salem street, and 
demanded the keys. He being a vestryman, the sexton could not refuse 
them. He went to the church and, locking himself in, climbed to the 
upper window of the steeple and hung out the two lanterns, by which the 
watchers on the Charlestown shore should " know that the British were 

going by water." 

" Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride, 
Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride, 
On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere." 

" When I got into town," continues Paul Revere, " I met Colonel 
Conant and several others, who told me they had seen the signal. I told 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 363 

them what was acting, and went to get me a horse. I got a horse of 
Deacon Larkin. While the horse was preparing, Richard Devens, one of 
the committee of safety, came to me and told me that he came down the 
road from Lexington that evening, after sundown, and that he met ten 
British officers, all well mounted and armed, going up the road. 

" I set off upon a very good horse ; it was then about eleven o'clock 
and very pleasant. After I had passed Charlestown neck and got about 
opposite where Mark was hung in chains, I saw two men on horseback 
under a tree, whom I discovered were British officers. One tried to get 
ahead of me and the other to take me. I turned my horse very quick and 
galloped toward Charlestown neck, and then pushed for the Medford road. 
The one who chased me, endeavoring to cut me off, got into a clay pond. 
I got clear of him and went through Medford over the bridge. 

" In Medford I awakened the captain of the minute-men, and after that 
I alarmed almost every house till I got to Lexington. In Lexington I 
was joined by a Mr. Dawes and Dr. Prescott. We rode towards Concord 
alarming the people. After proceeding nearly half way, the Doctor and 
Mr. Dawes had stopped to alarm the people in a house, and I was about 
one hundred rods ahead, when I saw two men in nearly the same situation 
as those officers were near Charlestown. I called for the Doctor and Mr. 
Dawes to come up, when in an instant I was surrounded by four. They 
had placed themselves in a straight road that inclined each way, and had 
taken down a pair of bars on the north side of the road where two of them 
were under a tree in the pasture. We tried to get past them, but they, 
being armed with pistols and swords, forced us into the pasture. The 
Doctor jumped his horse over a low stone wall and got to Concord. I 
observed a wood at a small distance and made for that. When I got there, 
out started six officers on horseback and ordered me to dismount. One of 
them, who appeared to have the command, examined me, where I came 
from and what my name was. I told him. He asked me if I was an 
express. I answered in the affirmative. He demanded what time I left 
Boston. I told him, and added that their troops had catched aground in 
passing the river and that, there would be five hundred Americans there in 
a short time, for I had alarmed the country all the way up. 

" He immediately rode toward those who stopped us, when all five of 
them came down on a full gallop. One of them, whom I afterwards found 
to be Major Mitchel of the Fifth Regiment, clapped his pistol to my head, 
called me by name, and told me if I did not give true answers to his ques- 
tions he would blow my brains out. He asked me questions similar to the 
others and, after searching me for arms, ordered me to mount and pro- 



364 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 



ceed in front of them. After riding a little way, he ordered a sergeant to 
ride beside me, and told him to blow my brains out if I attempted to run. 
" We rode till we got near Lexington meeting-house, when the militia 
fired a volley of guns, which appeared to alarm them very much. The 
major inquired of me how far it was to Cambridge and if there were any 
other road. He then rode up to the sergeant and asked him if his horse 
was tired. t^He was a sergeant of Grenadiers, and had a small horse.) He 
answered him he was. ' Then,' said he, ' take that man's horse.' I dis- 
mounted, and the sergeant took my horse, when they left me and all rode 
towards Lexington meeting-house. 

" I went across the burying 
ground and some pastures and 
came to the Rev. Mr. Clark's 
house, where I found Messrs. 
Hancock and Adams. I went 
with Mr. Lowell, a clerk to Mr. 
Hancock, to the tavern to get a 
trunk of papers. On the way we 
met a man at full gallop, who 
said the British were coming up 
the rocks. We went up cham- 
ber, and while we were getting 
the trunk we saw the British 
very near upon a full march. 
We hurried towards Mr. Clark's 
house. On our way we passed 
through the militia. They were 
about fifty. When we had got 
about one hundred yards from 
the rneeting-house the British 
troops appeared on both sides of 
it. In their front was an officer 
on horseback. They made a 
short halt, when I saw and heard a gun fired which appeared to be a pistol. 
Then I could distinguish two guns, and then a continual volley of mus- 
quetry; when we made off with the trunk." Revere concludes his letter 
with some charges and information against Church, who proved to be a 
traitor in the continental congress. 

Colonel Paul Revere took part in many military enterprises during the 
Revolution, and rose from the rank of second lieutenant to that of lieuten- 




THE BOSTON MASSACRE. 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 365 

ant-colonel. In the Penobscot expedition, the most disastrous expedition 
sent out from Boston during the war, Colonel Revere commanded the 
artillery. He was an artificer — for the most part self-taught — in many 
trades. He cast bells, some of which are still hanging in church steeples ; 
and cannon, now widely scattered as the spoils of war. In 1805 a De ^ was 
placed in the steeple of the new North church in Boston, weighing one 
thousand three hundred pounds, and costing eight hundred dollars, from 
the foundry of Paul Revere. There are still in existence many products of 
his skill as a silversmith and graver. He also produced a large number of 
engravings and caricatures. There is now a colored engraving of the Bos- 
ton massacre, " Engraved, printed and sold by Paul Revere," in the posses- 
sion of the Connecticut Historical Society; and Revere's agreement for 
engraving and printing the paper money of the continental congress, 
dated December 8, 1778, is still preserved in the Massachusetts archives. 

When it was discovered by the British authorities that the signals which 
aroused the Americans were made from Christ church, " a search was 
immediately set afoot for the rebel who made them." The sexton, Robert 
Newman, was suspected and arrested, but he protested his innocence, and 
declared that the keys were demanded of him at a late hour that night by 
Captain Pulling, who, being a vestryman, he thought had a right to them. 
Meantime Pulling had been warned by friends that he had better leave 
town as soon as possible with his family, and this he did, disguised as a 
laborer, on board a small craft loaded with beer for the men-of-war in the 
harbor. Mr. Pulling and his family were put ashore at Nantasket, where 
they lived in want until they returned to Boston after the siege was 
raised, only to find their property all destroyed. 

An attempt has been made to set up a claim that the sexton Newman 
hung out the lanterns, but it is altogether improbable, even if there were 
no evidence, that Paul Revere would have entrusted this hazardous enter- 
prise to a stranger, after swearing on the Bible not to discover the transac- 
tions of the committee but to certain trusty men. Another claim has been 
made that Richard Devens was the " friend " who hung out the lanterns; 
but Revere himself says, in his letter, that when he reached Charlestown, 
Devens came to him and told him of meeting British officers that even- 
ing on the Lexington road. As the lanterns had only just been hung out 
at that time, it is manifestly impossible that Devens was the person who 
made the signal. It is generally admitted that Captain Pulling was the 
man. 

It has also been claimed that the North meeting-house, and not Christ 
church, was the place from which the signal was made; but this claim is 



3 66 



THE RIDE OF PAUL REVERE 



absurd, as the North meeting-house had no steeple, and a light could not 
have been seen from it, while Christ church (then known as the " North 
church ") stood on high ground directly across the Charles river from 
Charlestown and had a very tall spire. A tablet has since been placed in 
Christ church bearing this inscription: " The signal lanterns of Paul 
Revere displayed in the steeple of this church, April 18, 1775, warned the 
country of the march of the British troops to Lexington and Concord." 




THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO FOUND AN AMERICAN 

COLLEGE 

By Wm. Armitage Beardslee 

Scattered through the records of the Virginia Company, of London, 
which received its first charter from King James I. in 1606, and was dis- 
solved by order of the same king in 1624, there are a number of references 
to the founding and endowment of a college at Henrico, one of the settle- 
ments on the James river in Virginia ; and as the effort there made was 
perhaps the first attempt to provide an institution of higher learning 
within the present bounds of the United States, it may be of interest ta 
have these scattered notices gathered together, and the history of that 
movement reconstructed so far as the fragmentary accounts will allow. 

The first official notice of this college comes from the hand of the king 
himself. In the year 161 7 James wrote to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
authorizing him to send letters to the English bishops giving order that 
11 collections be made in the particular parishes four severall tymes within 
these two years next coming," and that the moneys thus collected should 
be transmitted half-yearly to the treasurer of the Virginia Company, " to 
be employed for the Godly purposes intended and no other." According 
to the treasurer's report, given May 26, 1619, these collections had then 
amounted to one thousand five hundred pounds or thereabouts. 

In the meanwhile (November 18, 1618) the Virginia Company had 
given ten thousand acres of ground " for the endowing of said University 
and Colledge with convenient possessions." This land was partly within 
the territory of Henrico, where the buildings were to be erected, and partly 
farther up the river, a little below the present site of Richmond. During 
the same year the charge of the college was offered to the Rev. Thomas 
Larkin, who thus expresses himself in one of his letters : " A good friend 
of mine propounded to me within three or four days a condition of going 
over to Virginia, where the Virginia Company means to erect a college, 
and undertakes to procure me good assurance of two hundred pounds a 
year and better, and if I should find there any ground of dislike, liberty to 
return at pleasure. I assure you I find preferment coming on so slowly 
here at home, as makes me much incline to accept it." He determined, 
however, to " do nothing rashly," and he never came. 



36S THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO FOUND AN AMERICAN COLLEGE 

The prospects of the college during the next three years (1619-1621) 
seemed to be constantly growing brighter. 

On May 26, 1619, when the treasurer reported the amount of the 
collections above referred to, it was decided by the company that 
they should not at once " build a Colledge, but rather forbeare a while, 
and begin first with the moneesthey have to provide and settle an Annuall 
revenue, and out of that to begin the ereccon of the said Colledge." It 
being " a waighty busines," a committee of seven choice gentlemen was 
appointed. One month later (June 24, 1619) their report was given, the 
substance of which was that fifty " single men, unmarried," were to be 
sent out and settled on the college land, " to have halfe the benefitt of 
their labors, and the other halfe to goe in getting forward the worke and 
for mayntenance of the Tutors and Schollers." These " single men, 
unmarried," were to be " smiths, carpenters, brick-layers, turners, potters, 
husbandmen, brick-makers." A minister was to be " entertained at the 
yearly allowance of forty pounds," and there was also to be a captain to 
have charge of the people on the college land, for it was situated in the 
wilderness, almost surrounded by Indian tribes. The ship carrying these 
men was " to sett out soon after the middest of July at the furthest, that 
by the blessing of God they may arrive there by the end of October." 
Toward the end of that year Sir Edwin Sandys, who was thoroughly 
acquainted with Virginia, proposed that the next spring the number of 
men on the college land be increased by one hundred, estimating that the 
hundred men thus added, being rightly employed, would not yield less in 
value than one thousand pounds yearly revenue. 

On June 21, 1619, an unknown person, evidently of high church tend- 
encies, presented to this frontier college, " A Communion Cup with a cover 
and vase, a Trencher plate for the bread, a Carpett of crimson velvett, 
and a Linnen Damaske table cloth." The next year (February 20, 1620) 
another unknown person left the college a legacy of five hundred pounds. 
On the 15th of November of the same year, "a straunger stept in present- 
inge a Mapp of Sir Walter Rawlighes contayninge a Descripcon of Guiana, 
and with the same fower great books as the Guift of one unto the Company 
that desyred his name might not be made knowne, whereof one booke was 
a treatise of St. Augustine of the Citty of God translated into English, 
and the other three great Volumes wer the works of Mr. Perkins newlie 
corrected and amended, wch books the Donor desyred they might be sent 
to the Colledge in Virginia, there to remayne in saftie to the use of the 
collegiates." 

During this same year two large amounts of money came to the 



THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO FOUND AN AMERICAN COLLEGE 369 

college; the first, of five hundred and fifty pounds in gold, "for the 
bringinge upp of Children of the Infidlcs, first in ye knowledge of God 
& true religion & next in fitt trades whereby honestly to live " — evidently 
given by one who knew where it was necessary to begin in this fine 
scheme for the higher education ; and the other a sum of three hundred 
pounds " for the Colledge in Virginia to be paid when there shel be tenn 
of the Infidles Children placed in itt." The same year also the Rev. 
Thomas Bargrave of Virginia died, leaving to the college his library, 
valued at about seventy pounds. 

These various gifts and bequests show that the proposed college was 
generally known and excited considerable interest at the time. The 
conversion of the Indians was one of the popular enthusiasms, and no 
small part of the apparent success of the plan for a college is due to the 
sentimental interest taken in the " infidel children of the forest." This 
was soon, however, to receive a rude shock. In the spring of 1622 the 
news reached England of the great massacre of March 22d, which fell so 
suddenly and so terribly on the Virginia plantation, when along with 
many other settlements the little palisaded village of Henrico, the place 
chosen as the site of the proposed university, was utterly destroyed. 

Nevertheless, the plan for a college was not yet abandoned. The 
very letter which contained the famous Virginia scheme of Indian exter- 
mination for the sake of revenge contained also directions for the ordering 
and resettling of the college tenants, who, henceforth, were to be left to 
their own disposing and government, and that they might " reduce the 
uncertaintie of halfe to the certaintie of a Rent, we have therefore agreed 
shal be every pson twenty bushells of come ; 60 waight of good leafe 
tobacco, and one pound of silke to be yearly paid together with six dayes 
labors " ; and, furthermore, " as for the Brick-makers we desire they may 
be held to their contract made with Mr. Thorpe, to the intent that when 
opportunitie shal be for the erecting of the fabricke of the Colledge the 
materialls be not wanting." 

But the end was drawing near. The next year (1623) the company 
fell still more into disfavor with the king, and on June 16, 1624, their 
charter was declared to be null and void. The last notice relating to 
the college is under date of June 18, 1623: "Edward Downes peticoned 
that his son Richard Downes havinge continued in Virginia these 4 
yeares and being bred a schollar went over in hope of preferment in the 
Colledge there ; might now be free to live there of himselfe and have fifty 
acres of land to plant upon. The Court conceaving his suite to be verie 
reasonable have recomended the graunt thereof to the next Quarter Court." 

Vol. XXIX.-No. 4.-24 



370 GENERAL MERCER AT PRINCETON 

Nothing more is known of this first attempt to found a college on 
American soil. By the wreck of the Virginia Company, which acted as its 
trustee, it lost possession of its extensive lands, and the thousands of 
pounds which had been so freely bestowed upon it by way of endowment ; 
nor is there any trace of what became of the communion set with its 
" carpett of crimson velvett," nor the curious " Mapp of Guiana," nor 
the " three great Volumes " of Mr. Perkins, and the library of the Rev. 
Thomas Bargrave. 

Yet had it not been for the wrath of King James, who hated the policy 
pursued by the Virginia Company, this college might to-day be the most 
venerable of American universities, thirteen years older than Harvard ; 
founded, indeed, before the Mayflower had yet set sail for her voyage to 
Plymouth Bay. 



GENERAL MERCER AT PRINCETON 

By Charles D. Platt 

Here Mercer fell, with bayonet-pierced breast, 

Facing his country's foes upon the field, 

Scorning to cry for quarter or to yield, 
Though single-handed left and sore opprest. 

He, at his chosen country's high behest, 

Was set to be a leader and to shield 

Her threatened life :— with his heart's blood he sealed 
That trust, nor faltered till he sank to rest. 

Mourn not for him ; say not untimely death 

Snatched him from fame ere we could know his worth, 

And hid the lustre of a glorious name : 
Such souls go forth, when fails their vital breath, 

To shine as beacons through the mists of earth 

And kindle in men's hearts heroic flame. 



AN ACCOUNT OF TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES NOW IN 
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, AT WASHINGTON, D.C. 

By Alexander Brown 

The regular set of books kept by the Virginia company of London 
consisted of — first, "The blurr books," on the order of our "blotters:" 
all business transactions were entered in them ; second, " the court books," 
which were compiled from " the blurr books," and which contained only 
such items as were to be brought before the courts of the company ; and, 
thirdly, The Records of the Courts, which were especially prepared to be 
read by " the generality of the company ; " that is, they were really the 
reports of the courts, or to speak more definitely, the organ of the admin- 
istration for the time being, containing only such matter, and presented 
in such manner, as the court of the company at the time thought advisable 
to make public. A copy of this third set of books, The Records of the 
Courts, during the Sandys-Southampton administrations, from April 28, 
1619, to June 7, 1624, is now preserved in the library of congress, and it is 
the history of this most interesting relic which I purpose giving. 

The management of the company was largely in the hands of men of 
affairs until April 28, 1619, when the enterprise had grown to be a matter 
of real importance in the affairs of the nation, and it became more and 
more a factor in English politics until, for reasons which it will not be 
necessary to explain here, Chief Justice James Ley, on June 16, 1624, 
declared the patent or charter of the company " thenceforth null and void." 
On June 26, 1624, the privy council of England ordered: "Mr. Nicholas 
Ferrar, The Deputy for the late Company of Virginia, to bring to the 
Council chamber all the Patents, Books of accounts, etc., to be retained 
by the Keeper of the Privy Council chest till further order." On July 15 
the commission was sealed to the committee (appointed June 24), consist- 
ing of fifty-six leading men of the period, who were ordered " to take into 
their hands and custody, all Charters, Letters-Patentes, grantes and In- 
structions, all Bookes, orders, Letters, Advices, and other writings and 
thinges in anywise concerninge the Colony and Company of Virginia, in 
whose handes soever the same be." 

The making of the said copy of The Records of the Courts had begun 
about June, 1623, soon after the books were returned by the first commis- 



372 TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

sioners of April-May, 1623, and it was completed on June 19, 1624, just 
seven days before Nicholas Ferrar was ordered to bring all books, etc., of 
the company to the privy council chamber. The copy is -in the archaic 
handwriting of the period; it is bound in two volumes, and they are fully 
described in the following memoranda : 

The first volume, beginning with the court of April 28, 1619, and end- 
ing with the court of May 8, 1622, contains three hundred and fifty-four 
pages, and concludes with this statement: 

Memorandum, that wee, Edward Waterhouse and Edward Collingwood, secretaries 
of The Companies for Virginia and the Sumer Hands, have examined and compared the 
Booke going before, conteyning one hundred seventy-seven leaves from Page 1 to Page 
354, with the originall Booke of Courts itself. And doe find this Booke to be a true and 
perfect copie of the said originall Courte Booke, savinge that there is wanting in the 
Copie, of Court of the 20 th May 1620, and the beginning of the O r . Court held 22nd ; but 
as farre as is here entered in this copie doth truly agree with the originall itself. 

And to every Page, I, Edward Collingwood, have sett my hand and both of us do 
hereby testifie as above that it is a true copie. 

Jan'y 28. 1623 [i.e. 1624, present Style]. 

Edw: Waterhouse, secret. 
Ed: Collingwood, secret. 

The second volume contains three hundred and eighty-seven pages, 
and is concluded with the following : 

Memorand. That wee Edward Collingwood, Secretary of the Company for Vir- 
ginia, and Thomas Collet of the Middle Temple, gentleman, have perused, compared 
and examined this present booke, beginninge att page 1, att a Preparative Court held for 
Virginia the 20 th of May 1622, and endinge at this present page 387 att a Preparative 
Court held the 7 th of June 1624. And wee doe finde that this coppie dothe perfectlie 
agree with the originall books of the Court belonging to the company in all things, save 
that in page 371, the graunt of 800 acres to M r Maurice Berkley is not entred, and save 
that in page 358 we wanted the Lord's letter to M r Deputy Ferrar, so that we could not 
compare itt and likewise saving that in Page 348 wee wanted the Governor and Counsell's 
Letter from Virginia in which respect, I, Edward Collingwood, have not sett my hand 
to those three pages, but to all the rest I have sett my hand severally to each in confirma- 
tion, that they agree truly with the Originals. And in witness and confirmation that 
this booke is a true Coppy of the Virginia Courts, wee have hereunder joyntly sett our 

hands the 19 th day of June 1624. 

Thomas Collett. 

Edward Collingwood, Sec r . 

I have found only three contemporary accounts of these volumes. 
Like the volumes themselves, they were prepared by members of the 
Sandys-Southampton party, and are ex-parte ; but they are very inter- 
esting. The first is found in The Discours of ye Old Company of Virginia, 






TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 373 

which was addressed in April or May, 1625, to the lords of the privy 
council of Charles I. It contains about fifteen thousand words reviewing 
the colonial enterprise in Virginia from 1607 to 1625. It is severe on 
11 Sir Thomas Smith, Alderman Robert Johnson, and that opposite party." 
The purport of the paper being that the affairs of the colony of Virginia 
should be taken out of the hands of the commissioners, in which they then 
were, and should be replaced into the hands of the Sandys-Ferrar party, 
who, according to this " Discours," had managed the colony with much 
success. The document has never been printed ; my copy, from which 
I extract the following account, was made for me in the British museum, 
where the original manuscript now is : 

. . . Nor that ever they [The Commissioners.] will do ye Adventurers of ye 
late Companie right in matters of their Estates ; that have so violently endeavoured to 
do them wrong- in their Honours and Reputations, having intended, as themselves 
wright, a Reformation and Correction of the Originall Court bookes of ye late Companie, 
then possessed by them, if they could have gott into their hands certayne copies of them 
which M r Nicholas Ferrarlate Deputy, had at his owne charges caused to be transcribed. 
But before their severe order came to him, he had delivered his Copys to the Earle of 
Southampton : — who sent the Commissioners word that he would as soone part with the 
evidences of his Land as with the said Copies ; being the evidence of his honour in that 
service : so by this meanes have the Originall Court-bookes yet escaped purging : — And 
with all duety wee humbly beseech your Lordships that they may hereafter be protected 
from it. And that howsoever your Lordships shall please for the future to dispose of 
the Companie, that the records of their past actions may not be corrupted and falsified. 

The copy of the second volume, as we have seen, was attested on June 
19, 1624; the order on Ferrar issued on June 26; the commission sealed 
on July 15 ; the Earl of Southampton began enlisting troops in England 
to fight against Spain early in June, and about August went over to the 
Netherlands, where he died on November 10, 1624. So it seems that 
these copies must have been placed in his hands after June 19 and before 
June 26, and that his answer was sent the commissioners after July 15 
and before August, 1624. 

The second contemporary account is found in " A Short Collection of 
the most Remarkable Passages from the Originall to the dissolution of The 
Virginia Company. — London. Printed by Richard Cotes for Edward 
Husband, at the Golden Dragon in Fleet Street. 165 1." This date — 
" 1651" — is the only date in the whole tract; but the manuscript was 
originally written at an earlier date, probably between 1635-45, by Mr. 
Arthur Wodenoth, evidently in the interest of Sir John Danvers, and for 
some special purpose. It was not published, however, by the author, but 
was placed by Mr. W. Wodenoth, the author's cousin, into the hands of 



574 TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

some one, who signs the preface with the initials A. P. It was this person 
who had the manuscript published in 165 1, and it was not revised (cor- 
rected, dates supplied, etc.) as YVodenoth requested. 

. . . It may not be unfit in this place to call to mind some speciall acts of 
Sir John Danvers, wherein he took opportunity faithfully and kindly to serve his worthy 
friends. One whereof was this, that shortly after the judgment against the Virginia 
Company, one Mr. Collingwood came to him, recounting his acknowledgement of great 
obligations for recommending him to the place of Secretary to the Virginia Company, 
which was growing every day more valuable in case it had been happily continued : 
and at the same time acquainted him, that three Merchant men, one after another had 
been with him at his house, commending his parts and abilities for imployment, and much 
pittying his case to be now destitute of meanes for the maintenance of him and his 
family but concluding in a subtil & soothing way, that as he might perceive the King's 
displeasure against the Earl of Southampton and Sir E. Sandys, so would he gain 
imployment and great benefit to himself for all the days of his life, by saying or discov- 
ering ought of their transactions, or otherwise, that should bring any ill reflection upon 
their persons. When his answer was — That he knew nothing but honor and justice in 
their ways, nor upon any terms would bee drawn to such unthankfulnesse, as to offer 
the least matter against them. It is true (said he) they mentioned nothing relating to 
yourself (which he thought was forborn in regard of the particular relation and obliga- 
tion he had to him) . . Nor could M r Collingwood think it possible openly to detect 
and convinct those Merchants of this wickedness ; because they came singly unto him, 
and by the same knavery would deny their attempts, but that this only was to be taken as 
a caution against such kind of base insinuation. 

Sir John Danvers asking further, whether there was any of relation to those affairs 
that might be tempted to such Villany : — he answered there was an indigent person, 
whom he had made use of to write and make entries for his assistance, whose hand- 
writing and intelligent apprehension had caused him to be sent for divers times to 
Southampton House, and employed in dictates by that Earl and Sir Edwyn Sandys, and 
he being of unsettled or loose life, might possibly be drawn to serve the turns of 
Malevolents, etc. 

Sir J. Danvers took speedy course to ingage him for a long time, most whiles 
lockt up in a chamber, til he had fairly copyed the Leiger-Court books of all the main 
transactions of the Company of Virginia, accordingly attested for true copies, and then 
encouraging him into the country to see his friends, giving him a part of reward for his 
pains, and obliging him to come to him again for the remainder, by which meanes he 
kept him wholly out of the way and from temptation. And as soon after as he could 
speak with my Lord of Southampton, carryed him the said authenticall copies, declaring 
the information of Collingwood, and that having sometimes heard of a great governing 
court Lady, who was desirous to dispossess a female Heir that had married a young 
gentleman, as to make her eather a wife to a creature or attendant of her owne, and 
after working somewhat in diverting their affections, each from other, a legall prosecu- 
tion was had to disprove the marriage, which not-with-standing was affirmed by all sorts 
of circumstances and witnesses, yet by corrupting a Register, who in his entries put a 
negative for an affirmative, He that was Judge of the cause, secundum allegata et 
probata, expressed on the Registry, declared a nullity of the former marriage, whereby 



TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 375 

the heir was remarried to a second person. This, said, Sir John Danvers, gave him to 
consider how the malice against the Earl, etc., failing in all other inventions, might 
possibly in like manner corrupt the records of The Virginia Company, getting them, as 
they did not long after into their custody and power. Wherefore he presented his Lord- 
ship with those true copies to be alwaies ready for his justification. 

The Earl was so affected therewith that he took Sir J. Danvers into his arms with 
very great thankfulnesse, saying — Who could have thought of such a friendship, but 
Charles Danvers his brother, who was the truest friend that ever man had ? and there- 
upon calling his kinsman, Mr Wriothsley chiefly entrusted by him, declared the whole 
discourse, and in conclusion said, Let those books bee carryed and safelv kept, at my 
house at Tichfield, they are the evidence of my honour and I value them more than the 
evidence of my lands. 

The foregoing account is written " in a subtil and soothing " way, and 
I doubt if it be strictly accurate. The evidence that Nicholas Ferrar, Jr., 
and not Sir John Danvers, had these copies made, seems to me to be very 
strong, if not conclusive. And this account is in several other ways confus- 
ing. For instance, the copying could not have begun " shortly after the 
judgment against the Virginia Company"; because the first volume was 
attested on January 28, several months before the said judgment, and the 
second was completed on or before June 19, only three days after the said 
judgment. Mr. Arthur Wodenoth, who is said to have been the original 
author of this document, was a constant friend to the poet George Her- 
bert, whose eyes he closed at death, and whose executor he was. 

The third contemporary account is found in the "Memoirs of the Life 
of Mr. Nicholas Ferrar. By P. Peckard, D.D., Master of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Cambridge. MDCCXC." These memoirs are based on The Com- 
plete Church of England Man exemplified in the holy Life of Mr. N. 
Ferrar. Written by his brother and predecessor in the office of deputy 
treasurer, Mr. John Ferrar. The date of this original manuscript is not 
certainly known, but it was probably written about 1654. The author of 
it died in 1657. 

. . . He [Nicholas Ferrar] did not therefore depend upon the present promising 
appearance of their [The Virginia Company] affairs : he knew that malice was at work ; 
and he had frequently seen a temporary calm precede the most destructive storm. Being 
under apprehensions of this sort, about a year before the dissolution of the Company, he 
procured an expert clerk fairly to copy out all the court books, and all other writings 
belonging to them, and caused them all to be carefully collated with the originals, and 
afterward attested upon oath by the examiners to be true copies. The transcribing of 
which cost him out of his own pocket above ^50.; but this he thought one of the best 
services he could do the Company. 

When the Lords of the Council therefore had (as before related) seized the originals, 
M r . Ferrar had all these attested copies, as yet unknown to any of the company safe in- 



i;6 TWO MANUSCRIPT VOLUMES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

his possession. But now when the Lord Treasurer [Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex] 
had procured sentence in form against the company, and all their muniments had been 
taken from them, M r . Ferrar informed Sir Edwyn Sandys and some other of his most 
intimate friends, what a treasure he had yet remaining- in his hands ; and desired their 
opinion how he might best dispose of them. On hearing this they were equally surprised 
and overjoyed, and unanimously desired him to carry them to their late worthy Gov- 
ernor the Earl of Southampton. He did so, and farther told his Lordship, that he now 
left them entirely to his Lordship's care and disposal : that if hereafter there should be 
opportunity, he might make use of them in justification of his own, and the late Com- 
pany's most honourable and upright proceedings. 

The Earl of Southampton cordially embracing Mr. Ferrar, said to him : — You still 
more and more engage me to love and honour you. I accept of this your present, as of 
a rich treasure, for these are evidences that concern my honour. I shall value them 
therefore even more than the evidences that concern my lands : inasmuch as my honour, 
and reputation are to me of mo